The American Journey, Ch. 8: The Northeast: Building Industry Section 1: Economic Growth The Industrial Revolution Good used to be made primarily at home and by hand. In the mid-1700’s, people began building factories along rivers. – Why? Water power drove large machines that could do more work more quickly. This was the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, first in England, but eventually in America. The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution really caught on in New England (Northeast U.S.). – Why? Poor soil for farming More money for machinery Many rushing rivers Near many resources like coal and wood Many ports Large population = lots of workers Capitalism In America, our economic system is called capitalism. – In capitalism, people put their capital (money) into business and hope to make $$! Capitalism is also called free enterprise. Americans are free to work and shop where they like, and businesses and consumers freely compete for customers and good prices. Technology The Industrial Revolution depended on technology—scientific discoveries that simplify work. – – – – Spinning jenny Water frame Power loom Cotton gin In 1790, Congress created the first patent, the legal ownership and sole rights to profit for an invention. Technology In 1814, Francis Cabot Lowell put all the stages of cloth making under one roof. – This was called the factory system. Eli Whitney created the first interchangeable parts, identical parts that could be quickly swapped out and replaced. – – Just like all the pieces in your cell phone or the dogs they used to play Lassie. …or cast members on Jersey Shore. Zing! Changing Economy Most Americans were still farmers, however. Northern farms were small and locally-traded. Southern farms, however, were huge. – The Industrial Revolution and its inventions allowed cotton production to increase 10,000% (3,000 bales/year 300,000 bales/year)! Also, cities grew larger as industry created more jobs and money. – Especially cities near water! Cities Older cities like New York, Boston, and Baltimore became economic and trade centers. Newer cities like Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Louisville benefitted from being on rivers. Most buildings were wood or brick. – – There were no sewers, so the risk of diseases like cholera and yellow fever was huge. Also, fire was a great threat. But cities offered jobs and steady wages. The American Journey, Ch. 8: The Northeast: Building Industry Section 2: A System of Transportation Increasing Population According to a 1790 census—official population count—the U.S. had 4 million people. – By 1820 it had increased to 10 million, and many were moving west. It was a very hard, very long journey. Congress approved funds for turnpikes, toll roads, and a National Road connecting Ohio to the East. River Travel When road didn’t work, many people used rivers for travel. – In 1807, Robert Fulton piloted a steamboat with a powerful engine from New York to Albany in 32 hours. – Trouble is, most rivers flowed North-South, not EastWest, and travelling upstream was very hard. It would have taken four days with a sailboat. Fulton ushered in the era of steamboats, powerful boats that could travel against currents. Canals Although steamboats were great, what if there wasn’t a river? – In 1825, the Erie Canal linked the Atlantic Ocean with the Great Lakes – – We built canals! This gave the Midwest access to the sea. The canal had locks, compartments where water level could be raised or lowered. By 1850, the U.S. had 3,500 miles of canals linking the country. Expansion! With rivers, canals, and roads, the nation became easier to draw together. Between 1791-1803 four new states joined the Union: Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. The Western frontier was easier to connect to the East coast. – – In the 1820’s-1840’s, Congress began to establish a national postal system and home deliveries. Junk mail followed soon after, no doubt. The American Journey, Ch. 8: The Northeast: Building Industry Section 3: The North’s People Working Conditions As more was manufactured, more was expected of workers. – – – – 1840 average workday = 11.4 hrs. Factory work was dangerous, and accidents like loss of limbs or digits and maiming were extremely common. Buildings were often stiflingly hot or freezing cold. Managers were more interested in $$, and no laws protected workers. Trade Unions Workers began to organize into trade unions, organizations of workers with the same trade. Many workers also organized strikes, refusing to work until conditions improved. – – But this was illegal, and they could be fired or jailed. It wasn’t until 1842 that Massachusetts gave workers the right to strike. African-American & Women Workers Although slavery was largely gone from the North, prejudice and discrimination still remained. – Segregation was widespread in jobs and school Many women took jobs in factories. – – They were largely barred from unions and benefits. In 1845, Sarah G. Bagley, a weaver, formed the Lowell Female Labor Reform Organization and tried to petition Congress for a 10-hour day, but her petition was ignored because she was a woman. Growth of Cities & Immigration By 1860, New York City had 800,000 people— the nation’s largest population. Cities all over the nation grew as people looked for jobs. Immigration, the movement of people into a country, was rampant. – – Most immigration was from Ireland, due to a huge potato famine—a shortage of food. Employers were happy to have immigrants—they could pay less and offer no benefits. Growth of Cities & Immigration – – – Most Irish immigrants were very poor. German immigrants, many Jewish, were often able to afford more land. Because of this, they could settle on the frontier instead of in crowded slums like the Irish. As immigrants settled, they brought their languages, customs, and religion. – Catholicism was previously unfamiliar to America. Growth of Cities & Immigration Unfortunately, Americans who had once welcomed immigrants began to resent them for taking jobs. – People opposed to immigration were nativists. – Anti-European discrimination became common. They believed immigrants were dirty criminals who stole American jobs. Anti-Catholic nativists formed a political party: The American Party. – When asked about their party, they said, “I know nothing,” so they came to be called “Know-Nothings.” The American Journey, Ch. 8: The Northeast: Building Industry Section 4: Reforms and Reformers Utopias Writers like Henry David Thoreau wanted America to live out its Declaration’s creed: – “…all men are created equal…” They called for creation of utopias, communities based upon the “perfect society” where all people would be treated equally. – Few of these communities ever lasted long. The Second Great Awakening In the early 1800’s, religious fervor grew in what was called The Second Great Awakening. – – – Church membership grew. Many people converted to Christianity at revivals, frontier Christian camp meetings. Religious reformers sought to change the nation and the world for the better. One of the main movements was against alcohol, a campaign called temperance. Education Reform In the early 1800’s, Horace Mann began to reform American education. – He lengthened the school year to 6 months, improved curricula, doubled salaries, and trained teachers better – He’s your favorite person in the world! In 1839, he founded the nation’s first normal school, a teacher-training school. Education Reform By the 1850’s, most people agreed that schools should be publicly funded, teachers should be trained, and students should attend. – Many new colleges opened, too. – Most girls didn’t, though. Most did not admit women or minorities, however. Others focused on school reform for deaf, blind, and mentally-handicapped people. Dorothea Dix visited prisons and worked to improve prison conditions. Developing an American Culture In the 1820’s, Americans began to look to their own country—instead of Europe—for art and culture. Transcendentalists were a group of American writers and thinkers who stressed the relationship between humans and nature, and the importance of individual conscience. – Henry David Thoreau went to jail instead of paying a $1 voting tax that might have supported the MexicanAmerican War. Developing an American Culture Other distinctly American writers: – – – – – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Edgar Allan Poe Walt Whitman (Leaves of Grass) Emily Dickinson Harriet Beecher Stowe (Uncle Tom’s Cabin) The American Journey, Ch. 8: The Northeast: Building Industry Section 5: The Women’s Movement Seneca Falls Convention Many women worked to end slavery, and then began to recognize their own position. – – Many women abolitionists also fought for women’s suffrage (voting rights) and other rights. Quakers were among the strongest advocates. Seneca Falls Convention April 19, 1850: 400 women meet in Seneca Falls, N.Y. – – It was organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and was called The Seneca Falls Convention. They issued the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, based on the Declaration of Independence. They called for an end to laws that discriminated against women. They called for equal opportunities for women in jobs. They also called for women’s suffrage. Women’s Rights Movement Susan B. Anthony called for equal pay for women and coeducation for girls and boys. – Anthony and Stanton worked together for women’s suffrage, though it did not happen until 1920. The Industrial Revolution changed American life. – – Most men now left the home to go to work. Women mostly tended the house and children. Women’s Rights Movement Many women, however, felt that women should get educated. – Mary Lyon founded Mt. Holyoke Female Seminary— the first women’s higher-education school in America. Many states began giving women property rights and co-guardianship of their children. Elizabeth Blackwell became the first famous female doctor.