Teaching All Children to Read
Kathleen Theodore, MA, Program Specialist
Southeast Comprehensive Center
http://secc.sedl.org
Objectives
Participants will be able to:
• Understand the key components of effective reading
instruction
• Engage in demonstrations of research-based reading
strategies
• Discuss the importance of improving literacy
outcomes within the school improvement process
Research Base
Report of the National
Put Reading First
Reading Next
Reading Panel
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“We can, whenever and wherever we choose,
successfully teach all children to read. We
already have reams of research, hundreds of
successful programs, and thousands of
effective schools to show us the way. Whether
or not we do it must finally depend on how we
feel about the fact that we haven’t so far.”
McEwan, 1998
Five Essential Components
Research indicates that students need to acquire skills and knowledge in
at least five main areas in order to become proficient readers.
Phonemic awareness
Phonics
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension strategies
Identifying words
accurately and
fluently
Constructing
meaning once
words are
identified
Systematic and Explicit Instruction
What Is Systematic Instruction?
• Lessons and activities are divided into
sequential, manageable steps.
• Concepts and tasks progress from simple to
more complex.
• Concepts and skills are explicitly defined and
order of introduction follows a preplanned
sequence.
What Is Explicit Instruction?
• Nothing is left to chance; all skills are taught
directly.
• Practice activities are carefully guided with
“instructive” error correction.
• Practice activities are carefully engineered to
produce mastery.
• Critical skills are developed through carefully
monitored instruction, and the focus is on
mastery.
• Review is built into every lesson.
Steps of Explicit Instruction
• Direct Instruction: The teacher explains to the
students what they are learning and why.
• Modeling: The teacher models or
demonstrates (how).
• Guided Practice: The teacher guides and
assists students as they learn when or how to
apply the strategy.
• Application: The teacher helps students
practice the strategy until they can apply it
independently.
Explicit Instruction
I DO
YOU WATCH
YOU DO
I WATCH
I DO
YOU HELP
YOU DO
I HELP
Wilhelm, J. D., Baker, T. D., & Dube, J. (2001). Strategic reading: Guiding students to lifelong literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Phonemic Awareness (PA)
• The ability to hear, identify, and
manipulate the individual sounds—
phonemes—in spoken words
• The understanding that sounds in
spoken language work together to
make words
Phonological Awareness Ladder
1
Isolation
Identity
Categorization
2
Blending
Segmentation
Levels of
Complexity
3
Deletion
Addition
Substitution
Complex
Phonemes
Onset-rime
Syllables
Words in a
Sentence
Rhyming and
Alliteration
Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center
Listening
Simple
Understanding Phonemes
In the English language, all spoken words are
constructed from about 44 different phonemes.
f–o–g
g–o–l–f
The English writing system is based on the discovery
that we can represent words using marks (letters) to
stand for the sounds in words.
Joe Torgesen, www.fcrr.org
Acquiring PA
Why is acquiring phonemic awareness hard for many
children?
Phonemes are co-articulated in spoken words.
train
dragon
The same thing that makes speech fluent makes
reading hard for many children.
Adapted from Joe Torgesen, www.fcrr.org
Why Is PA Important?
Children must understand that words in their oral
language are composed of small segments of sound
in order to comprehend the way that language is
represented by print.
Without at least emergent levels of phonemic
awareness, the rationale for learning individual letter
sounds and “sounding out” words is not
understandable.
Without PA, “phonics” doesn’t make sense!
Adapted from Joe Torgesen, www.fcrr.org
PA: The Anchor for Phonics
Therefore: We must learn to produce and
manipulate phonemes and to recognize
common confusions in children.
Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling © 2003 Sopris West. All rights reserved.
PA Activity: Say-It Move-it
Phonics
• The relationship between letters and sounds
• Alphabetic understanding
• Readers use these relationships to recognize
familiar words accurately and automatically
and to decode unfamiliar words.
m
b
d
Joe Torgesen, fcrr.org
s
Phonics
Pronounce this word . . .
blit
Joe Torgesen, fcrr.org
frachet
Demonstration of Explicit Instruction
• Teaching Letter Sound Correspondences
• /m/
Continuous Blending
1.
ra t
2.
4.
3.
5.
1. Write r and say /r/.
2. Write a and say /a/.
3. Slide fingers under ra and say /ra/.
4. Write t and say /t/.
5. Slide fingers under rat and say /rat/.
6. Say “The word is rat” and use it in a sentence.
(Louisa Moats, Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling)
Whole Word Blending
sh a c k
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. Point to the digraph sh and say “sound.”
2. Point to the a and say “sound.”
3. Point to the ck and say “sound.”
4. Slide fingers under the whole word to blend it.
(Louisa Moats, Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling)
Vowel First Blending
4.
ra t
1.
2.
3.
5.
1. Write a and say /a/.
2. Write t and say /t/.
3. Slide fingers under at and say /at/.
4. Write r and say /r/.
5. Slide fingers under rat and say /rat/.
6. Say “The word is rat” and use it in a sentence.
Simple Prefixes, Roots, and
Base Words
The Long Trek Up
Mount Decoding
Final Y to I
Simple Inflectional Endings
Compound Words
Plural Endings
Consonant Doubling
Other Vowel Patterns
Long Vowel Patterns
Digraphs and Blends
Short Vowels
Initial/Final Consonant Sounds
Letter to Sound Linking
Fluency
• The ability to read text accurately and
quickly with expression
• The bridge between word recognition and
comprehension
Why Fluency?
Fluency
• “44% of a representative sample of the nation’s
fourth- and eighth-graders were low in fluency.”
(NAEP)
• “Fluency is a neglected skill in many American
classrooms, affecting many students’ reading
comprehension.”
• “It provides a bridge between word recognition
and comprehension.”
What Is Fluency?
• Speed + Accuracy = Fluency
• Reading quickly and in a meaningful way
(prosody)
• Decoding and comprehending simultaneously
• Freedom from word identification problems
• Fluency is derived from the Latin word fluens
which means “to flow”
• Smooth and effortless reading
Cognitive Desk Space Activity
dvancs n nrscnc, spcll nrmgng tchnqus, llw rsrchrs
to dcmnt dffrncs btwn go nd pr rdrs. Mgntc rsnnc
mgng (MR) nd thr tchnqs llstrt qt cncrtl tht pr rdrs r
strgglng wth th bscs,sndng t nd rcgnzng wrds bt b
bt. G rdrs, hwvr, hv dvlpd wrd dntfctn hbts tht r
sbsmd b th pstrr r bck rs f th brn. Th “pr rdr” pttrns
chng whn rmdtn s sccssfl.
Who Has Felt Like This?
Advances in neuroscience, especially
neuroimaging techniques, allow researchers to
document differences between good and poor
readers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and
other techniques illustrate quite concretely that
poor readers are struggling with the basics,
sounding out and recognizing words bit by bit.
Good readers, however, have developed word
identification habits that are subsumed by the
posterior or back areas of the brain. The “poor
reader” patterns change when remediation is
successful.
Fluent Readers . . .
• Recognize words automatically
• Read aloud effortlessly and with expression
• Do not have to concentrate on decoding
• Can focus on comprehension
Put Reading First 2001, p. 22
Indicators of Fluency
• Words per minute
• Reading with expression
• Recall/retelling
Factors That Inhibit Fluency
• Unfamiliarity with text
• Limited vocabulary
• Difficulty with syntax
• Decoding breakdown
“The fluent reader sounds good,
is easy to listen to, and reads
with enough expression to help
the listener understand and enjoy
the material.”
Charles Clark, 1999
What Skills Do Students
Need to Be Fluent?
• Decoding skills
• Comprehension skills
“The goal in fluency instruction
is not fast reading, although
that happens to be a by-product
of the instruction, but fluent
meaning-filled reading.”
International Reading Association
Guided Oral Reading
But why can’t we just do what we’ve always done?
Round Robin Oral Reading
Each child reads too little;
engagement is low
Teacher-provided
feedback is of low quality
Instructional
time is wasted
Repeated Readings
• Read the same passage several times until
the desired rate is reached.
• Keep reading at the same level until the
same rate is reached three times, then
move on to a new level and repeat the
procedure.
• Do this daily.
• Perform at least 3-4 repetitions of the text
each day.
What Is Vocabulary?
• Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to
communicate effectively.
• Oral vocabulary refers to words that we use in
speaking or recognize in listening.
• Reading vocabulary refers to words we
recognize or use in print.
A Longitudinal Study
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Meaningful Differences in the
Everyday Experience of Young
American Children
Betty Hart & Todd Risley, 1995
Reading Difficulties Begin Here . . .
•
•
Actual differences in quantity of words heard
In a typical hour, the average child would
hear:
Low-SES family: 615 words
Working-class family: 1,250 words
Professional family: 2,153 words
What Does the Research Say?
Homes rich in communication: Children
before the age of 4 have heard 45 million words.
Homes that lack rich communication: Children
before the age of 4 have heard 13 million words.
Hart and Risley, 1996
Meaningful Differences
Affirmative statements
• Professional = 30 per hour
• Working class = 15 per hour
• Welfare = 6 per hour
Hart and Risley, 1996
The Achievement Gap
• It is now well accepted that the chief cause of
the achievement gap between socioeconomic
groups is a language gap.
Hirsch, 2003
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The Research Says . . .
• Most vocabulary is learned indirectly.
• Some vocabulary must be taught directly.
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How Are Words Learned Indirectly?
• Children learn the meanings of most words
indirectly through everyday experiences with
oral and written language.
• Everyday experiences include engaging daily in
oral language, listening to
adults read to them, and
reading extensively on
their own.
How Are Words Learned Directly?
Vocabulary can be developed directly when
students are explicitly taught both individual
words and word-learning strategies.
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Past Practice: Dictionary
“Rote memorization of words and
definitions is the least effective
instructional method resulting in little
long-term effect.”
Kameenui, Dixon, & Carine, 1987)
Levels of Word Knowledge
•
•
•
•
Never Saw It Before
Have Heard It, But Don’t Know What It Means
Know Something About It
Know It Well/Can Use It in a Sentence
You Try It
Word
plethora
stupendous
pugnacious
sensitive
dubious
Have
Do not
seen or
know the heard the
word
word
Know something about it;
can relate it
to a situation
Know it
well, can
explain
it, use it
How Do We Increase
Vocabulary Knowledge?
New words are:
1. Encountered repeatedly in context through
reading and listening
2. Linked to students’ prior knowledge
3. Connected with other words that are
semantically related
Bringing Words to
Life
I. Beck, M. McKeown, & L. Kucan
Guilford Press, 2002
Which Words to Teach?
As a way to begin thinking about which words
to teach, consider that words in language
have different levels of utility. In this regard,
researchers have found the notion of tiers.
Three Tiers
• Tier One consists of the most basic words that
rarely require instruction in school.
• Tier Three includes words whose frequency of
use is quite low, often being limited to specific
domains.
• Tier Two are high-frequency words that appear
in a wide variety of texts and in oral and
written language of mature language users;
thus, instruction in these words can add
productively to an individual’s language ability.
Beck, I. L., Mc Keown, M. G., Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing
Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction.
Some Criteria for Identifying
Tier-Two Words
• Importance and utility: Words that are characteristics
of mature language users and appear across a
variety of domains
• Instructional potential: Words that can be worked
with in a variety of ways so that students can build
rich representations of them and of their connections
to other words and concepts
• Conceptual understanding: Words for which students
understand the general concept but provide
precision in describing the concept
I. L. Beck, M. G. McKeown, & L. Kucan, 2002
Identifying Tier-Two Words in Text
Johnny Harrington was a kind master who
treated his servants fairly. He was also a
successful wool merchant, and his business
required that he travel often. In his absence,
his servants would tend to the fields and cattle
and maintain the upkeep of his mansion. They
performed their duties happily, for they felt
fortunate to have such a benevolent and
trusting master.
Tier-Two Words
Students’ Likely Expressions
merchant
salesperson or a clerk
required
have to
tend
take care of
maintain
keep going
performed
did
fortunate
lucky
benevolent
kind
You Try It
The servants would never comment on this strange
occurrence (finding the kitchen clean even though none
of them were seen doing the cleaning), each servant
hoping the other had tended to the chores. Never would
they mention the loud noises they’d hear emerging from
the kitchen in the middle of the night. Nor would they
admit to pulling the covers under their chins as they
listened to the sound of haunting laughter that drifted
down the halls to their bedrooms each night. In reality
they knew there was a more sinister reason behind their
good fortune.
Tier-Two Words
Students’ Likely Expressions
comment
occurrence
tended
mention
emerging
admit
haunting
reality
sinister
fortune
something someone says
something happening
took care of
tell
coming out
to say you did something
scary
being real
scary
luck
What Is Comprehension?
Comprehension is . . .
• The reason for reading
• Purposeful and active thinking in
which meaning is constructed and
reconstructed through interactions
between the text and the reader
Text structure, vocabulary,
print style and font,
discourse, genre,
motivating features
Word recognition,
vocabulary, background
knowledge, strategy use,
inference-making abilities,
motivation
Text
Reader
Comprehension
Context
Environment, purpose, social relations,
cultural norms, motivating features (e.g.,
school/classroom climate, families, peers)
Levels of Comprehension
Evaluative
“Think and Search” and
reading beyond the lines
Inferential
“Think and Search” or
reading between the lines
Literal
“Right There”
Characteristics of Effective Reading
• Passage 1
• Passage 2
• Passage 3
Passage 1
The boy’s arrows were nearly gone so they sat down on
the grass and stopped hunting. Over at the edge of the
forest they saw Henry making a bow to a small girl who
was coming down the road. She had tears in her dress and
also tears in her eyes. She gave Henry a note which he
brought over to the group of young hunters. Read to the
boys, it caused great excitement. After a minute but rapid
examination of their weapons, they ran down to the valley.
Does were standing near the edge of the lake making an
excellent target.
Passage 2
A newspaper is better than a magazine, and on a seashore is a
better place than a street. At first, it is better to run than to walk.
Also, you may have to try several times. It takes some skill but
it’s easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once
successful, complications are minimal. Birds seldom get too
close. One needs lots of room. Rain soaks in very fast. Too
many people doing the same thing can also cause problems. If
there are no complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will
serve as an anchor. If things break loose from it, however, you
will never get a second chance.
Passage 3
The two boys ran until they came to the driveway. “See, I told you today was
good for skipping school,” said Mark. “Mom is never home on Thursday,” he
added. The boys strolled across the finely landscaped yard. “I never knew
your place was so big,” said Pete. “Yeah, but it’s nicer now than it used to be
since Dad had the new stone siding put on and added a fireplace.”
There were front and back doors and a side door that led to the garage, which
was empty except for three 10-speed bikes.They went in the side door, which
Mark said was always open.
Pete wanted to see the house so Mark started in the living room. It, like the
rest of the downstairs, was newly painted. Mark turned on the stereo, and the
noise worried Pete. “Don’t worry, the nearest house is a quarter of a mile
away,” Mark shouted. Pete felt more comfortable knowing that no houses
could be seen in any direction beyond the huge yard.
The dining room, with all the china, silver, and cut glass, was no place to play
so the boys moved to the kitchen, where they made sandwiches. Mark said
they wouldn’t go in the basement because it had been damp ever since the
new plumbing was installed.
“This is where my Dad keeps his famous paintings and his coin collection,”
Mark said as they went into the den. Mark bragged that he could get
spending money whenever he needed it since he discovered that his Dad
kept $20 bills in the desk drawer.
There were three upstairs bedrooms. Mark showed Pete his mother’s closet,
which was filled with furs and a locked box that held her jewels. His sister’s
room was uninteresting except for the color TV and the new carpet. The big
highlight in Mark’s room, however, was a leak in the ceiling where the old
roof had rotted.
Comprehension Strategies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Monitoring comprehension
Using graphic and semantic organizers
Answering questions
Generating questions
Recognizing story structure
Summarizing
Making use of prior knowledge
Using mental imagery
Improving Literacy Outcomes
School Improvement Plan
Six Key Elements
• Commitment to meeting individual student needs at all
levels
• Adopting and implementing a research-based reading
curriculum
• Objective assessment to evaluate student progress and
the effectiveness of reading programs
• Designing and implementing an effective instructional
delivery system
• Maximizing available instructional time
• Administrative monitoring of student progress and
program implementation
Improving the Reading Program by
Adding Assessment and Intervention
•
Hartsfield Elementary School characteristics:
– 70% free and reduced lunch (increasing)
– 65% minority (mostly Black)
•
Elements of curriculum change:
– Movement to a more research-based reading curriculum
beginning in 1994–1995 school year for K–2 (incomplete
implementation)
– Improved implementation in 1995–1996
•
Implementation of screening and more intensive small-group
instruction for at-risk students in Fall 1996
Hartsfield Elementary School
Progress Over 5 Years
Improved implementation of
research-based comprehensive
reading program
Proportion falling
below the 25th
percentile in wordreading ability at the
end of first grade
30
20
10
31.8
20.4
Screening at beginning of first
grade, with additional
instructional intervention for
those in bottom 30–40%
10.9
6.7
3.7
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
48.9
55.2
61.4
73.5
81.7
Average percentile for entire grade (n = 105)
Talking Point
Review of Key Elements
SBRR
SBRI
Assessment
Key Element: SBRR Foundation
• Scientifically based reading research (SBRR)
provides a general knowledge and
understanding of the reading research
–
–
–
–
–
Phonemic awareness
Phonics
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension
Key Element: Assessment
• Assessment for instructional decision making
prepares educators to administer reading
assessments and use that data for differentiating
instruction, planning PD, and problem solving
–
–
–
–
Screening
Diagnosis
Progress monitoring
Outcome measures
The Heart of Prevention
Progress Monitoring: The Teacher’s Map
A change in intervention
60
50
40
Aim-line
30
20
10
Dec.
S co re s
Ja n .
S c o re s
Feb.
S co res
M arc h
S co re s
A p ril
S c o re s
M ay
S co re s
June
S co res
The Delivery of Instruction:
Instructional Design Principles
•
•
•
•
•
•
Big Ideas
Mediated scaffolding
Conspicuous strategies
Strategic integration
Primed background knowledge
Judicious review
The Design Principles Are
Structured Around . . .
• The schoolwide establishment of long-term
reading goals and intermediate performance
benchmarks
• The early identification and frequent monitoring
of students experiencing reading difficulties
• The development of coordinated and
differentiated instructional interventions for the
full range of learners
Talking Point
No Excuses
•
•
•
•
Believe in the students
Communicate high expectations
Meet the students where they are
Problem solve
3-2-1 Reflection
• 3 things I learned
• 2 things I am going to try
• 1 thing I want to know more about
Piggyback Wraparound
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