Preparedness
Planning how to
respond when an
emergency or disaster
occurs
What is Currently Being Done?






US Department of Education website for emergency
preparedness www.ed.gov/emergency plan
Federal funds to help school districts improve and
strengthen emergency response FY 2004 $30 million
“Practical Information on Crisis Planning: a Guide for
Schools and Communities” May 2003
CDC funds education and health agencies
FEMA: The Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for
Schools Independent Study Course
FEMA for Kids, www.fema.gov/kids
What are the Gaps?




No coordination between preparedness
activities
Few activities are designed to foster
collaboration between education, public health,
and other emergency responders at the state or
local level
School plans are often treated as a separate
plan rather than as part of the community plan
School plans tend not to be practiced as part of
larger community preparedness exercises.
Oklahoma City -- Lessons Learned
Contingency planning contributes to an
effective response
 Lessons learned also apply to natural
disasters, industrial accidents and other
catastrophes
 If disaster planning is part of the rhythm of
a community, lives will be saved.

Planning for the Unthinkable…







Have a Plan
Test Your Plan
Share Your Plan
Repeat Exercises... and Then Do It Again
If You Can’t Afford Repeated Exercises, At
Least Review Your Plans
Forge Relationships
Prepare Lists of Vendors and Service Providers
Communications

Communication technology—the physical ability to send
and receive a message






Disasters Overwhelm Telephone Networks
Provide Alternate Communication Methods
Use the Internet
Consider Interoperability of Radio Equipment
Use Mass Media as an Alternate Means
Social communication—the content of the message




Avoid Jargon
Keep Your Workers Informed
Communicate Among Agencies
Have Up-to-date Contact Information
Media







Use them to inform and educate
You cannot over-plan for dealing with the Media
Plan for a credentialing system
Who says what?
Set a schedule
Use Media to your advantage
Use the Media to make public announcements
The Media will get their story…
Sample School Personnel Roles
School Role
Possible Role in Terrorism
Planning
School Safety Specialist
and School Security Staff
Link to county emergency
management agency.
School Nurse(s)
Link to local health
department (LHD
Chemistry/Physics Teachers Link to nearest HazMat
Team
Student Services Personnel
such as Counselors, Social
Workers, Psychologists
Recognize the
psychological impact of
terrorism
The America Prepared Campaign
Preparedness in America’s
Schools: A Comprehensive
Look at Terrorism Preparedness
in America’s Twenty Largest
School Districts
The America Prepared Campaign
Non-profit, non-partisan initiative
 Began in 2003
 Board of Directors and 14 national
experts in emergency preparedness,
media, marketing, government, and
business
 Funded by Alfred P. Sloan and John D. &
Catherine T. MacArthur Foundations

The Standard


US Department of Education Practical
Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide For
Schools and Communities
America Prepared rated the largest 20 school
districts in US in relation to their Preparedness




Planning
Drilling
Communicating
Best/Good/Needs Improvement/Failing
Preparedness
Planning: comprehensive response to a
terrorist attack or major natural disaster
 Drills: conduct monthly drills of that plan
 Communication: communicate to parents the
pertinent details of the plan; parents should
know procedure for reuniting with children

The Results




“BEST” (3): has comprehensive and sensible
emergency plan that deals directly with terrorist threats;
has necessary supplies on hand
“GOOD” (7): has made significant progress toward the
goal of preparedness while still needing some
significant improvements
“NEEDS IMPROVEMENT” (7):needs serious action in
one or more areas
“FAILING” (2):has performed unsatisfactorily in all three
areas: planning, drilling and communication
Fairfax County, Virginia









Number of Schools: 241
Students: 166,601
the most prepared district
exhaustive emergency plan
have some of the supplies:
kits with flashlights and first
aid kits
Model for DOE
templates for schools
communication templates for
teachers and principals
plan defines key roles



planned response actions for
terrorist emergencies
continually perform drills
(table-tops once a year with
police; fire and tornado drills;
walkthroughs of shelter-inplace and lockdowns)
information on website in
seven languages -- specific
information about what
parents should do in an
emergency
Montgomery County, Maryland






Number of Schools: 190
Number of Students: 139,203
model of preparedness
exemplary multi-hazard crisis
plan
comprehensive checklist for
schools
communicate details of the
parent/child reunification
process to parents




emergency codes used in
Montgomery: Code Red, Code
Blue, and Code Blue Shelterin-Place
guidance on suspected
chemical, biological, and
radiological incidents
two code red and two code
blue drills a year, in addition to
10 fire drills
www.schoolsout.com
Chicago, Illinois






Number of Schools: 613
Students: 434,419
Failing grade
25 percent of schools do not
have an emergency plan of
any kind
Another 50 percent of plans
are inadequate
School district, Police and Fire
departments do not work
together in planning





No back-up communication
system
Parents are poorly informed
No special supplies in the
school
Drills only include fire drills
No guidance on suspected
chemical, biological, and
radiological incidents
Response
Providing emergency
assistance immediately
following a disaster
What is Currently Being Done?
CDC’s Public Health Preparedness and
Response for Bioterrorism
 The Metropolitan Medical Response
System (MMRS)
 Dept of ED program to certify teachers
and other school staff in first aid.

What are the Gaps?



Lack of coordination and communication between
public health, education, and other first responders
State and local education agencies are not included
on terrorism response planning committees
Little attention has been given to the possibility that
students might need to be quarantined at school.
Schools and other first responders must be able to
immediately address parent concerns about their
children’s health and safety.
Incident Command System






Assures uniformity of command structure used
by various responding parties
Provides for common, easily understood
language
Promotes a manageable span of command
(typically no more than seven individuals
reporting to one supervisor)
Coordinates use of resources
Arranges for safety of responders
Coordinates messages to the public and the
media
September 11, 2001
“I learned an important lesson on that day…that I could
only run as fast as my slowest child.”
Teacher, P.S. 234 New York City
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Uncommon Sense,
Uncommon Courage
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
How the New York City
School System, Its
Teachers, Leadership, and
Students Responded to
the Terror of September 11
The Report









Decision Making
Transportation
Facilities and Support
Food Services
Communication
Curriculum
Mental Health
FiscalStudent Safety
Key Findings
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Timeline







8:46 am Plane hits Tower #1
WTC
9:02 Plane hits Tower #2
WTC; schools in immediate
area evacuate
9:21 subways and busses are
disrupted; bridges and tunnels
closed
9:59 South tower #2 collapses
10:29 North tower #1
collapses; airspace shut down
9:57 pm closed schools next
day
1:00 am (9/12) all students
accounted for
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
The scene……






8 public schools within 1/4 mile of Ground Zero; 5 were
in immediate danger
9,000 students ages 3 - 18; ALL were evacuated without
injury
ALL 1.1 million students in every part of the city got
home safety
2,800 people died in the towers, including 343 FDNY
and 60 NYPD personnel
1,493 students lost someone in their family
Many of the 9,000 witnessed the collapse of the towers
Disaster planning was key…






Effective decision making is critical
Emergency response plans must be dynamic
The safety and well-being of responders must
be a priority
Communications will be compromised
Resources will be stressed
The recovery phase usually lasts longer than
once can predict
Decision Making

Safe evacuation of all accomplished through
on-the-ground decision making
Responding to the “unthinkable” requires
intelligence, creativity, and courage
Fire drills were key
Follow plans

Change plans



More decisions……




How students reached safety
Fears that children were in danger, injured or
dead
Terrorism promotes a particular kind of chaos
Consider geography in plans
Communication





Technological interruptions/failures
Keep communication flowing
Communication into the BOE
Communication from the BOE
Keeping children safe and getting them reunited
with their families was the underlying message that
drove all communication on 9/11.
Communication Recommendations






Communicate safety plans with parents
Share with other emergency responders the
complete safety plans
Have three redundant systems of
communication
Coordinate these systems with emergency
response agencies
Plan process to communicate with the media
Have single and approved source of information
“No one is ready for something like this.”
Harold O. Levy, Chancellor
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
High School of Leadership and Public
Service ~Ada Dolch, Principal







A leader who saw a situation, assessed it and engaged
in on-the-ground decision making
A thorough knowledge of the physical layout
Tools of communication - walkie-talkies
A well informed and talented professional staff
Well developed evacuation plan that had been practiced
A disciplined group of students who knew how to follow
directives
A leader who advocated on behalf of her community
Table - top Exercise




Form into groups of participants.
You are the school crisis team for Anywhere Elementary
School (grades K - 5; 400 students) in a district of
25,000 students. The principal has called you together
as the crisis team one evening at 7:00PM. The
principal tells you that one of your 3rd grade students,
Emily, has been found murdered in the park one block
from your school. The news will be reported on the
11:00 PM news broadcast. The family has been
notified.
Who will be impacted? What emotions will you
probably see?
What will you do to support the students and staff the
next day?
Exercise, part 2





Additional news: it is now 2 weeks after the murder. No
suspect has been arrested though there has been
extensive media coverage.
A second elementary age student, from a different
school in the area, is found murdered. There are no
witnesses and no leads to the suspect. The next day a
third student (from a third school) is found murdered.
At this time the superintendent receives a note that
says, “Your children are not safe anywhere at anytime.”
What additional steps does your crisis team take to
ensure the safety of your students?
How do these additional murders impact the students
and staff at your school?
Recovery
Restoring people to
physical and mental
health; restoring vital
systems
What is Currently Being Done?





Project School Emergency Response to
Violence (Project SERV)
Guide for Intermediate and Long-Term Mental
Health Services after School-Related Violent
Events
Coping with Traumatic Events, Tips for
Teachers
National Child Traumatic Stress Network
(NCTSN)
Trauma Information Pamphlet for Teachers
What are the Gaps?




Only a small percentage of children in the
United States receive the mental health
treatment they need
Lack of information on baseline mental health of
children in the absence of a terrorist event.
Anxious or ill children do not learn well
Little information is available to help school
officials understand what remediation actions
are needed after a terrorist event
Emotional Responses to Terror/Trauma





Fear
Loss of control
Anger
Loss of stability
Confusion
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
National Association of School Psychologists: www.nasponline.org
9/11: A long road to recovery



Occurred during regular
school hours thus causing
immediate and severe
psychological trauma students and staff
1600 students and 900
staff members lost family
members
Great potential for post
traumatic stress disorder
syndrome
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
The Partnership for the Recovery in
New York City Schools

Within 24 hours, recommendations given on:





how to explain the factual details of the disaster
how to reassure children of their and their families’
safety
how to connect children’s individual grief and
feelings of loss with the grief and feelings of loss of
their communities
Resource guides provided to both parents and
teachers on how to deal with and recognize the
effects of trauma
Personal letters of condolence
Expanded mental health services





FEMA’s 60-day grant included: grief counseling,
individual and group interventions, and the development
of multi-disciplinary approaches to treatment
Direct services to children and families provided via a
tier system: school-based services referred people to
community-based organizations and to hospitals
Many mental health professionals offered their services
pro bono
$5 million US Dept. of Ed Project SERV grant
Quality control considerations
Additional mental health support
debriefing session with Board of
Education personnel
 mental health assessment comprised of a
sample of 10,000 children


PTSD symptoms: major depression, general
anxiety, agoraphobia, separation anxiety, and
conduct disorder
Curriculum


To foster a deeper comprehension about the
events of 9/11, in terms of grief and loss, and
ward off violence toward those who were
Muslim or appeared to be Muslim.
Goals:



help students handle the grief and anger
work with concepts of conflict resolution
to develop a context of learning around the issues
NYC: Two Years Later
“Keep kids safe and they
will be able to learn”
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
~Ada Dolch, Principal
High School of Leadership
and Public Service at
Ground Zero
We need to be better prepared… much better
prepared than we are now.”
~ Gregory Thomas, Director, National Center for Disaster Preparedness



Deeper and more professional ties with
emergency management officials.
The allocation of appropriate budgets to safety
departments. A moratorium on budget cuts for a
2-3 year period.
The development of training materials tailored
for: principals, assistant principals, teachers,
staff and children.
~ Gregory Thomas, Director, National Center for Disaster Preparedness


Sharing of knowledge on a coordinated basis by
those individuals directly involved in 9/11 as well
as in other school based disasters, like school
shootings.
The engagement of parents, and community in
planning and preparedness with specific
reference to their role in ensuring the safety and
wellbeing of the students.
What we’ve learned…….


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.


While we may not be able to
prevent every major crisis, we
can take actions to minimize
the effects.
Major crises ~ natural and
manmade ~ have a
significant impact on schools,
even when not directed at
schools.
Dealing with mental health
issues of students and staff is
essential to the recovery
process.
Every school must have a
“multi-hazard” safety plan.
What we’ve learned…….




Schools need to foster
linkages with
communities: fire, police,
mental health, victim
services.
Practice makes perfect.
Make schools a part of
larger community drills.
Plan ahead. Things can
be done today that will
help you tomorrow.
Keeping schools safe is
hard work!
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Our Challenge
“We have to go after this with
an attitude that terrorism
will happen again. It is not
the question of if anymore,
but the question of what the
next event is going to be.
By preparing for the
“imaginable” we prepare for
the“unimaginable”.
~ Gregory Thomas, Director, National
Center for Disaster Preparedness
(2004)
National Association of School Psychologists
Terrorism Workgroup:




Cathy Kennedy Paine, Chair. Special Services
Coordinator, Springfield School District, Springfield,
Oregon
Craig Apperson, Program Supervisor, School Safety &
Security Programs, Washington State Office of
Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia,
Washington
Jenny Wildy, School Psychology Graduate Student,
Eastern Kentucky University
Ralph E. (Gene) Cash, Ph.D., Associate Professor,
Nova Southeastern University, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
Sources used in this presentation:










Apperson, C.D. OSPI Learning and Teaching Support. http://www.k12.wa.us/Safetycenter/
Brill, Steven, and Phinney, Allison. (2004) Preparedness in America’s Schools: A
Comprehensive Look at Terrorism Preparedness in America’s Largest School Districts. America
Preparedness Campaign, Inc.
Brock, S.E., Sandoval, J., and Lewis, S. (2001) Preparing for Crises in the Schools, second
edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Degnan, A. N. , (2004) Uncommon Sense, Uncommon Courage: How the New York City School
System, Its Teacher, Leadership, and Students Responded to the Terror of September 11. New
York: Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.
Diaz, A. (2003) National Advisory Committee on Children and Terrorism: Recommendations to
the Secretary. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control.
Ingraham, L.M. (2003) Terrorism Supplement to the Checklist for a Safe and Secure School
Environment. Indiana Department of Education.
International Meeting on Helping Schools Prepare for and respond to Terrorist Attacks. February
13-14, 2002. Washington, D.C.
Murphy, G.R., Davies, H.J., and Plotkin, M. (2004) Managing a Multijurisdictional Case:
Identifying the Lessons Learned from the Sniper Investigation. Washington D.C: Police
Executive Research Forum.
Practical Information of Crisis Planning: A Guide for Schools and Commuinities. (2003) U.S.
Department of Education. www.ed.gov/emergencyplan
Schools and Terrorism. (2003) A Supplement to the National Advisory Committee on Children
and Terrorism: Recommendations to the Secretary. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease
Control.
Descargar

Schools and Terrorism - National Association of School