The Human World
Population, Culture, Political and
Economic Systems, Resources, Trade
and the Environment
World Population
 6.2 b people on earth
 Until Industrial Revolution
world’s population grew
slowly
 Birthrate growing faster
than death rate
 Natural increase
difference between
birthrate and death rate
Why population rates vary
 Improved healthcare, adavanced technology,
better nutrition lower death rate
 In industrialized countries this accompanied
by low birthrate
 Some countries have reached zero
population growth
 Developing world (Latin America, Africa,
Asia) birthrate high
 Large families (cultural feelings)
Population Growth
Challenges of Population Growth
 Food Supply
 Use resources
quickly
 Can technology
keep up?
Negative Population Growth
 Death Rate exceeds birth
rate
 Late 1900’s in Europe
 Difficult to keep economy
going- fewer workers
 Import laborers causes
tension between groups
Population Distrbution
 Human settlement is uneven
 Less than one- third of planet inhabited
 Most live near water, fertile soil and
climate make life sustainable
 Asia 60% of worlds population
 Europe, N.A. most live in urban areas
Population Density
 Determine how crowded a country is by how
many live in a square mile or kilometer of
land
 Why is this not accurate? (p.78)
Population Movement
 Migration movement from
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one place to another (urban
to rural areas, country to
country)
Why? push and pull factors
Population moving to urban
areas
Reasons- jobs, opportunity
War, environmental disaster,
famine cause forced
migration
Global Cultures
 Culture- way of life shared by a group of
people
 Includes:
 Language
 Religion
 Subgroups
 Government
 Economics
Language
 Communicate information, share and pass on tradition, values
 Unifies culture

Worlds languages divided into language groups, groups with
similar roots
Religion
 Vary greatly around world
 Unify people, provides sense of identity
 Influences daily life- morals, values, holidays
 Religious symbols, stories shaped literature,
arts
World Religions
Social Groups
 Allow cultures to work together to meet basic
needs
 Family most important part of all cultures,
makeup varies
 Social class- rank based on wealth, ancestry,
education, other criteria
 Some include diverse ethnic groups (share
common language, history, etc.)
Government
 Government reflects culture
 All maintain order, protection from outside
forces, supply services to people
 Organized by levels of power (national, state,
local)
 Type of authority- single leader, small group
of leaders, representative leaders
Economic Activity
 How cultures utilize resources
 How cultures produce, obtain, use and sell
goods and services
Culture Regions
 Divided into culture regions that share certain traits
 Economic systems, forms of government, social groups, language
 Share common history, art forms, religion
Cultural Change
 What creates cultural change?
 Within- lifestyles, ideas,
inventions
 Outside influences- trade,
movement of people and war
 Process of spreading new
knowledge and skills from one
culture to another cultural
diffusion
Agricultural Revolution
 10, 000 years ago
people first settled in
river valleys,
established permanent
settlements
 Shift from gathering
food to producing food
agricultural revolution
 3500 B.C. organized,
city based societies with
government, trade, art,
science established
(civilizations)
Culture Hearths
 First civilizations in areas called cultural hearths
 All emerged in areas with mild climate, fertile land and were
located near a major river or source of water
 Factors allowed people to grow surplus food
Specialization and Civilization
 Surplus food allowed development of other
economic activities- economic activities and
trade
 Increased wealth, formed complex
governments and societies
 Governments coordinated building projects,
harvests and military defense
 Creation of writing systems to record and
transmit information
Cultural Contacts
Causes of Change
 Contact between civilizations through trade
and travel
 Permanent migration
 Forced migration (slaves)
 Favorable conditions (climate, opportunity,
freedom) draw people from one region to
another
 Cause tradition, practices, beliefs to blend
across cultures
Industrial and Information Revolution
 Industrial Revolution- 1750’s changes in
production b/c of mechanization led to
economic, social change
 People left farms for jobs, working and living
conditions improved
 End of 1900’s Information Revolution links
cultures across globe
Political and Economic Systems
 Territory, population, sovereignty, freedom
from outside control managed by
governments
 Make and enforce laws that bind people
together
 Governments reflect historic, cultural
characteristics of each country
 Most have different levels of government
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RED indicates populistic system
BLUE indicates democratic system.
ORANGE indicates that political system of the country is now changing from populistic to democratic.
http://www.geocities.com/historymech/maps2.html
WHITE means "not enough data to determine political system".
GREEN indicates occupied countries (also "not enough data" to determine political system).
Yellow dots mark countries that probably could become democratic in next few years.
Government Systems
Unitary System
 Gives all power to a central government
 Usually small, not ethnically diverse
 United Kingdom, France
Federal System
 Power divided between states and central
government
 Each has sovereignty in certain areas
 U.S., Canada, Brazil, Australia, India
Types of Government
 Three major groups
 Autocracy- oldest most
common form of government
 Achieve authority by
inheritance, use of force
 Types- totalitarian (single
leader) controls all aspects
of life, monarchy (king,
queen) leadership inherited,
have supreme power of
government
 Constitutional monarchymonarch share power with
elected legislatures
Types of Government
 Oligarchy- small group
holds power
 Power from wealth,
military power, social
position (sometimes
religion)
 Control decisions made
by elected legislatures,
give appearance of
representing people
 Usually suppress all
political opposition
Types of Government
 Democracy- leaders rule with consent of citizens
 Citizens have ultimate power
 Representative democracy- elect people to make laws, conduct
government (legislature)
 Republic- all major officials elected, head of state elected for
certain term
Economic Systems
Three Basic Decisions
 What and how many goods and services should be
produced
 How they should be produced
 Who gets the goods and services produced

Three types of economic systems
1) Traditional
2) Market
3) Command
Economic Systems
Traditional Economy
 Habit and custom define activity
 Not free to make decisions, do what was
done in the past
 Not many left
Economic Systems
Market Economy (Capitalism)
 Individuals, private groups makes decisions
 Based on free enterprise (make what people will buy)
 Free enterprise based on right to make a profit w/o
gov’t interference
 People decide where to work
 Mixed economy- gov’t supports and regulates free
enterprise, keep competition free and fair
 Gov’t influences economies by spending
 United States is an example
Economic Systems
Command Economy
 Gov’t owns means of production- land, labor,
capital
 Directs all economic activity
 Belief that it is good for society
 Citizens have no say in how money is spent
by gov’t
Resources, Trade and the Environment
 Natural Resources
 Two types- renewable,
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nonrenewable
Nonrenewable resources –
minerals, fossil fuels
Need to be conserved
Renewable resourceshydroelectric power, solar
energy, nuclear energy
Can be expensive, possible
environmental
consequences
Economic Development
 Uneven distribution of resources affects
global economy
 Some countries develop economies based on
their natural resources
 World Economic Activities divided into four
types
 Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary
Economic Development
 Primary Economic Activity- taking and using natural
resources, primary economic activity takes place
near natural resources
 Secondary Economic Activity- adds value to raw
materials (manufacturing), activity occurs close to
markets
 Tertiary Activity- professional, wholesale or retail
activities
 Quaternary Activity- processing, management and
distribution of information (white collar professionals)
Economic Development
 Developed Countries- mfg., service industries
employ most people
 Commercial farming, don’t need as many people to
grow food
 High standard of living
Economic Development
 Developing Countries- mainly in Africa, Asia, Latin
America
 Working toward manufacturing, mostly agricultural
 Subsistence farming
 Most people poor
Economic Development
 Wealth in developed world leads to
resentment
 Militant groups form to strike back and
heighten influence to promote change
(terrorists)
World Trade
 Unequal distribution of resources causes
global trade networks to develop
 Multinational companies (MNC’s) stimulate
trade
 Based in developed countries, set up
assembly operations in smaller countries to
keep down labor costs, sell to developed
countries
World Trade
Barriers to Trade
 Countries mange trade to
benefit them
 Set up restrictions on goods
from other countries (tariffs,
quotas, embargoes)
 Recent movement to free
trade (removal of trade
barriers)
 Regions join together to
remove restrictions (NAFTA,
European Union)
People and the Environment
 Human economic activity has affected
environment
 Water, air, land pollution
 Deforestation
 Expansion of human communities threatens
natural ecosystems (desertification is an
example)
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The Human World