Teaching Reading Welcome, students! Five Components of Reading Instruction • Phonological Awareness • Phonics • Fluency • Vocabulary • Comprehension Phonological Awareness Training • Phonological awareness- manipulating and identifying parts of spoken language (i.e. words, syllables, onsets and rimes, and phonemes) • Phonemic awareness- conscious awareness that spoken language is made up of individual sounds (i.e. phonemes) Enhancing effectiveness • Focus first on auditory features of words • Move from explicit, natural segments of language to the more implicit and complex. • Use of phonological properties and dimensions of words to enhance performance. • Scaffold, blending and segmenting through explicit modeling. • Integrate letter-sound correspondence once learners are proficient with auditory tasks. Phonemic Awareness Activity Phonics • Introduce print (letters and words) paired with corresponding sounds • Teaches students the alphabetic principle Alphabetic Principle —Letter-Sound Correspondence: Teacher points to letter /m/ on board. "The sound of this letter is /mmm/. Tell me the sound of this letter." –Use consistent and brief wording —Sounding Out Words: Teacher points to the word /mop/ on the board, touches under each sound as the students sound it out, and slashes finger under the word as students say it fast. "Sound it out." (/mmm o p/) "Say it fast." (mop) –start by having students sound letters/words out in their heads, then as a class produce the word orally Alphabetic Principle cont... —Reading Connected Text: Once students have mastered CVC (mom) and VC (at) words, short controlled sentences (mom is at home) should be introduced. Prompts and procedures should be used for this, as it is sometimes difficult for students to move quickly from lists of words to passages. Alphabetic Principal Activity Fluency • The ability to read quickly and accurately • Covered in phonemic awareness, letter naming, sound-letter associations, sight words, and oral reading of connected text • Fluency in: letter recognition --> letter sounds -->word recognition -> improved comprehension Fluency, cont.. —Letter-Sound Fluency: Given a set of letters, the student can produce the associated sound within one second. Target goal = 50 letter sounds per minute by mid first grade —Irregular Word Fluency: Given a set of irregular words in a set or in a passage, can identify words in 1 second or less. —Oral Reading Fluency: By the end of grade 2, students should read 90-100 words per minute fluently.It mirrors spoken language fluency Even more about Fluency! • Promotes memory and applications (generalization) • Fluency in reading text is highly correlated to reading comprehension • There are six stages of fluency and reading development: pre-reading, decoding, confirmation and fluency, reading to learn, reading for multiple viewpoints, and reading to construct new knowledge. Fluency Activity Vocabulary • Words a person has learned and uses to communicate effectively • Divided into Oral and Reading • Most words are learned indirectly, but some need to be taught directly (i.e. difficult words that represent complex concepts) • Students typically add 3,000 new words yearly after 3rd grade A little about Direct Instruction • specific word instruction and word learning strategies • includes: teaching modeling, guided practice, and instructional feedback • Specific word instruction • Words prioritized into three categories: important words, difficult words, and useful words Vocabulary Activity Comprehension • Ability to understand what is being read • Reason for reading • Requires purposeful and thoughtful interaction with text • There are seven instructional strategies for comprehension that will be discussed on the next slide Reading Comprehension Strategies • • • • • • • Comprehension monitoring Cooperative learning Use of graphic and semantic organizers Question answering Generating questions Recognizing story starters Summarizing Comprehension Activity Six Core Developmental Reading Approaches Basal Reading Literature-Based Reading Whole Language Language Experience Phonics Linguistic: Word Families & Onset-Rime •Basal Reading Approach Commonly used as a core for teachers Begins with pre-primary readers and goes to eighth grade readers Examples in a series (workbooks, flash cards, skill packets, wall charts, related activities, placement and achievement tests, and computer software) Directed Reading Activity Procedure 1. Motivate the student to learn the material 2. Prepare the student by presenting to concepts and vocab 3. Guide the student in reading the story with asking questions that have a purpose or a goal. 4.Develop or strengthen skills relating to the material through drills or activities. 5. Assign work to apply the skills acquired during the lesson. 6.Evaluate the effectiveness of the lesson. Literature-Based Reading Approach •Teacher reading aloud to children •Oral reading variation •Shared reading •Sustained silent reading •Word recognition strategies •Comprehension strategies Whole Language Approach •Uses students languages and Experiences •Makes meaning out of what you read and express •Students are taught to read for meaning not to break the code in reading. •Curriculum is organized around themes and units to increase language and reading skills •All language arts are related and should not be taught as if they were separate •Not the best approach for those with learning problems but there are ways to adapt the approach. Language Experience Approach •Integrates development of reading skills with, listening, speaking, and writing skills •Based on students oral and written expression •Similar to whole language: both emphasize the importance of literature, treat reading as a personal act, and advocate many books written by young children about their own lives. •Different from whole language: Language experience says written language is secondary system taken from oral language and whole language sees them separately related. • Research has indicated that this approach may produce weaker effects with people with special needs. • Modified version for those struggling in reading with more structure and practice. Phonics Approach • Teaches word recognition through learning the relation to the letters (graphemes), to the sounds (phonemes) they represent to teach reading. •Most languages have consistent phoneme to grapheme correlation. •Once a learner has learned the relationships of letters to sounds, they can pronounce printed words by blending the sounds together. Guidelines for Teaching Phonics •Use lowercase letters for beginning instruction. •Introduce most useful skills first •Introduce easy sounds and letters first •Introduce new letter-sound associations at a reasonable pace. •Introduce vowels early, but teach consonants first •Emphasize the common sounds of letters first •Teach continuous sounds prior to stop sounds •Teach sound blending early •Introduce consonant blends •Introduce consonant digraphs •Introduce regular words prior to irregular ones. •Read connected text that reinforces phonics patterns. Linguistic Approach: Word Families & Onset-Rime • Designed for students not succeeding with the basal approach. •Words are taught in word families, around rimes & onsets Ex: Kindergarten rimes involving /a/ and onsets /c/,/b/,/h/ are added gradually to create a word family cat, bat, & hat •word families grow as readers make progress. •Alternative for young children struggling with phoneme-level segmentation and blending. Some commercial materials: Lets Read, Basic Reading, and Merrill Reading Program Reading Instructional Methods • • • • • • • • Multi-sensory Reading Method Oral Reading Fluency Methods Peer-Assisted Reading Method Keyword Method Reciprocal Teaching Mapping Strategies High Interest-Low Vocabulary Method Life Skills Reading Multi-sensory Reading Method "Some students learn best when content is presented in several modalities." This is frequently kinesthetic and tactile stimulation along with the traditional visual and auditory experience. These are often called VAKT (visual-auditory-kinesthetic-tactile). Oral Reading Fluency Methods 1. Select an age appropriate book or story. 2. Introduce the book or story to student and review potentially new and difficult words. 3. Read the story to the student. 4. Have two students paired together taking turns reading the book or story. 5. Have students review difficult words. 6. Use a fluency measure to monitor the progress of each student frequently. This method uses neurological impress method through repeated readings. Peer-Assisted Reading Method Students are paired with one low achieving reader and one high achieving reader and the reading material should be at the lower level. Peer-assisted reading is especially for English Language Learners, students from low socioeconomic backgrounds, learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and mental disabilities. Keyword Method This method relies on memorization based on visual imagery: 1. Recoding: changing the vocabulary word into a keyword that goes with a visual image (ex. ape for apex). 2. Relating: integrating the keyword with the definition (ex. ape sitting at the highest point [apex] of a rock) 3. Retrieving: recalling the definition by thinking of the keyword and the picture. Reciprocal Teaching This method is an interactive teaching strategy that promotes text comprehension: 1. Predicting: drawing inferences from clues in the text or prior knowledge. 2. Question generating: main idea questions about the text to learn to identify information. 3. Summarizing: different ways to explore the text (ie. creating topic sentences, list content, and discard unimpportant or repeated information. 4. Clarifying: considering why a text was difficult and teaching rereading as a strategy. Mapping Strategies This is a schema-building technique using a pictorial storyboard map for a graphic organized. Students fill in the map as they read, including things like: setting, problem, goal, action, and outcome. High Interest-Low Vocabulary Method These readers offer older students more engaging stories while keeping a relatively easy vocabulary. These include mysteries, sports, adventure, science and classic literature and are published by a variety of distributers. Life Skills Reading Life skills reading focuses on words and phrases that students must know to function while shopping, employed, enjoying recreation and at home. Examples: danger, men, woman, restroom, up, down, exit, telephone, poison, police, first aid, stop, walk, do not enter etc. Drill and Practice Activities • Pre-reading Activities: o Concepts about Print o Phonological Awareness • Word-Attack Activities • Fluency Activities • Vocabulary Activities • Comprehension Activities Computer Software Programs for Reading • Let's Go Read o Incorporates phonics and whole language (PreK-First Grade) • My Reading Coach o Phonemic awareness, phonics sounds/rules, vocabulary, syntactic processing, reading comprehension (6yrs and up) • Reading Blaster o (4-6, 5-7, 6-8, 9-12 yrs) • Working Phonics o 84 phonics activities, 900 basic reading words, 400 sight words (K-8th grade) Designing a Reading Program • Use effective teaching principles • Provide pre-reading experiences • Consider the nature of reading development • Provide explicit and implicit reading instruction Let's play fun games! WOOOO!