“INDIA: ON THE PATH TO DISASTER RESILIENCE”
BY
BRIG (DR) BK KHANNA,SM,VSM
FORMER SENIOR SPECIALIST,
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY, GoI
QUOTE
CONTENTS
1. Theory of Disasters in various Religions
2. Modern Understanding of Disasters
3. Disasters Trend.
4. International Strategy
5. Vulnerability Profile of India
6. Institutionalizing DM in India
7. Disaster Management Act & Provisions
8. National Vision and Strategy..
9. NDRF.
10.Accomplishments of NDMA
11. Conclusion.
DISASTER THEORY IN VARIOUS RELIGIONS
What is disaster ?
DIS (bad) + ASTER (star)
Disasters are predestined.
There are very little that can be done to
prevent or mitigate disaster
Fatalism
Theory of Anger of God
“God causes earthquake,
especially when he is
angry….He causes the
mountains to be thrown
down and the valleys to
fill…God controls the rain,
lightning, thunder, snow,
whirlwind, cold, frost,
flood, clouds”.
Bible (Isa 2:19, 24:20), (Matt 5:45)
“And when the trumpet
shall be blown with one
blast, and the earth
shall be borne away,
and the mountains too,
and both be crushed
with one crushing; on
that day shall the
inevitable happen”
Koran Sura 69
In the Kali Yug world would be
infested with impurities and
vices. …. Floods and famine,
war and crime, deceit and
duplicity would characterize this
age….. At the end of the Kali
Yug, Lord Shiva shall destroy
the universe and all the
physical body would undergo a
great transformation. After
such dissolution, Lord Brahma
would recreate the universe
and mankind will become the
'Beings of Truth' once again.
Mahabharata
MODERN UNDERSTANDING OF DISASTERS
Disaster = (h + v) x r ÷ c
h = Hazards - Potentiality of a physical event that may
cause loss of life or property
v = Vulnerabilities - Factors or processes - physical,
social, economic, and environmental - which increase
susceptibility of an area or a community to impact of
hazards
r = Risks - Probability of harmful consequences or
losses
c = Capacities - Strengths and resources available
within a community, society or organization that can
reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster.
DISASTERS : TREND
NATURAL DISASTERS REPORTED: 1975-2012
Number of Disasters Reported
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005 2012
8
DISASTER LOSSES IN THE RICHEST AND
POOREST NATIONS (1985-99)
Economic Losses in US $ Billion
700
Economic Losses as % of Gross
Domestic Product
16
600
14
500
12
10
400
8
300
6
200
4
100
2
0
0
Richest Nations
Richest Nations
Poorest Nations
Richest Nations
Poorest Nations
Source: UNISDR 2004, adapted from Munich Re 1999.
Poorest Nations
Poorest Nations
Richest Nations
REASONS: INCREASING TRENDS OF DISASTERS
REASONS
1.
Population Increase
2.
Climate Change & Global Warming.
3.
Mega Cities & Urbanization – Add to Multiple Problems.
4.
Total Disregard of the Nature (Deforestation).
CHALLENGES
5.
Unpredictability Factor – Very High.
6.
Intensity and Severity – Much-Much Higher.
INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY
INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY
HYOGO FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION 2005-2015
•
Integrate Disaster Risk Reduction into Policies, Plans and
Programmes of Sustainable Development and Poverty
Reduction.
•
Member States, Regional Organisations, United Nations
System, Financial Institutions and NGOs to Engage Fully
in Supporting and Implementing International Strategy for
Disaster Reduction, and Cooperate to Advance
Integrated Approaches to Building Disaster Resilient
Nations and Communities.
•
Focus on National Implementation, through bi-lateral,
Regional and International Cooperation.
UN PRIORITIES FOR ACTION
1. Political Commitment and Institutional Aspects.
2. Risk Identification, Assessment, Monitoring and
Early Warning.
3. Knowledge Management.
4. Reduction of Underlying Risk Factors
(Environment,
Social Development, Land
Use).
5. Disaster Preparedness and Effective Response.
VULNERABILITY PROFILE OF INDIA
Vulnerability Profile of India
•
India is vulnerable in varying degrees to a large number
natural as well as man-made disasters.
•
Over 40 million hectares (12 per cent of land) is prone to
floods and river erosion.
•
58.6 per cent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of
moderate to very high intensity.
•
Of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is prone
cyclones and tsunamis.
•
971 Blocks in 183 Districts covering an area of 74.6 million
hectare identified as drought prone areas and hilly
areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches.
•
Further, vulnerability to Nuclear, Biological and
(NBC) disasters and terrorism has also increased.
•
of
to
Chemical
Road, Rail, Boat accidents Urban Fires, Bldg Collapse, riots,
MAJOR DISASTERS IN INDIA : 1990 - 2014
YEAR
PLACES
DISASTER
LOSS OF LIVES (APPROX)
1991
Uttarkashi
Earthquake
2000
1993
Latur
Earthquake
9500
1997
Jabalpur
Earthquake
200
1999
Chamoli
Earthquake
2000
1999
Orissa
S Cyclone
9887
2001
Bhuj
Earthquake
14000
2004
SE India
Tsunami
15000
2004
Assam & Bihar
Floods
700
2005
J&K
Avalanche
350
2005
Mah, Guj, HP, Karnataka, T’Nadu
Floods
1569
2005
J&K
Earthquakes
1336
2008
Bihar
Floods (Kosi)
300
2009
West Bengal & Karnataka & AP
Cyclone & Floods
464
2011
Sikkim
Earthquake
111
201 3
Uttarakhand & Ordisha Cyclone Phailin
Floods & Cyclone
>6000 + 33
2013
Uttarakhand & Ordisha Cyclone Phailin
Floods & Cyclone
>7000 + 33
2014
J&K , AP , Odisha & UP
300 + 47
63722
Average Annual Loss in India
 Loss of human life: 7734
 Crop area affected: 1.42 million hec.
 Houses damaged: 2.36 million
 Direct loss: 2.25% of GDP*
 Indirect psycho-social loss that can not be quantified
 Revenue loss due to less industrial production: 12%*
 Expenses on relief & rehab Rs. 6000 crores
 Expenses on reconstruction: Rs. 3200 crorescrores
* World Bank, Financing Rapid Onset Natural Disaster Losses in India: A Risk
Management Approach, August 2003.
INSTITUTIONALIZING DM IN INDIA
Past Initiatives in India
1. High Powered Committee under Chairmanship of Shri J C
Pant – August 1999 (Prior to Orissa Super Cyclone).
• Major Recommendations –
• Ushering in a new culture of Disaster Management –
Culture of Preparedness, Culture of Quick Response,
Culture of Strategic Thinking and Culture of
Prevention.
• Institutional Arrangements
• Constitutional Amendment to bring the subject of
Disaster Management in Concurrent List.
2. All Party National Committee under the Chairmanship of
Prime Minister – Feb 2001 (After Gujarat Earthquake).
23
Past Initiatives in India
Until 2001 – Responsibility with Agriculture Ministry.
3. Major Recommendations of High Powered Committee .
•
Paradigm shift from Disaster Relief to Disaster Prevention
and Mitigation.
• Need for DM Framework at National, State, District and at
Local Levels.
• Setting up a separate Ministry of Disaster Management.
• Streamline Response through coordination for optimal
use of resources.
4. Until 2001 – Responsibility of managing Disaster with Agriculture
Ministry. After HPC recommendations, it was transferred to MHA
in June 2002 as an Interim Arrangement.
5. DM Act passed in December 2005
24
SALIENT FEATURES OF DM ACT 2005
Salient Features – DM Act
DM Structure
National Level
 NDMA set up as the Apex Body with Hon’ble PM as
Chairperson.
 DM Structure – At all three levels i.e. National, State and
District.
 National Executive Committee (NEC) - Secretaries of 14
Ministries and Chief of Staff of Integrated Defence Staff
(CISC)Function as Executive Committee of NDMA.
 Central Ministries will Continue with Nodal
Responsibilities.
 NDMA to Provide Guidance, Coordination and Synergy.
26
Salient Features – DM Act -DM Structure
State Level
 SDMA at State Level, headed by Chief Minister.
 State Executive Committee (SEC), headed by Chief
Secretary,
will
coordinate
and
monitor
implementation of National Policy, National Plan
and State Plan.
District Level
 DDMA headed by District Magistrate.
 Chairperson of Zila Parishad as Co-Chairperson –
interface between Govt. and Public.
27
Salient Features – DM Act - DM Structure
Others
 National Disaster Response Force (NDRF).
 National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM).
 Disaster Response Fund – At the National, State and
District level.
 Disaster Response Fund at the National and State level
has been constituted by merging NCCF and CRF
respectively.
 Disaster Mitigation Fund – At the National, State and
District level - First Time
 Chapter on Offences & Penalties
28
Likely Changes in NDMA?
1. After change in Govt in May 2014, Vice Chairman and all
members were nudged to resign.
2. Vice Chairman and 7 Members resigned after that. Only
one Member has refused to resign and still continuing.
3.
Prime Minister is still the Chairperson of NDMA. Likely
envisaged changes are as follows:
a) 4 Ministers (Home, Finance, Defence & Agriculture)
ex-officio Members. 4 others (including Vice Chairman)
experts. Secy NDMA ex-officio Member Secy. Status of
Vice Chairman will be of Cabinet Secy rank status and 3
Members of Secy to Govt status.
b) NDMA will report to MoS in MHA responsible for DM.
c) Changes in the mandate and strategy likely to emerge.
29
MANDATE FOR NDMA
Mandate of NDMA
•
Policies on disaster management;
•
Guidelines for preparation of plans by Ministries/
Departments and States;
•
Approve the National Plan;
•
Approve plans prepared by the Ministries or
Departments;
•
Coordinate enforcement & implementation of policy
and plan;
•
Rceommend funds for mitigation;
•
Provide support to other countries;
•
Take measures for prevention, mitigation,
preparedness and
capacity building;
•
Policies and guidelines for the NIDM.
31
Emergencies to be Dealt With by Extant Mechanism
1.
Terrorism (Counter-Insurgency).
2.
Law and Order Situation.
3.
Serial Bomb Blasts.
4.
Hijacking.
5.
Air accidents.
6.
Chemical, Biological, Radiological
(CBRN) Weapon Systems.
7.
Mine Disasters.
8.
Ports and Harbour Emergencies.
9.
Forest Fires.
and
Nuclear
10. Oil Spills. 11. Oil Field Fires
All Cross Cutting Themes will be handled by the NDMA.
32
ROLE OF NODAL MINISTRIES
(i)
Drought -
Ministry of Agriculture.
(ii)
Epidemics & Biological Disaster-
Ministry of Health.
(iii)
Chemical Disaster -
Ministry of Environment.
(iv)
Nuclear Accidents & Leakages-
Dept. of Atomic Energy.
(v)
Railway Accidents -
Ministry of Railways.
(vi)
Air Accidents -
Ministry of Civil Aviation.
(vii) Natural Disasters ,Civil Strife Terrorist related disasters
Ministry of Home Affairs.
Cross Cutting Themes
To be Handled by the NDMA
• Medical Preparedness,
• Psycho-Social Support,
• Community
(CBDM),
Based
Disaster
Management
• Incident Response System, (IRS)
• Minimum Standards of Relief,
• Information & Communication Technology,
etc. for natural and manmade disasters
34
NATIONAL VISION & STRATEGY
NATIONAL VISION AND STRATEGY
VISION
“To build A SAFE AND DISASTER RESILIENT INDIA by developing a holistic, proactive,
multi-disaster and technology-driven strategy through a culture of prevention, mitigation,
preparedness and efficient response.”
STRATEGY
 A multi-dimensional Strategy, focusing on –
 Pre-disaster Phase:
1. Prevention.
2. Mitigation.
3. Preparedness.
4. Capacity Building (NDRF, SDRF, CD, NCC, NYKS etc).
5. Community based Disaster Management (including Public Awareness).
 Post-disaster Phase:
6. Prompt and Efficient Response – Proactive.
7. Reconstruction and Recovery (Building back better).
NATIONAL INITIATIVES
Guidelines Issued
1. Earthquakes;
2. Tsunami;
3. Cyclones;
4. Floods;
5. Urban Flooding;
6. Drought;
7. Landslides & Snow Avalanches;
8. Nuclear
and
(Unclassified) - I);
Radiological
Emergencies
9. Chemical (Industrial) Disasters;
38
Guidelines Issued
10. Chemical (Terrorism) Disaster;
11. Biological Disasters;
12. Medical Preparedness
Management;
and
Mass
Casualty
13. Psycho-Social and Mental Health Care;
14. Formulation of State Disaster Management Plans;
15. Incident Response System;
16. IT and Communication.
17. Scaling, Type of Equipment and Training of Fire
Services.
39
Other Reports Prepared
1. Revamping of Civil Defence;
2. Guidelines for
Management;
National
Institute
of
Disaster
3. Pandemic Preparedness beyond Health;
4. Guidelines for Disaster Response Training for NDRF
& SDRFs;
5. Strengthening of Safety and
Transportation of POL Tankers;
Security
for
6. Threats to Municipal Water Supply and Water
Reservoirs;
7. Mechanism to Detect, Prevent and Respond to
Radiological Emergencies in India;
40
Other Reports Prepared
8. Management of
Disaster;
the Dead in the Aftermath of
9. Minimum Standards of Relief;
10. Food in Relief Camps;
11. Sanitation & Hygiene in Disaster Relief;
12. Water Supply in Relief Camps;
13. Medical Cover in Relief Camps;
14. Role of NGOs in Disaster Management;
15. Training and Capacity Building of Civil Defence and
Sister Organizations.
41
Mainstreaming Disaster Management into
Developmental Plans
42
Mainstreaming DM into Developmental Plans
1. All new Projects/ Programmes to mandatorily have DM
resilience features inbuilt at the time of conceptualization.
2. Planning Commission and the Ministry of Finance to give
approval to the projects only if disaster resilience self
certification is provided.
3. Ongoing Projects to be revisited for disaster resilience
audit.
4. RBI Guidelines on the Bank loans on the Building Sector
issued. Guidelines for the Infrastructure Sector still under
preparation.
5. Existing Lifeline Projects to be selectively revisited and
retrofitted.
43
MPLADS – Utilization of Funds
•
An innovative Schemes for MPs to take up development
projects in their constituencies.
•
As per extant guidelines funds could be allocated only for
relief during natural calamities.
•
NDMA suggested the shift of approach from the relief
centric to proactive utilization of funds for preparedness
and mitigation.
•
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
agreed to NDMA’s suggestions and issued Reform
Circular No. 12 on 23 November 2011.
•
Funding of disaster management interventions for natural
as well as man-made disasters.
•
Modified guidelines permit undertaking works for Early
Warning Systems and effective disaster mitigation.
44
CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES
NDRF in Action - >200 times
KOSI FLOODS
AUGUST 08
SAR OPERATION AT
BELLARY,
KARNATAKA,
JANUARY 2010
LANDSLIDE RESCUE,
DARJEELING, JUN 09
AP & KARNATAKA FLOODS
OCT 09
: CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES
Mock Exercises > 641 incl 3 multi state/district
URBAN FIRE –
SHIMLA,
24 May 2010
EARTHQUAKE –
SRINAGAR,
16 March 2010
FLOODS –
CHHATISGARH,
29 June 09
CHEMICAL –
CHEMBUR,
13 May 08
CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES
School Safety
in > 230
schools
JVM School, Bellary, KARNATAKA,
17 Jun 09
Mata Jai Kaur Public School, NEW DELHI,
05 May 09
MOCK EXERCISES IN SCHOOLS IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE COUNTRY
Govt. Inter College, Dhela, Ramnagar,
UTTARAKHAND
09 Apr 09
Govt. Boys Hr. Sec. Institute,
BARAMULLA, 18 March 2010
Amity International School,
GURGAON, 29 Apr 09
CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES: Awareness Programs
Awareness Generation

Films
* Earthquakes.
•
Cyclones.
•
Floods.
•
Paradigm Shift.
•
Asha ki Kiran
 Posters.
 Leaflets in different languages.
 Advertisements in print and electronic media
NDRF
NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE
Disaster Management Act 2005 :
National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)
• Section 44 (1) : There shall be constituted a National Disaster Response Force
for the purpose of specialist response to a threatening disaster situation or
disaster.
• Section 44 (2) : Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Force shall be
constituted in such manner and, the conditions of service of the members of
the Force, including disciplinary provisions therefore, be such as may be
prescribed.
• Section 45 : The general superintendence, direction and control of the Force
shall be vested and exercised by the National Authority and the command and
supervision of the Force shall vest in an officer to be appointed by the Central
Government as the Director General of the National Disaster Response Force.
TEAM COMPOSITION
Organization: 10 Bns x 18 teams of 45 men each
= 180
= 8100 personnel
Including Technicians,
Doctors, Trauma Specialists
and Dog Squads.
•
Each Bn to have 1149 personnel.
•
Each Bn to have 18 specialist teams of 45 members
to handle natural & NBC disasters.
•
Each team of 45 to have 2 Engineers, 2
Paramedics, 1 Technician, 1 Electrician & 1 Dog
Squad.


Total no. – 18 teams x10 Bn = 180 teams.
Two more Bns sanctioned, one each to be located at
Haridwar and Silchar.
NDRF BNS – LOCATIONS
PATNA
BHATINDA
GHAZIABAD
BHUBANESHWAR
(Mundali)
GUWAHATI
KOLKATA
VADODARA
PUNE (Talegaon)
VIJAYAWADA
CHENNAI
(Arakkonam)
LEGEND
BNs
• Two more coming up at Haridwar & Silchar.
CBRN BNs
New Raisings
ACCOMPLISHMENTS AT A GLANCE
1. National Policy on DM.
2. National DM Plan in pipeline.
3. Guidelines on management of various disasters and cross
cutting issued - 27. 9 in pipeline.
4. Mock Exercises on all perceived disasters in all 35 States/
UTs (incl 3 Multi district/state on Earthquake)– 641, in 219
districts, 196 MAH industries and 236 schools, covering over
35 lac population
5. NDRF deployed for assistance to States over 200 times.
6. DM Plans completed by 8 Ministries and 35 States.
7. Mitigation Projects – DRR with UNDP, NCRMP with World
Bank, NERMP and School Safety Program.
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
• India’s approach has been of Transition from Linear
and Incremental Improvements to a Regime of
Structural Reforms and Systemic Changes.
• Plant has taken deep roots. Needs careful nurturing
for over 5 - 10 Years.
• The substantial initial momentum gained must be
sustained and for that the support of the State
Govts and Districts is key to its success.
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
THANK YOU
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