Paraprofessional Literacy
Module
1
Why do students need to
learn how to read?
2
The Friembly Bog
One ubom a tmie there was a friembl dobl. His name was jake. Jake
belombeb to bavig and bhte. Davib and Beth aar tins. They ae nime
yearas dol.
On e tome jak went down to the cellar. H was a ducket of soab. The
tins wer doing to wash the car. He liked some soap buddles out fo
the ducket. When he darked, dig dubbles ca me out of hi s muth!
Last sum mre Jak founb a frenb. His frien sqw a tac named freb.
They blayde all bay. They nar aroumb and aruombb tye yarb. Jake
chased the tac ub te tre. Freb climbed up easily. Jake tribe t and
tribe dut ehe slib back bown!
3
Task Force
Cindy O’Riley, Coordinator Arkansas Personnel Development, ADE, SEU
Ann Addison, Paraprofessional, Sheridan School District
Donna Alliston, Professional Development Coordinator,AR Dept. of Health and Human
Services,Division of Child Care and Early Childhood Education
Mary Calloway, School Improvement Supervisor, ADE
Melanie Crider, Paraprofessional, Clinton School District
Karen Massey, Early Childhood Coordinator, SWAEC/EC
Lisa Oden, Instructor, SAU-Tech
Rhonda Saunders, SEA, Early Childhood, ADE, SEU
Debbie White, Teacher, Cabot School District
Diane Stockman, Teacher, Cabot School District
Dale Ball, Special Education Supervisor, Newport School District
Joyce Sullivan, Special Education Supervisor, Beebe School District
Chenell Loudermill, Speech/Language Pathologist, Little Rock School District
Jana Breyer, Paraprofessional, Sheridan School District
Lisa Haley, Coordinator, SIG Literacy
Rose Mary Burks, Consultant,SIG Literacy
Susan Friberg, Consultant, SIG Literacy
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PRE-TEST
CIRCLE PRE-TEST
PRINT NAME
COMPLETE TEST
SCORE TEST
WRITE SCORE AT THE TOP
(facilitator)
5
Goals of Literacy Module
Gain an awareness and understanding of Arkansas
initiatives and the frameworks.
Understand the role of the five essential elements
of literacy.
Understand how to apply systematic and direct
practice to assist students in acquiring literacy
skills.
Apply instructional techniques and content that
will reinforce effective reading instruction.
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Research Findings In Literacy
Five Essential Elements of Reading
Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Fluency
Comprehension
Vocabulary
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English Language Arts
Frameworks
Standards
Oral and Visual Communications
Writing
Reading
Inquiring/Researching
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Arkansas Literacy Initiative
Pre K Ella
Ella
Elf
Smart Start
Smart Step
Literacy Lab
Next Step
3 and 4 year olds
K-1
2-4
K-4
5-8 content strategies
5-8 English Language Arts
9-12 content strategies
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Pre K Ella
Professional development for early childhood
educators
Provides a literacy foundation for young
children
Standards based as related to the Arkansas
Early Childhood Education Frameworks
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ELLA K-1
Effective Literacy 2-4
The Reading Process
Comprehension
Phonemic Awareness
Reading Fluency
Word Study
(Spelling/Phonics
Development)
Writing Development
Vocabulary
Flexible Grouping
Assessment
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Smart Start
A comprehensive plan for student achievement,
that includes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Standards – the frameworks
Professional Development
Student Assessment
Accountability
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Literacy Lab
Strategic Reading with Comprehension
Instruction
Writing Instruction
Vocabulary Instruction
Word Study
Assessment
Grades 5-8
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Smart Step/Next Step
Constructive Meaning
Building Comprehension
Interactive Learning
Analyzing to Understand
Writing to Learn
Grades 5-12
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Five Essential Elements of
Reading
1. Phonemic Awareness
2. Phonics
3. Fluency
4. Vocabulary
5. Comprehension
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Phonological
Awareness
Rhymes
Sentences
Words
Syllables
Onset Phonemes
Rimes “Phonemic
Awareness”
Components of Phonological
Awareness
Rhyming
Identify and producing words that sound the same.
Simple oral activities:
Do these words rhyme?
Tell me a word that rhymes with _
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Components of Phonological Awareness
continued
Segmentation
Breaking whole words into individual sounds or
word parts.
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Components of Phonological Awareness
continued
Onset and Rime
Onsets and rimes are parts of spoken language that
are smaller than syllables but larger than phonemes.
Onset – initial consonant sound of a syllable
Rime – vowel and all that follows
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Components of Phonological Awareness
continued
Isolation/Grapheme Identification
Identification of one phoneme by position in a word,
the knowledge of sound symbol correspondence.
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Components of Phonological Awareness
continued
Deletion
Manipulation of root words, syllables, and
phonemes in a word.
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Components of Phonological Awareness
continued
Substitution
To isolate a phoneme in a word, then
change it to another phoneme forming a
new word
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Components of Phonological Awareness
continued
Blending
Combining individual phonemes to form
words.
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Components of Phonological Awareness
continued
Decoding
Generalizing knowledge of sound/symbol
correspondences and blending sounds into
unknown words.
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Phonemic Awareness
The ability to notice,
think about, and work
with the individual
sounds (phonemes) in
spoken words.
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The Speech Sounds of English
Handout 1 - Vowel Chart
Video
Moats 2003
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BREAK
10 Minute Break
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Activity 1
Spin the Web
Reinforcement of Phonemic Awareness
Handout 2 – word cards
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Phonics
Phonics is the understanding that there is a
predictable relationship between phonemes,
(sounds of spoken language) and graphemes,
(the letters and spellings that represent those
sounds in written language).
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Phonics Instruction
Teaches students to connect letters or written
language with the individual sounds they make
when spoken.
Teaches students how to use letter-sound
relationships to read or write words.
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Activity 2
Word Wheel
Reinforcement of Phonics
Handout 3 and 3a
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Fluency
The ability to read a sentence,
paragraph, or any text accurately and
quickly.
Reading with speed, accuracy, and
proper expression; not hurried reading.
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Factors Related to Sustaining Fluency
and Phrasing
Recognizing and solving words in a quick,
automatic way.
Recognizing phrase units.
Being aware of and using punctuation.
Activating and using background knowledge.
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Factors Related to Sustaining Fluency
and Phrasing
(continued)
Understanding and using the organizational structure
of the text.
Using meaning and language structure to monitor
reading (making sure reading makes sense and
sounds right).
Predicting at the word, phrase, and text level.
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Fluency Instruction
Methods to practice fluency:
Adult-Student share reading
Choral/Echo Reading
Taped Reading
Paired Reading
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Activity 3
The Great Depression
Reinforcement of Fluency
Handout 4 and 4a
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Sight Words
Words that are read fluently and
automatically at first sight.
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Vocabulary
Understanding what words mean by
themselves and in sentences.
Understanding word meanings to read
with fluency and comprehension.
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Vocabulary Instruction
The act of teaching vocabulary prior to
introducing a passage or text to students.
1. Pre-read selected reading material
2. Consider vocabulary that needs to be
introduced to students
3. Teach vocabulary before student reads text
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Activity 4
Idioms
Reinforcement for Vocabulary
Handout 5 and 5a
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Comprehension
The Reason for Reading
Understanding what sentences, paragraphs, and
stories are trying to tell us.
Making sense of what we hear and read.
Understanding what has been read.
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Strategies in Development of
Comprehension
Prediction – asking students to tell what
they think will happen.
Apply background knowledge – asking
students to tell what they know about a
topic.
Retell – asking students to retell in his/her own
words what they have just read.
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Comprehension Instruction
Active Thinking
Students think about what the words mean
and picture them in their minds.
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Activity 5
Reinforcement for
Comprehension
Handout 6
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What Struggling Readers Need
Targeted Intervention
Explicit instruction
Systematic instruction (in order)
More time on task
More practice
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Assessment System
Screening
Diagnostic Assessments
DIBELS
Benchmarks
DRA
IOWA
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DIBELS
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy
Skills
DIBELS Measures
Phonemic Segmentation Fluency
Letter Naming Fluency
Nonsense Word Fluency
Word Use Fluency
Oral Reading Fluency
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DRA
Developmental Reading Assessment
Used in K-3 Classrooms
Literature Based Instructional Reading
Program
A set of 20 stories that increase in difficulty
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Diagnostic Assessments
Benchmark Assessment – Arkansas
criterion-referenced test of literacy and
math that is aligned to frameworks.
Iowa Test of Basic Skills – Norm – referenced
Test of reading comprehension and math
problem solving.
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Connections
“Good readers rely on background knowledge
to help them make sense of text. Ignoring
existing prior knowledge puts readers at a
great disadvantage. It is vital that students
make connections when they read. It’s up
to teachers to show them how.”
- Chris
Tovani from
I Read It, But I Don’t Get It
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Post-Test
CIRCLE POST-TEST
PRINT NAME
COMPLETE TEST
SCORE TEST
WRITE SCORE AT THE TOP
(facilitator)
51
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Paraprofessional Literacy Module