Today’s World
Section 2
Social Challenges
• Main Idea / Reading Focus
• Human Rights
• Faces of History: Aung San Suu Kyi
• Global Challenges
• Map: World Average Life Expectancy
• Population Movement
Today’s World
Section 2
Social Challenges
Main Idea
People and countries are working together to protect human
rights, help solve problems such as poverty and disease, and
adjust to new patterns of migration.
Reading Focus
• How are individuals, groups, and nations working to protect
human rights?
• What global challenges do people around the world face?
• What are the causes and effects of population movement?
Today’s World
Section 2
Human Rights
Globalization and Human
Statements on Human Rights
• Violence, human rights abuses
not new
• 1948, United Nations issued
Universal Declaration of Human
• Globalization has made world
more aware
• In recent years, many nations
have pledged to respect human
• All people deserve basic rights
“without distinction of...race,
color, sex, language, religion,
political or other opinion,
national or social origin,
property, birth or other status”
• 1975, Helskini Accords signers
agreed to respect human rights
Today’s World
Section 2
Human Rights Abuses
In spite of agreements, torture, slavery, killing, other
abuses daily occurrences in some countries
• Most common in countries not democracies or in
process of establishing democracy
• Some groups at greater risk than others
– People who disagree with their government
– People who are members of religious, ethnic minority
– Women and children
Today’s World
Section 2
Working for Rights
• Many individuals, groups working to improve, protect human rights
• United Nations investigates human rights abuses, works with national
governments to protect rights of threatened groups
• Also NGOs, nongovernmental organizations, formed to provide services,
promote certain public policies
Protecting Human Rights
• International Red Cross, an NGO that works to improve welfare of women,
children, indigenous peoples; played key roles in fights against slavery,
violence against women, apartheid
• Human rights usually better protected in democratic countries
• Spread of democracy has led to spread of human rights
Today’s World
Section 2
Today’s World
Section 2
Make Generalizations
How are human rights threatened and
Answer(s): threatened—torture, slavery, and
killing; protected—actions of United Nations,
NGOs; increased democracy, globalization
Today’s World
Section 2
Global Challenges
Although globalization is improving the lives of some people, many
still face major challenges like poverty, disease, or natural disasters.
• More than 20 percent of world’s
people live on less than $1 per
• Globalization has made
controlling disease challenge for
entire world
• Poverty has many causes
• International air travel allows
disease to spread rapidly
– Lack of natural resources
– War
– Poor government planning
– Rapid population growth
• One result—famine, extreme
shortage of food
• 2002, SARS pneumonia
appeared in China, spread to
Asia, Europe, Americas
• Hundreds killed in epidemic,
contagious disease outbreak
Today’s World
Section 2
• HIV/AIDS another recent epidemic
– Over 25 million have died from AIDS since 1981
– Millions more infected by the disease
• International health organizations, local
governments have had some success controlling
spread of some diseases
– Education about prevention of disease
– Making medicines cheaper, more available
Today’s World
Section 2
Natural Disasters
Worldwide Events
• Hurricanes, earthquakes, floods
also affect many areas of world
• Natural disasters cause deaths,
destroy homes, businesses
Aid to Regions
• December 2004, tsunami
devastated large areas of
Southeast Asia, killed over
225,000 people
• Many individuals, governments,
humanitarian organizations
provide aid to regions hit by
natural disasters
Today’s World
Section 2
Today’s World
Section 2
What are some of the challenges facing
people around the world?
Answer(s): poverty, disease, natural disasters
Today’s World
Section 2
Population Movement
The movement of people around the world has increased dramatically
in recent years. Some people move in search of better opportunities,
while others are refugees, seeking safety in another nation.
• Many factors cause
people to migrate to a
new place
• Some “push” people
to leave homeland
• Others “pull” people
to new places
Push, Pull Factors
• Push factors that
displace people:
– War
– Persecution
– Poverty
• Pull factors include
opportunities for jobs,
better life
• Migration changed by
• Migrants can quickly
travel far from home
• Can settle in places
very different
• Mixing of cultures can
be dramatic
Today’s World
Section 2
Population Movement
Return to Homelands
• Migrants often able to return, visit native countries
• Easier to retain own cultures, languages, habits
• Typical destinations, wealthy developed North American, European nations
Results of Migration
• Often migrants find work, provide better life for selves, families
• Sometimes fail to find jobs, face discrimination in new countries
• Some think newcomers will take away jobs, services from native citizens
• Migration also within countries; people moving from rural to urban areas
• Fastest growing cities in developing countries, slower in developed countries;
rapid urbanization main factor in worldwide population movement
Today’s World
Section 2
Find the Main Idea
What are some main reasons for population
Answer(s): to escape war, persecution, poverty;
search for better jobs, education, better life