Teaching Reading
Welcome, students!
Five Components of Reading
• Phonological
• Phonics
• Fluency
• Vocabulary
• Comprehension
Phonological Awareness
• Phonological awareness- manipulating and
identifying parts of spoken language (i.e.
words, syllables, onsets and rimes, and
• Phonemic awareness- conscious awareness
that spoken language is made up of individual
sounds (i.e. phonemes)
Enhancing effectiveness
• Focus first on auditory features of words
• Move from explicit, natural segments of language to
the more implicit and complex.
• Use of phonological properties and dimensions of
words to enhance performance.
• Scaffold, blending and segmenting through explicit
• Integrate letter-sound correspondence once learners
are proficient with auditory tasks.
• Introduce print (letters and words)
paired with corresponding sounds
• Teaches students the alphabetic
Alphabetic Principle
—Letter-Sound Correspondence: Teacher points to letter /m/ on
board. "The sound of this letter is /mmm/. Tell me the sound of
this letter." –Use consistent and brief wording
—Sounding Out Words: Teacher points to the word /mop/ on
the board, touches under each sound as the students sound it
out, and slashes finger under the word as students say it fast.
"Sound it out." (/mmm o p/) "Say it fast." (mop) –start by
having students sound letters/words out in their heads, then as a
class produce the word orally
Alphabetic Principle cont...
—Reading Connected Text:
Once students have mastered CVC (mom) and VC
(at) words, short controlled sentences (mom is at
home) should be introduced.
Prompts and procedures should be used for this,
as it is sometimes difficult for students to move
quickly from lists of words to passages.
• The ability to read quickly and
• Covered in phonemic awareness, letter
naming, sound-letter associations, sight
words, and oral reading of connected
• Fluency in: letter recognition --> letter
sounds -->word recognition -> improved comprehension
Fluency, cont..
—Letter-Sound Fluency: Given a set of letters, the
student can produce the associated sound within one
second. Target goal = 50 letter sounds per minute by
mid first grade
—Irregular Word Fluency: Given a set of irregular words
in a set or in a passage, can identify words in 1 second or
—Oral Reading Fluency: By the end of grade 2, students
should read 90-100 words per minute fluently.It mirrors
spoken language fluency
Even more about Fluency!
• Promotes memory and applications
• Fluency in reading text is highly correlated to
reading comprehension
• There are six stages of fluency and reading
development: pre-reading, decoding,
confirmation and fluency, reading to learn,
reading for multiple viewpoints, and reading to
construct new knowledge.
• Words a person has learned and uses to
communicate effectively
• Divided into Oral and Reading
• Most words are learned indirectly, but some
need to be taught directly (i.e. difficult words
that represent complex concepts)
• Students typically add 3,000 new words
yearly after 3rd grade
A little about Direct
• specific word instruction and word learning
• includes: teaching modeling, guided practice,
and instructional feedback
• Specific word instruction
• Words prioritized into three categories:
important words, difficult words, and useful
• Ability to understand what is being read
• Reason for reading
• Requires purposeful and thoughtful
interaction with text
• There are seven instructional strategies for
comprehension that will be discussed on the
next slide
Reading Comprehension
Comprehension monitoring
Cooperative learning
Use of graphic and semantic organizers
Question answering
Generating questions
Recognizing story starters
Six Core Developmental
Reading Approaches
Basal Reading
Literature-Based Reading
Whole Language
Language Experience
Linguistic: Word Families & Onset-Rime
•Basal Reading Approach
Commonly used as a core for teachers
Begins with pre-primary readers and goes to eighth grade readers
Examples in a series (workbooks, flash cards, skill packets, wall charts, related
activities, placement and achievement tests, and computer software)
Directed Reading Activity Procedure
1. Motivate the student to learn the material
2. Prepare the student by presenting to concepts and vocab
3. Guide the student in reading the story with asking questions that
have a purpose or a goal.
4.Develop or strengthen skills relating to the material through drills or
5. Assign work to apply the skills acquired during the lesson.
6.Evaluate the effectiveness of the lesson.
Literature-Based Reading
•Teacher reading aloud to children
•Oral reading variation
•Shared reading
•Sustained silent reading
•Word recognition strategies
•Comprehension strategies
Whole Language Approach
•Uses students languages and Experiences
•Makes meaning out of what you read and express
•Students are taught to read for meaning not to break the
code in reading.
•Curriculum is organized around themes and units to
increase language and reading skills
•All language arts are related and should not be taught as if
they were separate
•Not the best approach for those with learning problems but
there are ways to adapt the approach.
Language Experience
•Integrates development of reading skills with, listening,
speaking, and writing skills
•Based on students oral and written expression
•Similar to whole language: both emphasize the importance of
literature, treat reading as a personal act, and advocate many
books written by young children about their own lives.
•Different from whole language: Language experience says
written language is secondary system taken from oral language
and whole language sees them separately related.
• Research has indicated that this approach may produce weaker
effects with people with special needs.
• Modified version for those struggling in reading with more
structure and practice.
Phonics Approach
• Teaches word recognition through learning the relation
to the letters (graphemes), to the sounds (phonemes) they
represent to teach reading.
•Most languages have consistent phoneme to grapheme
•Once a learner has learned the relationships of letters to
sounds, they can pronounce printed words by blending
the sounds together.
Guidelines for Teaching
•Use lowercase letters for beginning instruction.
•Introduce most useful skills first
•Introduce easy sounds and letters first
•Introduce new letter-sound associations at a reasonable pace.
•Introduce vowels early, but teach consonants first
•Emphasize the common sounds of letters first
•Teach continuous sounds prior to stop sounds
•Teach sound blending early
•Introduce consonant blends
•Introduce consonant digraphs
•Introduce regular words prior to irregular ones.
•Read connected text that reinforces phonics patterns.
Linguistic Approach: Word
Families & Onset-Rime
• Designed for students not succeeding with the basal
•Words are taught in word families, around rimes & onsets Ex:
Kindergarten rimes involving /a/ and onsets /c/,/b/,/h/ are
added gradually to create a word family cat, bat, & hat
•word families grow as readers make progress.
•Alternative for young children struggling with phoneme-level
segmentation and blending.
Some commercial materials: Lets Read, Basic
Reading, and Merrill Reading Program
Reading Instructional
Multi-sensory Reading Method
Oral Reading Fluency Methods
Peer-Assisted Reading Method
Keyword Method
Reciprocal Teaching
Mapping Strategies
High Interest-Low Vocabulary Method
Life Skills Reading
Multi-sensory Reading
"Some students learn best when content is presented in
several modalities."
This is frequently kinesthetic and tactile stimulation along
with the traditional visual and auditory experience. These
are often called VAKT (visual-auditory-kinesthetic-tactile).
Oral Reading
Fluency Methods
1. Select an age appropriate book or story.
2. Introduce the book or story to student and review
potentially new and difficult words.
3. Read the story to the student.
4. Have two students paired together taking turns reading
the book or story.
5. Have students review difficult words.
6. Use a fluency measure to monitor the progress of each
student frequently.
This method uses neurological impress method
through repeated readings.
Reading Method
Students are paired with one low achieving reader and
one high achieving reader and the reading material
should be at the lower level.
Peer-assisted reading is especially for English Language
Learners, students from low socioeconomic backgrounds,
learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and mental
Keyword Method
This method relies on memorization based on visual
1. Recoding: changing the vocabulary word into a
keyword that goes with a visual image (ex. ape for
2. Relating: integrating the keyword with the definition (ex.
ape sitting at the highest point [apex] of a rock)
3. Retrieving: recalling the definition by thinking of the
keyword and the picture.
Reciprocal Teaching
This method is an interactive teaching strategy that
promotes text comprehension:
1. Predicting: drawing inferences from clues in the text or
prior knowledge.
2. Question generating: main idea questions about the
text to learn to identify information.
3. Summarizing: different ways to explore the text (ie.
creating topic sentences, list content, and discard
unimpportant or repeated information.
4. Clarifying: considering why a text was difficult and
teaching rereading as a strategy.
Mapping Strategies
This is a schema-building technique using a
pictorial storyboard map for a graphic organized.
Students fill in the map as they read, including
things like: setting, problem, goal, action, and
High Interest-Low
Vocabulary Method
These readers offer older students more engaging
stories while keeping a relatively easy vocabulary.
These include mysteries, sports, adventure,
science and classic literature and are published by
a variety of distributers.
Life Skills Reading
Life skills reading focuses on words and phrases that
students must know to function while shopping,
employed, enjoying recreation and at home.
Examples: danger, men, woman, restroom, up, down,
exit, telephone, poison, police, first aid, stop, walk, do
not enter etc.
Drill and Practice Activities
• Pre-reading Activities:
o Concepts about Print
o Phonological Awareness
• Word-Attack Activities
• Fluency Activities
• Vocabulary Activities
• Comprehension Activities
Computer Software Programs for
• Let's Go Read
Incorporates phonics and whole language (PreK-First Grade)
• My Reading Coach
Phonemic awareness, phonics sounds/rules, vocabulary, syntactic
processing, reading comprehension (6yrs and up)
• Reading Blaster
(4-6, 5-7, 6-8, 9-12 yrs)
• Working Phonics
84 phonics activities, 900 basic reading words, 400 sight words (K-8th
Designing a Reading Program
• Use effective teaching principles
• Provide pre-reading experiences
• Consider the nature of reading
• Provide explicit and implicit reading
Let's play fun games! WOOOO!

Teaching Reading - University of Minnesota Duluth