On the Road to Reading
with the
Common Core State Standards
Fluency
Comprehension
Fluency
Phonics
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Common Core State Standards for Fluency
3rd and 4th Grades
• Move to reading aloud with sufficient accuracy and fluency to
support comprehension.
– Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
– Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and
expression on successive readings.
– Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding,
rereading as necessary.
• Continue reading with sufficient accuracy and fluency to
support comprehension.
– Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
– Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and
expression on successive readings.
– Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding,
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Fluency’s Four Corners
Accuracy
Prosody
What’s happening in your school?
Rate
Comprehension
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Fluency
According to A Dictionary of Reading and Related
Terms, fluency is . . .
“the ability to read smoothly, easily
and readily with freedom from word
recognition problems.”
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Fluent Readers
A fluent reader can:
•
read at a rapid rate
•
automatically recognize words
•
phrase correctly
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Automaticity
Automaticity refers to the ability to
recognize many words as whole
units quickly and accurately.
It is knowing how to do something
so well you don’t have to think
about it.
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Three Signs of Automaticity
A child is reading fluently if he can:
•
read with expression
•
read aloud and then retell the story or content of the
selection
•
comprehend equally well a similar passage read if
listened to
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High Frequency Words
•
There are approximately 600,000+ words in the English
language.
•
13 words account for over 25% of the words in print
•
100 words account for approximately 50% of the
words in print
•
250 words make up 70-75% of all the words children
use in writing
•
Of those 250 words, about 20% are function words
such as a, the, and and
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Can HFWs be taught?
•
Research shows that readers store “irregular” words
in the lexical memory in the same way they store socalled “regular” words. (Gough and Walsh, 1991)
•
Children do not learn “irregular” words as easily or
quickly as “regular” ones.
•
Therefore, children need to be taught “irregular,”
high-frequency words with explicit instruction.
Standard RF.3.3d
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“Irregular” Word Teaching Sequence
•
Teacher Demonstration
•
Your Turn to Try
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Measuring Oral Reading Rate
One minute, “cold read”
100 word passage
Errors =
Mispronunciations (bell for ball)
Substitutions (dog for cat)
Omissions
3 second rule
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Scoring the Oral Reading Rate
To calculate a student’s oral reading rate, do the following:
Correct # of words read
divided by
Total # of words read
equals
Accuracy Rate
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Determining Reading Levels
96% - 100%
Independent Level
90% - 95%
Instructional Level
- 89%
Frustration Level
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Fluency Rubrics
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Fluency Strategies and Activities
Lessons for Rate
• Repeated Readings
Lessons for Prosody
• Phrased Reading
• Connected Text
• Reader’s Theatre
• Guess My Emotion
• Choral Reading Using
Poetry and Prose
Lessons for Accuracy
• Read Speed
• Reader’s Theatre
• Give Me Five
• Quick Sort
Standard RF.3,4,5.4b
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• Reader’s Theatre
Dr. Richard Allington once wrote . . .
“Fluency . . . the neglected
goal of reading instruction.”
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