Global Cultures
• The way of life of a
group of people who
share similar beliefs
and customs
• What languages people speak,
what religions they follow, etc.
• The history people have shared, art forms
they created, how they govern their society
1) Language
• how people communicate, and pass
on values & traditions
• is one of the strongest unifying
forces for a culture
• Language Families - groups of
languages with similar roots
1) Language
• There may be different Dialects within
the main language.
– (dialects - the form of a language
spoken by people in a particular region
or group. Pronunciation, vocabulary, and
sentence structure are affected by
2) Religion
provides a sense of identity
influences daily life - morals, values,
holidays, festivals
shapes cultural expressions such as painting,
sculpture, architecture, music and dance
can be a source of conflict
6 Major World Religions: Judaism,
Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism,
3) Social Groups
3) Social Groups
a.Family Structures
b. Social Classes wealth, education, etc.
c. Ethnic Groups - a
human population that
shares a common
culture or ancestry
3) Social Groups
In all cultures, the family is the most
important group
Most cultures also group social classes groups of people ranked according to
ancestry, wealth, education, or other criteria
Ethnic Groups - made up of people who
share a common language, history, place of
origin, or a combination of these elements
Ethnicity vs. Race
Yellow =
Blue =
Pink =
4) Government
• is organized according to
levels of power
• a type of authority
• maintains the order within
the country
• provides protection from
outside dangers
• supplies other services to its
Culture Regions
• an area in which people have many
shared culture traits.
– Example: groups of countries with similar
characteristics - Mexico, Central & South
• may include economic systems, type
of government, social groups
• could also include religion, history,
food, clothing, etc.
Cultural Change
• No culture remains the same over
 new ideas and inventions create
change (ex. clothing styles).
• History can expose culture groups
to new ways of life
– including new languages,
resources, and technologies.
Cultural Change
• New culture traits are added as
older ones fade away.
• Acculturation - when an individual or
group adopts SOME of the traits of
another culture.
• Assimilation - when immigrant
groups adopt ALL of the features of
the main culture.
Cultural Change
• Change occurs through outside and
inside influences such as:
movement of people
new ideas
Cultural Diffusion
• when an idea or innovation
(knowledge, skills, etc.) that
spreads from one person or group
and is adopted by another person
or group
Partition to separate the
“Single Men Side”
from the “Family Side”
Agricultural Revolution
- the shift from gathering food (nomadic
herding) to producing food
• About 10,000 yrs ago, people were
nomads who moved from place to place
in search for food and grazing land
• Eventually the earth’s climate warmed
and they settled in river valleys
(permanent villages) and began farming
Agricultural Revolution
 this shift from wandering to farming
causes people to settle down in
permanent homes/villages
 this evolved into early civilizations
(civilizations lead to Culture Hearths)
Culture Hearths
Culture Hearths
Early centers of civilization whose ideas and
practices spread to surrounding areas
- all located in mild climates, with fertile land
near a water source for irrigation
Middle America
Mesopotamia – modern Iraq and Syria
Nile Valley - Egypt
Indus Valley – Pakistan, most of Afghanistan,
SE Iran, NW India
• Yellow River Valley – N. China along the
Yellow River
The Agricultural Revolution
Plow Pulled
by Animals
The invention of the plow drawn by animals
made agricultural production vastly more
efficient than before, permitting far more
land to be farmed by fewer people.
Even Greater
Division of Labor
This resulted in an even
greater food surplus.
It also freed far more people
for other types of work.
Agricultural Revolution
• Agriculture arose independently and
simultaneously around the globe just
as the last ice age ended.
• It is no accident that no matter where
agriculture sprouted on the globe, it
always happened near rivers.
• Why?
5) Economics
• use of natural resources to meet human needs
• how to produce, obtain, use, and sell goods &
• Because the Agricultural Revolution
created a surplus of food, people were
forced to change what they did for a living
– new technology & economic activities
(metalworking, shipbuilding, etc.) led to trade
– increased wealth led to rise of cities  leads
to migration  urbanization
The movement of people from place to place
1. Push-pull factors
–Push Factors - cause people to leave a
location (Centrifugal)
–Pull Factors - attract people to a new
location (Centripetal)
–Most migrate for economic reasons:
• no job = push
• higher pay = pull
What is this image saying about
why people move?
Are these political, economic,
social, or environmental factors?
What makes people leave a place?
Which is a
• political
• economic
• social reason?
• environmental
What makes people move to place?
Which is a
• political
• economic
• social reason?
• environmental
Let’s see what we know…
Which are you ready to answer,
and which do you need a peek?
1846- Famine Relief
Administrator Charles Trevelyan
ordered the closing of the food
depots in Ireland that had been
selling Peel's Indian corn. He also
rejected another boatload of Indian
corn already headed for Ireland. His
reasoning, as he explained in a letter,
was to prevent the Irish from
becoming "habitually dependent" on
the British government. His openly
stated desire was to make "Irish
property support Irish poverty.”-- The
Great Hunger, The History Place
An Irish citizen during this
period might have
considered leaving his
homeland. This factor
would be classified as
A a pull factor, since he is
moving abroad.
B a push factor, since he is
avoiding the famine.
C a variable factor, since he
is unaffected by the famine.
D an unexpected result of
laissez-faire policies.
Let’s see what we know…
Which are you ready to answer,
and which do you need a peek?
• Religious freedom
• A politically stable
• Good schools
Which of the following
would best complete the
F economic opportunity
G natural disasters
H higher local taxes
J economic depression
What are the patterns
of people moving?
• If you have an opportunity like A, and you live in B, what
might you do? Would others, too? How is that a pattern?
What are the patterns
of people moving?
B Protesters gather to raise their objections to the
French laws (Laicité) governing secularism and the
present debate on Islamic practices in France at
Place de République in Paris on April 2, 2011. The
groups participating in the rally object to what they
consider a false discussion on cultural aspects of
Islam that incites Islamaphobia and stigmatization of
Muslims living here in France.
Photo by ©Will Crabb
A Middle East women in Paris
accompanied by male relative.
• What changes when
people move?
• What conflicts might
What are the patterns of…
• Why people leave a
• Why people go to a
• What changes when
people go to a place?
• What conflicts arise?
Let’s see what we know…
Which are you ready to answer,
and which do you need a peek?
Immigrants from the
Middle East were
motivated to move
to France by which
pull factor?
A economic
B civil war
C oppressive
D natural disasters
Recent immigration to France has
caused cultural issues to arise. What
is the basis of the conflict?
F Immigrants from England and the
U.S. insist on changing the official
language to English.
G Cultural habits of Muslims from
Africa and the Middle East are
viewed as inconsistent with French
H Immigrants from Argentina and
Peru are learning French more
proficiently than the local French.
J The French blame the immigrants
for a series of natural disasters.
2. Political - escaping a Communist country
3. Social - education, family in another country
4. Economical - better jobs, better life
5. Environmental/Physical Geography - climate,
environmental hazards
6. Refugees - people who are
forced to leave their country
because of war,
– food shortages, or other problems
(ex. Darfur)
7. Forced Migration – ex. African
slave trade
Darfur Refugees
Migration  Urbanization
8. Urbanization - growth of city
populations brought about by
migration & the changes that come
with the increase in population.
- leaving the farm for better life or job
in a city
- ½ of the world’s people live in cities
Industrial Revolution
• 1700s & 1800s: new production methods
change the way goods can be produced
changes a
country’s economy
leads to social
Industrial Revolution
• People left farms to work in the
cities in factories
• Cities grew larger  urbanization
Information Revolution
• End of 1900s: computers make it
possible to store information and send
it all over the world in an instant
 The Information Revolution links (connects)
the cultures of the world
more closely
than ever before.
 Leads to Social Change

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