Preparedness Planning how to respond when an emergency or disaster occurs What is Currently Being Done? US Department of Education website for emergency preparedness www.ed.gov/emergency plan Federal funds to help school districts improve and strengthen emergency response FY 2004 $30 million “Practical Information on Crisis Planning: a Guide for Schools and Communities” May 2003 CDC funds education and health agencies FEMA: The Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for Schools Independent Study Course FEMA for Kids, www.fema.gov/kids What are the Gaps? No coordination between preparedness activities Few activities are designed to foster collaboration between education, public health, and other emergency responders at the state or local level School plans are often treated as a separate plan rather than as part of the community plan School plans tend not to be practiced as part of larger community preparedness exercises. Oklahoma City -- Lessons Learned Contingency planning contributes to an effective response Lessons learned also apply to natural disasters, industrial accidents and other catastrophes If disaster planning is part of the rhythm of a community, lives will be saved. Planning for the Unthinkable… Have a Plan Test Your Plan Share Your Plan Repeat Exercises... and Then Do It Again If You Can’t Afford Repeated Exercises, At Least Review Your Plans Forge Relationships Prepare Lists of Vendors and Service Providers Communications Communication technology—the physical ability to send and receive a message Disasters Overwhelm Telephone Networks Provide Alternate Communication Methods Use the Internet Consider Interoperability of Radio Equipment Use Mass Media as an Alternate Means Social communication—the content of the message Avoid Jargon Keep Your Workers Informed Communicate Among Agencies Have Up-to-date Contact Information Media Use them to inform and educate You cannot over-plan for dealing with the Media Plan for a credentialing system Who says what? Set a schedule Use Media to your advantage Use the Media to make public announcements The Media will get their story… Sample School Personnel Roles School Role Possible Role in Terrorism Planning School Safety Specialist and School Security Staff Link to county emergency management agency. School Nurse(s) Link to local health department (LHD Chemistry/Physics Teachers Link to nearest HazMat Team Student Services Personnel such as Counselors, Social Workers, Psychologists Recognize the psychological impact of terrorism The America Prepared Campaign Preparedness in America’s Schools: A Comprehensive Look at Terrorism Preparedness in America’s Twenty Largest School Districts The America Prepared Campaign Non-profit, non-partisan initiative Began in 2003 Board of Directors and 14 national experts in emergency preparedness, media, marketing, government, and business Funded by Alfred P. Sloan and John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundations The Standard US Department of Education Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide For Schools and Communities America Prepared rated the largest 20 school districts in US in relation to their Preparedness Planning Drilling Communicating Best/Good/Needs Improvement/Failing Preparedness Planning: comprehensive response to a terrorist attack or major natural disaster Drills: conduct monthly drills of that plan Communication: communicate to parents the pertinent details of the plan; parents should know procedure for reuniting with children The Results “BEST” (3): has comprehensive and sensible emergency plan that deals directly with terrorist threats; has necessary supplies on hand “GOOD” (7): has made significant progress toward the goal of preparedness while still needing some significant improvements “NEEDS IMPROVEMENT” (7):needs serious action in one or more areas “FAILING” (2):has performed unsatisfactorily in all three areas: planning, drilling and communication Fairfax County, Virginia Number of Schools: 241 Students: 166,601 the most prepared district exhaustive emergency plan have some of the supplies: kits with flashlights and first aid kits Model for DOE templates for schools communication templates for teachers and principals plan defines key roles planned response actions for terrorist emergencies continually perform drills (table-tops once a year with police; fire and tornado drills; walkthroughs of shelter-inplace and lockdowns) information on website in seven languages -- specific information about what parents should do in an emergency Montgomery County, Maryland Number of Schools: 190 Number of Students: 139,203 model of preparedness exemplary multi-hazard crisis plan comprehensive checklist for schools communicate details of the parent/child reunification process to parents emergency codes used in Montgomery: Code Red, Code Blue, and Code Blue Shelterin-Place guidance on suspected chemical, biological, and radiological incidents two code red and two code blue drills a year, in addition to 10 fire drills www.schoolsout.com Chicago, Illinois Number of Schools: 613 Students: 434,419 Failing grade 25 percent of schools do not have an emergency plan of any kind Another 50 percent of plans are inadequate School district, Police and Fire departments do not work together in planning No back-up communication system Parents are poorly informed No special supplies in the school Drills only include fire drills No guidance on suspected chemical, biological, and radiological incidents Response Providing emergency assistance immediately following a disaster What is Currently Being Done? CDC’s Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism The Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) Dept of ED program to certify teachers and other school staff in first aid. What are the Gaps? Lack of coordination and communication between public health, education, and other first responders State and local education agencies are not included on terrorism response planning committees Little attention has been given to the possibility that students might need to be quarantined at school. Schools and other first responders must be able to immediately address parent concerns about their children’s health and safety. Incident Command System Assures uniformity of command structure used by various responding parties Provides for common, easily understood language Promotes a manageable span of command (typically no more than seven individuals reporting to one supervisor) Coordinates use of resources Arranges for safety of responders Coordinates messages to the public and the media September 11, 2001 “I learned an important lesson on that day…that I could only run as fast as my slowest child.” Teacher, P.S. 234 New York City QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Uncommon Sense, Uncommon Courage QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. How the New York City School System, Its Teachers, Leadership, and Students Responded to the Terror of September 11 The Report Decision Making Transportation Facilities and Support Food Services Communication Curriculum Mental Health FiscalStudent Safety Key Findings QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Timeline 8:46 am Plane hits Tower #1 WTC 9:02 Plane hits Tower #2 WTC; schools in immediate area evacuate 9:21 subways and busses are disrupted; bridges and tunnels closed 9:59 South tower #2 collapses 10:29 North tower #1 collapses; airspace shut down 9:57 pm closed schools next day 1:00 am (9/12) all students accounted for QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. The scene…… 8 public schools within 1/4 mile of Ground Zero; 5 were in immediate danger 9,000 students ages 3 - 18; ALL were evacuated without injury ALL 1.1 million students in every part of the city got home safety 2,800 people died in the towers, including 343 FDNY and 60 NYPD personnel 1,493 students lost someone in their family Many of the 9,000 witnessed the collapse of the towers Disaster planning was key… Effective decision making is critical Emergency response plans must be dynamic The safety and well-being of responders must be a priority Communications will be compromised Resources will be stressed The recovery phase usually lasts longer than once can predict Decision Making Safe evacuation of all accomplished through on-the-ground decision making Responding to the “unthinkable” requires intelligence, creativity, and courage Fire drills were key Follow plans Change plans More decisions…… How students reached safety Fears that children were in danger, injured or dead Terrorism promotes a particular kind of chaos Consider geography in plans Communication Technological interruptions/failures Keep communication flowing Communication into the BOE Communication from the BOE Keeping children safe and getting them reunited with their families was the underlying message that drove all communication on 9/11. Communication Recommendations Communicate safety plans with parents Share with other emergency responders the complete safety plans Have three redundant systems of communication Coordinate these systems with emergency response agencies Plan process to communicate with the media Have single and approved source of information “No one is ready for something like this.” Harold O. Levy, Chancellor QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. High School of Leadership and Public Service ~Ada Dolch, Principal A leader who saw a situation, assessed it and engaged in on-the-ground decision making A thorough knowledge of the physical layout Tools of communication - walkie-talkies A well informed and talented professional staff Well developed evacuation plan that had been practiced A disciplined group of students who knew how to follow directives A leader who advocated on behalf of her community Table - top Exercise Form into groups of participants. You are the school crisis team for Anywhere Elementary School (grades K - 5; 400 students) in a district of 25,000 students. The principal has called you together as the crisis team one evening at 7:00PM. The principal tells you that one of your 3rd grade students, Emily, has been found murdered in the park one block from your school. The news will be reported on the 11:00 PM news broadcast. The family has been notified. Who will be impacted? What emotions will you probably see? What will you do to support the students and staff the next day? Exercise, part 2 Additional news: it is now 2 weeks after the murder. No suspect has been arrested though there has been extensive media coverage. A second elementary age student, from a different school in the area, is found murdered. There are no witnesses and no leads to the suspect. The next day a third student (from a third school) is found murdered. At this time the superintendent receives a note that says, “Your children are not safe anywhere at anytime.” What additional steps does your crisis team take to ensure the safety of your students? How do these additional murders impact the students and staff at your school? Recovery Restoring people to physical and mental health; restoring vital systems What is Currently Being Done? Project School Emergency Response to Violence (Project SERV) Guide for Intermediate and Long-Term Mental Health Services after School-Related Violent Events Coping with Traumatic Events, Tips for Teachers National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) Trauma Information Pamphlet for Teachers What are the Gaps? Only a small percentage of children in the United States receive the mental health treatment they need Lack of information on baseline mental health of children in the absence of a terrorist event. Anxious or ill children do not learn well Little information is available to help school officials understand what remediation actions are needed after a terrorist event Emotional Responses to Terror/Trauma Fear Loss of control Anger Loss of stability Confusion QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. National Association of School Psychologists: www.nasponline.org 9/11: A long road to recovery Occurred during regular school hours thus causing immediate and severe psychological trauma students and staff 1600 students and 900 staff members lost family members Great potential for post traumatic stress disorder syndrome QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Partnership for the Recovery in New York City Schools Within 24 hours, recommendations given on: how to explain the factual details of the disaster how to reassure children of their and their families’ safety how to connect children’s individual grief and feelings of loss with the grief and feelings of loss of their communities Resource guides provided to both parents and teachers on how to deal with and recognize the effects of trauma Personal letters of condolence Expanded mental health services FEMA’s 60-day grant included: grief counseling, individual and group interventions, and the development of multi-disciplinary approaches to treatment Direct services to children and families provided via a tier system: school-based services referred people to community-based organizations and to hospitals Many mental health professionals offered their services pro bono $5 million US Dept. of Ed Project SERV grant Quality control considerations Additional mental health support debriefing session with Board of Education personnel mental health assessment comprised of a sample of 10,000 children PTSD symptoms: major depression, general anxiety, agoraphobia, separation anxiety, and conduct disorder Curriculum To foster a deeper comprehension about the events of 9/11, in terms of grief and loss, and ward off violence toward those who were Muslim or appeared to be Muslim. Goals: help students handle the grief and anger work with concepts of conflict resolution to develop a context of learning around the issues NYC: Two Years Later “Keep kids safe and they will be able to learn” QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. ~Ada Dolch, Principal High School of Leadership and Public Service at Ground Zero We need to be better prepared… much better prepared than we are now.” ~ Gregory Thomas, Director, National Center for Disaster Preparedness Deeper and more professional ties with emergency management officials. The allocation of appropriate budgets to safety departments. A moratorium on budget cuts for a 2-3 year period. The development of training materials tailored for: principals, assistant principals, teachers, staff and children. ~ Gregory Thomas, Director, National Center for Disaster Preparedness Sharing of knowledge on a coordinated basis by those individuals directly involved in 9/11 as well as in other school based disasters, like school shootings. The engagement of parents, and community in planning and preparedness with specific reference to their role in ensuring the safety and wellbeing of the students. What we’ve learned……. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. While we may not be able to prevent every major crisis, we can take actions to minimize the effects. Major crises ~ natural and manmade ~ have a significant impact on schools, even when not directed at schools. Dealing with mental health issues of students and staff is essential to the recovery process. Every school must have a “multi-hazard” safety plan. What we’ve learned……. Schools need to foster linkages with communities: fire, police, mental health, victim services. Practice makes perfect. Make schools a part of larger community drills. Plan ahead. Things can be done today that will help you tomorrow. Keeping schools safe is hard work! QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Our Challenge “We have to go after this with an attitude that terrorism will happen again. It is not the question of if anymore, but the question of what the next event is going to be. By preparing for the “imaginable” we prepare for the“unimaginable”. ~ Gregory Thomas, Director, National Center for Disaster Preparedness (2004) National Association of School Psychologists Terrorism Workgroup: Cathy Kennedy Paine, Chair. Special Services Coordinator, Springfield School District, Springfield, Oregon Craig Apperson, Program Supervisor, School Safety & Security Programs, Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, Washington Jenny Wildy, School Psychology Graduate Student, Eastern Kentucky University Ralph E. (Gene) Cash, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Nova Southeastern University, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida Sources used in this presentation: Apperson, C.D. OSPI Learning and Teaching Support. http://www.k12.wa.us/Safetycenter/ Brill, Steven, and Phinney, Allison. (2004) Preparedness in America’s Schools: A Comprehensive Look at Terrorism Preparedness in America’s Largest School Districts. America Preparedness Campaign, Inc. Brock, S.E., Sandoval, J., and Lewis, S. (2001) Preparing for Crises in the Schools, second edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Degnan, A. N. , (2004) Uncommon Sense, Uncommon Courage: How the New York City School System, Its Teacher, Leadership, and Students Responded to the Terror of September 11. New York: Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Diaz, A. (2003) National Advisory Committee on Children and Terrorism: Recommendations to the Secretary. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control. Ingraham, L.M. (2003) Terrorism Supplement to the Checklist for a Safe and Secure School Environment. Indiana Department of Education. International Meeting on Helping Schools Prepare for and respond to Terrorist Attacks. February 13-14, 2002. Washington, D.C. Murphy, G.R., Davies, H.J., and Plotkin, M. (2004) Managing a Multijurisdictional Case: Identifying the Lessons Learned from the Sniper Investigation. Washington D.C: Police Executive Research Forum. Practical Information of Crisis Planning: A Guide for Schools and Commuinities. (2003) U.S. Department of Education. www.ed.gov/emergencyplan Schools and Terrorism. (2003) A Supplement to the National Advisory Committee on Children and Terrorism: Recommendations to the Secretary. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control.