Unit Four
Lady Hermits Who Are
Down But Not Out
I. New Words
1. shift: v.
(1) to change position or
direction; transfer
改变位置、方向、移动
Will you help me to shift the
furniture about, please?
请你帮我搬一下家具,好吗?
The wind has shifted to the
north.
风向已转,向北吹。
(2)短语
to shift for oneself
自己照顾自己,自谋生计
When their father died, the
children had to shift for
themselves.
爸爸死后,孩子们只好自谋
生计。
2. appetite: n.
(1)[U] physical desire,
esp. for food or pleasure
食欲;胃口
When I was ill I completely
lost my appetite.
我生病时完全没有食欲。
Don’t spoil your appetite by
eating sweets before meals.
饭前不要吃糖以免影响食欲。
(2)[C] instance of a
natural desire for sth.
(对某事物的)自然的
欲望;渴望
He has an amazing appetite
for hard work.
他出奇地喜爱艰巨的工作。
He had no appetite for the
fight.
他毫无斗志。
3. peculiar: adj.
(1)strange, unfamiliar, and a
little surprising, especially
in a way that is
unpleasant or worrying
奇怪的;罕有的;奇异的
This meat tastes peculiar.
这肉味道有点怪。
My keys have disappeared---- it’s most peculiar!
我的钥匙不见了,真奇怪。
(2)(infml. 口) unwell
不舒服的
I’m feeling rather peculiar—
--- I think I’ll lie down for a
while.
我觉得不太舒服----我想躺
一会儿。
(3) special or particular
特殊的;特别的
It is a matter of peculiar
interest.
特别使人感兴趣的事。
His own peculiar way of
doing things surprised all of
us.
他做事情的特殊方法使我们
都感到吃惊。
(4) [作表语] ---to sb. / sth.
belonging only to sb. / sth
独有的;特有的;独具的
These are customs peculiar
to these tribes.
这些习俗是这些部落所特有的。
Language is peculiar to
mankind.
语言是人类特有的。
4. isolate: vt.
(1)to separate, put or keep
apart form others
使隔离,使隔绝
Several villages in the north
have been isolated by heavy
snowfalls.
北部有几个村子因大雪而与
外界隔绝了.
When a person has an
infectious disease, he is
usually isolated.
当某人患传染病时,他通常
被隔离起来。
(2) to separate a substance,
germ, etc. from its
combinations.
(化学)分解(物质等),
使游离,使(细菌)分离
A chemist can isolate the
oxygen from the hydrogen in
water.
化学家能将水中之氧与氢分
解。
5. keen: adj.
(1) eager; enthusiastic
热心的;渴望的
I’m not keen to go again.
我不太想再去了。
She’s keen that we should go.
她渴望着我们能去。
(2)to be very attractive to
someone or sth.
喜爱某人/某事物;
热衷于
He must be pretty keen on
her ---- they’ve been dancing
all night.
他一定非常喜欢她,整个晚
上他们一直在跳舞。
He seemed mad keen on
tennis.
他似乎迷恋上了网球。
(3) (of the senses) highly
developed
(指感官)敏锐的
Dogs has a keen sense of
smell.
狗有敏锐的嗅觉。
(4) (of the mind) quick to
understand
(指心智)敏捷的;聪慧的
Someone with a keen mind is
quick to understand things.
思维敏捷的人理解事物快。
6. convention: n.
(1)behavior and attitudes
that most people in a
society consider to be
normal and right
习俗、习惯
The handshake is a social
convention.
握手是社交惯例。
She went against all
convention and married
outside her religion.
她冲破习俗,嫁给了教
外人士。
(2)派生词
conventional:
依照惯例的;约定俗成
的;因循守旧的
She’s so conventional in her
views.
她的观点太保守。
He made a few conventional
remarks about the weather.
他说了几句关于天气的客
套话。
7. slip: vi.
(1)to lose one’s balance;
fall or almost fall as the
result of this
失足、滑、滑倒
He slipped on the icy road
and broke his leg.
在结冰的路面上他滑倒而跌
断了腿。
My foot slipped and I nearly
fell.
我脚下滑了一下,差点跌倒。
(2) to go or come quietly or
quickly, esp. without
attracting attention
匆匆行动、潜行
The years slipped by.
岁月在不知不觉中逝去。
She slipped away without
being seen.
她悄悄地溜走了,没被
人发现。
8. claim: v.
to demand or request sth.
because it is or one believes
it is one’s right or one’s
property
(根据权力)要求,认领
Does anyone claim the
umbrella?
有没有人认领这把伞?
Every citizen in a
democratic country may
claim the protection of the law.
每一个民主国家的公民都可
以要求法律保护。
(2)to assert; to say that sth.
is a fact
宣称;说某事为事实
He claimed that he had
done the work without help.
他声称他在未得到帮助的情
况下完成了此项工作。
He claimed to be the best
tennis player in the school.
他自称是这个学校最棒的
网球手。
9. rent: v.
(1)to pay for the occupation
or use of sth.
租用
Do you own or rent your
video?
这台录像机是你自己的还
是租来的?
We rent our apartment
from an old retired couple.
我们从一对退休夫妇那里租
到了我们的公寓。
(2) to allow sb. to occupy or
use; to be let at a specified
rent
出租
Mr. Hill rents this land to us
at £50 a year.
希尔先生把这块地租给我们,
每年50镑。
The building rents at £3000
a year.
这座大楼以每年3000英镑的
价格出租。
(3) 派生词:rental n. 租金额
to pay a telephone rental
of £20 a quarter
一季度付20英镑的电话租
金
10. relief: n.
(1)lessening or ending or
removal of pain,
distress, anxiety, etc.
(痛苦、困苦、忧虑等)
减轻,解除
The doctor’s treatment gave
much relief.
医生的治疗使病情减轻。
To my great relief, the
difficulties were all overcome.
困难全都克服了,这使我大
感欣慰。
(2)help given to those in
need; food, clothes,
money, etc. for persons
in trouble
给予贫困者或需要者的
帮助;救济物;救济
send relief to people made
homeless by floods
送救济品给那些因水灾而
变为无家可归的人们
provide relief for refugees
赈济难民
a relief fund
救济基金
11. cope: vi.
to deal successfully with sth.
应付,对抗
He felt unable to cope with
heavy traffic after his
accident.
车祸之后,他觉得无法在
交通繁忙的街道驾驶。
The government did not
know how to cope with the
situation.
政府不知道该如何应付这
一情势。
12. communication: n.
(1)the process by which
people exchange
information or express
their thoughts and
feelings
传达、交换思想,意
见,交流
Language is a major means
of communication, but
Communication between
people who speak different
languages is difficult.
虽然语言是主要的交际工具,
可是语言不相同的时候,沟
通起来就十分困难了。
I’ll be in communication
with my lawyer about this
matter.
关于这件事情我将会和我
的律师商议。
(2)[plural] ways of sending
information, especially
using radio, telephone
or computers
[复] 通讯
Modern communications
enable more and more
people to work at home.
现代通讯使越来越多的人
能够在家里工作。
Big cities usually have
excellent communications.
大都市通常具有完备的通
讯网。
(3)ways of traveling and
sending goods, such as
roads, railways etc.
(with)
交通
Paris had good
communication with many
European cities.
巴黎到许多欧洲城市的交
通十分便捷。
All communication with the
east had been stopped by the
earthquake.
与东部的一切交通均因地震
而断绝。
13. considerate: adj.
thoughtful of the rights or
feelings of others
体贴的;为着他人着想的;
考虑周到的
He is considerate to [toward]
old people.
他对老人很体贴。
It was considerate of you not
to play the piano while I was
having a sleep.
在我睡觉的时候你不弹钢琴,
真是考虑的周到。
14. fantasy: n.
an exciting and unusual
experience or situation you
imagine happening to you
but which will probably
never happen 想象、幻想
He used to indulge in
fantasies about being a
famous actor.
他过去沉迷于当名演员
的幻想中。
Young children sometimes
can’t distinguish between
fantasy and reality.
儿童有时辨不清幻想与现实。
15. entitle: vt.
to have a title; to give a
title to (a book, play, etc.)
称作;题名
He entitled the book, “Crime
and Punishment”.
他把这本书取名为“罪与
罚”。
The new book is entitled
“How to Write Letters.”
这新书名叫“怎样写信”。
(2)(usu. in passive) (of
conditions, circumstances,
qualities, etc.) to give a
right (to)
(通常用被动语态)(指
条件、情况、特性等)给
予权利
If you fail three times you
are not entitled to try any
more.
如果你失败三次,你便无
权在尝试了。
Officers are entitled to travel
first class.
官员出差,有权利坐头等舱。
This ticket entitles you to a
free lunch.
凭这张入场券你可享用免
费午餐。
16. better: v.
(1)to improve; to do
better than
改 善 , 改 进 ,
比……
做得更好
The government hopes to
better the conditions of the
workers.
政府希望改善工人的生活
状况。
The achievement cannot be
bettered.
这个成绩再好不过了。
(2)派生词:better n.
较好的事物
I expected better of him.
我本想他会表现得更好
一些。
The result is not very
important to us, but if we do
win, so much the better.
结果对我们并不重要,但
是如果我们真赢了,那更
好。
17. 辨析resident and citizen
resident 居民,定居者,
指居住于某一特定城镇或
城镇某一特定区域内的、
区别于流动人口和暂居人
的常住居民。
Chinese residents in America
侨居美国的中国人
Local residents are
protesting about the new
road.
当地居民抗议那条新道路
(的修建)。
citizen 公民;市民,指居住
于某特定国家或城市并受其
法律保护的居民。
The police asked if we were
both American citizens.
警察问是不是我俩都是美
国公民。
The citizens of New York
city are experiencing the
worst snows in living
memory.
纽约市民正经历着记忆中
最恶劣的雪天。
18. 辨析considerate and kind
considerate 体贴的,指
总是替他人着想,考虑他
人的需要,不冒犯他人。
I married Bernard because
he was kind and considerate
and I wanted to be looked
after.
我跟勃拿德结婚是因为他
人好,能体贴人,而我需
要人呵护。
kind 友善的,和蔼的,指
顾及他人幸福、舒适并总能
伸手相助的。
She always has a kind word
for every one.
她跟谁都能和蔼地交谈。
II. Background Information
纽约,历史上曾经叫过新阿
姆斯特丹(New Amsterdam)。
现代美国人常称之为“大苹
果”(The Big Apple)。
提起它,人们便想起高耸入
云的摩天大楼,繁华无比的
百老汇(Broadway)和手持
火炬的自由女神像(The
Statue of Liberty)。
纽约是美国最大的工商业城
市、对外贸易中心和海港。
其中,曼哈顿区是纽约的中
心区和神经中枢。
我们常听到的华尔街
(Wall Street),联合国总
部 ( The UN Headquarters)
都坐落在曼哈顿区。
然而,谁能想到在纽约这
一最繁华、最摩登的都市
里却不为外人所知地生活
着一些隐士——女隐士。
她们如何生活?
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Unit Four Lady Hermits Who Are Down But Not Out