Time Line
Middle Ages (450-1450)
Rome sacked by Vandals
455
Beowolf
c. 700
First Crusade
1066
Black Death
1347-52
Joan of Arc executed by English
1431
Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
The Middle Ages
Period of wars and mass migration
Strong class distinctions
– Nobility: castles, knights in armor, feasting
– Peasantry: lived in huts; serfs—part of land
– Clergy: ruled everyone; only monks literate
Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
The Middle Ages
Architecture
– Early: Romanesque
– Late: Gothic
Visual Arts
– Stressed iconic/symbolic, not realism
Late Middle Ages saw technological progress
Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
Chapter 1:
Music in the Middle Ages
Church dominates musical activity
– Most musicians were priests
– Women did not sing in mixed church settings
Music primarily vocal and sacred
– Instruments not used in church
Chapter 1
Gregorian Chant
Was official music of Roman Catholic Church
– No longer common since Second Vatican Council
Monophonic melody set to Latin text
Flexible rhythm without meter and beat
Named for Pope Gregory I (r. 590-604)
Originally no music notation system
– Notation developed over several centuries
The Church Modes
“Otherworldly” sound—basis of Gregorian Chant
Different ½ and whole steps than modern scales
Middle Ages and Renaissance used these scales
– Some Western Music uses these scale patterns
- What Do You Do With a Drunken Sailor?—Dorian mode
- When Johnny Comes Marching Home—Aeolian mode
Chapter 1
Listening
Alleluia: Vidimus stellam
(We Have Seen His Star)
Listening Outline: p. 68
Brief set, CD 1:47
Listen for: Gregorian Chant (Latin language)
Many notes per syllable of text
Monophonic texture
Ternary form—A B A
Chapter 1
Chapter 1: Music in Nonwestern Cultures
Characteristics of Nonwestern Music
It reflects its supporting culture
– Frequently linked with religion, dance and drama
– Often used to communicate messages and relate
traditions
Chapter 1
Oral Tradition
Frequently transmitted by oral tradition
– Music notation far less important than in western
culture
- Many cultures do not have a music notation
- When they do, it serves as a record, not for teaching or
performance
Chapter 1
Improvisation
Improvisation is frequently basic to the music
– Improvisation usually based on traditional melodic
phrases and rhythmic patterns
Chapter 1
Voices
Singing usually main way of making music
Vocal approach, timbre, and techniques vary
throughout the world
– Nasal sound
– Strained tone
– Throat singing
– Many others
Chapter 1
Music in Society
Music permeates African life from religion,
entertainment, and magic to rites of passage
It is so interwoven into life that the abstract word
“music” is not used by many peoples
Chapter 2
Closely associated with dancing in ceremonies,
rituals, and celebrations
– Dancers frequently play and sing while dancing
Music is a social activity—everyone joins in
No musical notation—passed by oral tradition
Chapter 2
Elements of African Music
Rhythm and Percussion
Complex rhythms and polyrhythms predominate
Dancers choose to follow any of the various rhythms
The body used as an instrument
– Clapping, stamping, slapping thigh/chest
Chapter 2
Vocal Music
Wide variety of sounds, even within a single piece
– Call and response extremely common
Percussion ostinato frequently accompanies singers
Short musical phrases repeated to different words
Chapter 2
Texture
Often homophonic or polyphonic
– This is unlike most nonwestern musics
Same melody often sung at many pitch levels
Chapter 2
Listening
Ompeh
Song from central Ghana
Claude Debussy
Listening Outline: p. 411
Brief Set, CD 4:66
Music of the Akan-speaking peoples in Ghana.
Listen for: Call and response
Solo vocalist and chorus
Percussion ensemble
Chapter 2
Time Line
Renaissance (1450-1600)
Guttenberg Bible
1456
Columbus reaches America
1492
Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisa
c. 1503
Michelangelo: David
1504
Raphael: School of Athens
1505
Martin Luther’s 95 Theses
1517
Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet
1596
Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
The Renaissance
Rebirth of human learning and creativity
Time of great explorers
Humanism
Fascination with ancient Greece and Rome
Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
The Renaissance
Visual art becomes more realistic
– Mythology is favorite subject
– Nude body, as in ancient times, is shown
Weakening of the Catholic Church
Education and literacy now status
symbol
– Result of invention of printing press
David by Michelangelo
Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
Chapter 2:
Music in the Renaissance
Church choirs grew in size (all male)
Rise of the individual patron
– Musical center shifted from church to courts
– Court composers wrote secular and sacred music
– Women did not sing in mixed church settings
Chapter 2
Musicians: higher status and pay than before
– Composers became known for their work
Many composers were Franco-Flemish
– Worked throughout Europe, especially in Italy
Italy became music capital in 16th century
– Other important centers: Germany, England, Spain
Chapter 2
Characteristics of Renaissance Music
Words and Music
Vocal music more important than instrumental
Word painting/text painting
Chapter 2
Texture
Polyphonic
Primarily vocal - a cappella
– Instruments, if present, doubled the vocal parts
Rhythm and Melody
Rhythm “flows” and overlaps
– Composers less concerned with metrical accents
Smooth, stepwise melodies predominate
– Melodies overlap rhythmically between voices
Chapter 2
Secular Music in the Renaissance
Madrigal
– Intended for amateur performers (after dinner music)
– Extensive use of text painting
– Printed in part-book or
opposing-sheet format
– Originated in Italy
- English madrigal
lighter and simpler
Chapter 2
Listening
As Vesta was Descending (1601)
by Thomas Weelkes
Vocal Music Guide: p. 87
Brief Set, CD 1:62
Follow text (English) throughout song
Note text painting:
Pitches rise on “ascending”
Pitches fall on “descending”
“Running down”
“Two by two,” “three by three,” “all alone”
Chapter 2
Time Line
Shakespeare: Hamlet
1600
Cervantes: Don Quixote
1605
Jamestown founded
1607
Galileo: Earth orbits Sun
1610
King James Bible
1611
Newton: Principia Mathematica
1687
Witchcraft trials in Salem, Mass.
1692
Defoe: Robinson Crusoe
1719
Swift: Gulliver’s Travels
1726
PART III—THE BAROQUE PERIOD
The Baroque Style
Time of flamboyant lifestyle
Baroque style “fills the space”
Visual Art
– Implies motion
- Note pictures p. 93
– Busy
- Note pictures p. 94
PART III—THE BAROQUE PERIOD
The Baroque Style
Architecture
– Elaborate
- Note picture p. 95
Change in approach to science
– Experiment-based, not just observation
– Inventions and improvements result
PART III—THE BAROQUE PERIOD
Chapter 1: Baroque Music
Period begins with rise of opera
– Opera: a play with speaking parts sung
Period ends with death of J. S. Bach
The two giants: Bach and Handel
Other important composers:
– Claudio Monteverdi
– Arcangelo Corelli
– Henry Purcell
– Antonio Vivaldi
Chapter 1
Period divided into 3 phases:
– Early: 1600-1640
- Rise of opera
- Text with extreme emotion
- Homophonic to project words
Chapter 1
Period divided into 3 phases:
– Early: 1600-1640
– Middle: 1640-1680
- New musical style spreads from Italy throughout Europe
- Use of the church modes gives way to major and minor scales
- Rise of importance of instrumental music
Chapter 1
Period divided into 3 phases:
– Early: 1600-1640
– Middle: 1640-1680
– Late: 1680-1750
- Instrumental music becomes as important as vocal music
- Elaborate polyphony dominates
- Most baroque music we hear comes from the Late Baroque
Chapter 1
Chapter 2:
Music in Baroque Society
Music written to order
– New music, not old-fashioned, was desired
Courts:
– Music and musical resources indicated affluence
Court Music Director
– Good prestige, pay, and other benefits
- Still considered a skilled servant
Chapter 2
Some aristocrats were musicians
Church music was very elaborate
– Most people heard music only in church
Some, though few, public opera houses
Music careers taught by apprenticeship
– Orphanages taught music as a trade
Chapter 2
Characteristics of Baroque Music
Unity of Mood
– Expresses one mood per piece
Rhythm
– Rhythmic patterns are repeated throughout
Melody
– Opening melody heard again and again
Dynamics
– Volumes constant with abrupt changes
Texture
– Late baroque mostly polyphonic
– Extensive use of imitation
Chapter 1
Chords and the Basso Continuo
– Emphasis on way chords follow each other
- Bass part considered foundation of the harmony
– Basso Continuo: bass part with numbers to represent
chord tones
- Similar to modern jazz and pop “fake book” notation
Words and Music
– Text painting/word painting continues
– Words frequently emphasized by extension through
many rapid notes
Chapter 1
Chapter 5: The Elements of Opera
Drama sung to orchestral accompaniment
Text in opera is called libretto
– Music is written by a composer
– Libretto is written by a librettist
Opera can be serious, comic, or both
Chapter 5
Two primary types of solo songs:
– Recitative: presents plot material
– Aria: expresses emotion—usually a “show-off”
vehicle for the singer
Other types of songs in opera:
– Duet
– Quartet
– Trio
– Quintet, etc.
- Allows for conversation between characters
- Three or more singers make up an ensemble
Chapter 5
Chorus: groups of actors playing crowd parts
The prompter and the prompter’s box
The orchestra pit
Preludes: Instrumentals that open opera acts
Modern questions concerning text in opera
– Translation of text and effects upon text painting
– Supertitles—projection of text above the stage
Chapter 5
Chapter 7: Claudio Monteverdi
Italian, early baroque composer
Wrote first great operatic work, Orfeo
Worked last 30 years at St. Mark’s in Venice
– Composed both sacred music and secular music for
the aristocracy
Only three of his twelve operas still exist
Chapter 7
Listening
Tu Se’ Morta from Orfeo (Orpheus, 1607)
Claudio Monteverdi
Vocal Music Guide p. 119
Brief Set, CD 1:71
Listen for: Homophonic texture
Rhythmically free vocal line
Use of text painting
Chapter 7
Time Line
Freud: Interpretation of Dreams
1900
Einstein: special theory of relativity
1905
First World War
1914-1918
Russian Revolution begins
1917
Great Depression begins
1929
Hitler appointed chancellor of Germany 1933
Second World War
1939-1945
Atomic bomb destroys Hiroshima
1945
PART VI—THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AND BEYOND
Time Line
Korean War
1950-1953
Crick & Watson: structure of DNA
Vietnam War
1953
1955-1975
President Kennedy assassinated
1963
American astronauts land on moon
1969
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
1991
Mandela elected president of South Africa
1994
Terrorist attacks in U.S.
2001
War in Iraq began
2003
PART VI—THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AND BEYOND
Characteristics of Twentieth-Century Music
Tone Color
Unusual playing techniques were called for
– Glissando, flutter tongue, col legno, extended notes
Percussion use was greatly expanded
– New instruments were added/created
- Xylophone, celesta, woodblock, …
- Other “instruments:” typewriter, automobile brake drum, siren
Chapter 1
Music not written for choirs of instruments
– Composers wrote for timbres, or “groups of soloists”
- Unusual groupings of instruments for small ensembles
- Orchestra scoring also reflects this trend
Chapter 1
Harmony
Consonance and Dissonance
Harmony and treatment of chords changed
– Before 1900: consonant and dissonant
- Opposite sides of the coin
– After 1900: degrees of dissonance
Chapter 1
Rhythm
Rhythmic vocabulary expanded
– Emphasis upon irregularity and unpredictability
- Shifting meters
- Irregular meters
– Polyrhythm
Chapter 1
Melody
Melody no longer bound by harmony’s notes
Major and minor keys no longer dominate
Melody may be based upon a variety of scales, or
even all twelve tones
– Frequent wide leaps
– Rhythmically irregular
– Unbalanced phrases
Chapter 1
Chapter 18: Jazz
Developed in the United States
– Began around 1900 in New Orleans
– Originally music for bars and brothels
– Early practitioners primarily African-American
Main characteristics
–
–
–
–
Improvisation
Syncopated rhythm
Steady beat
Call and response
Originally performance music; not notated
Tremendous impact on pop and art music
Chapter 18
Jazz in Society
Geographical center has moved around
Originally music for dancing
– Listening forms later developed
– No longer associated with unfashionable lifestyle
- Colleges now offer bachelor and graduate degrees in jazz
Chapter 18
Roots of Jazz
Blend of elements of several cultures
– West African emphasis on improvisation, percussion,
and call and response techniques
– American brass band influence on instrumentation
– European harmonic and structural practice
Ragtime and blues were immediate sources
Chapter 18
Blues
Vocal and instrumental form
Twelve-measure (bar) musical structure
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
I
IV
I
V
I
Three-part vocal structure: a a’ b
– Statement—repeat of statement—counterstatement
Chapter 18
Listening
Lost Your Head Blues (1926)
Performed by Bessie Smith
(Smith known as “Empress of the Blues”)
Vocal Music Guide: p. 375
Brief Set, CD 4:57
Listen for:
Performance Profile:
Bessie Smith, vocalist
Listen for performer’s
interpretation that
includes clear diction,
powerful round sound,
and “bent” notes
Strophic form
Twelve-bar blues form
Three-part (a a’ b) vocal structure
Trumpet answers vocalist (call and response)
Chapter 18
Chapter 20: Rock
Developed in mid-1950s
– First called rock and roll, later shortened to rock
Common features:
– Vocal
– Hard-driving beat
– Featured electric guitar
- Made use of heavily amplified sound
Grew mainly from rhythm and blues
– Also drew influences from country and western
Incorporated new technologies as they came
available
Chapter 20
Development of Rock
Early performers included:
– Chuck Berry
– Little Richard
– The Platters
– Bill Haley and His Comets
- Rock Around the Clock
– Elvis Presley (King of Rock and Roll)
Chapter 20
1960s:
Rock by black performers called soul
– James Brown, Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin
Motown blended R&B with mainstream music
– Diana Ross & the Supremes, Stevie Wonder, …
1964: US tour by the Beatles, an English group
– More English groups followed: The British Invasion
- Rolling Stones, The Who, …
– Beatles most influential group in rock history
Chapter 20
Elements of Rock
Tone Color
Guitar-based, small core performance group
– Two guitars, bass guitar, drum set, keyboards
– Usually a singer/instrumentalist
– Occasionally other instruments (horns, strings, etc.)
Frequent vocal effects (shout, scream, falsetto)
Chapter 20
Rhythm
Almost always in 4/4 meter
– Simple subdivision of beats
- 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &, 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &, …
– Late-70s & 80s: more rhythmically complex
- Result of polyrhythmic influences of African music
Chapter 20
Form, Melody, and Harmony
Two commonly utilized forms:
– Twelve-bar blues form
– Thirty-two-bar A A B A form
Short, repeated melodic patterns
Usually built on modes, not major/minor
Harmonically simple
– Usually three or four (or fewer) chords
– Often uses chord progressions that were rare in
earlier popular music
Chapter 20
Listening
Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds (1967)
from Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band
The Beatles
Sgt. Pepper was rock setting of unified song cycle (13 songs).
Wide range of instruments, influences, and styles.
Listening Guide: p. 400
Lucy in the Sky, third song in cycle, has three sections: A & B
are gentle in triple meter, while C strongly contrasts and is in
quadruple meter.
Chapter 20
Time Line
Monroe Doctrine
1823
Hugo: Hunchback of Notre Dame
1831
Dickens: Oliver Twist
1837
Dumas: The Three Musketeers
1844
Poe: The Raven
1845
Darwin: Origin of Species
1859
American Civil War
1861-1865
Twain: Huckleberry Finn
1884
Bell invents telephone
1876
PART V—THE ROMANTIC PERIOD
Romanticism (1820-1900)
Stressed emotion, imagination, and individualism
Emotional subjectivity basis of arts
Favorite artistic topics:
– Fantasy and the supernatural
– Middle Ages/concept of chivalry and romance
- Architecture revived Gothic elements
– Nature as mirror of the human heart
Period of the Industrial Revolution
– Resulted in social and economic changes
PART V—THE ROMANTIC PERIOD
Chapter 1: Romanticism in Music
Many important Romantic composers
Franz Schubert
Bedrich Smetana
Robert Schumann
Antonin Dvořák
Clara Schumann
Peter Tchaikovsky
Frederic Chopin
Johannes Brahms
Franz Liszt
Giuseppe Verdi
Felix Mendelssohn
Giacomo Puccini
Hector Berlioz
Richard Wagner
Chapter 1
Continued use of classical period forms
– Much individual alteration and adjustment
Greater range of tone color, dynamics, and pitch
than in classical period
Expanded harmony—complex chords
Chapter 1
Characteristics of Romantic Music
Individuality of Style
Composers wanted uniquely identifiable music
– Worked to find their own voice
In romantic music, it is far easier to identify
individual composers through listening
Chapter 1
Expressive Aims and Subjects
All approaches were explored:
– Flamboyance, intimacy, unpredictability, melancholy,
rapture, longing, …
Romantic love still the focus of songs and operas
– Lovers frequently depicted as unhappy and facing
overwhelming obstacles
Dark topics draw composers
Chapter 1
Colorful Harmony
Chords built with notes not in traditional keys
– Chromatic harmony
Harmonic instability a consciously used device
– Wide use of keys
– Frequent and rapid modulation
Chapter 1
Expanded Range of Dynamics,
Pitch, and Tempo
Dynamics ff, pp expanded to ffff and pppp
Extremely high and low pitches were added
Changes in mood frequently underlined by
(sometimes subtle) shifts in tempo
– Rubato: slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo
Chapter 1
Forms: Miniature and Monumental
Some composers went on for hours
– Required hundreds of performers
Others’ music lasted only a few minutes
– Written for a single instrument
Composers wrote symphonies, sonatas, string
quartets, concertos, operas, and many other
classically traditional works
Chapter 1
Chapter 2: Romantic Composers
and Their Public
Demise of the patronage system
– Composers regarded themselves as “free spirits”
– Decline in aristocratic fortune—Napoleonic wars
New urban classes and new musical topics
Music conservatories founded in Europe and U.S.
Public was entranced by virtuosity
Chapter 2
Private music-making increased
– Piano became fixture in most homes
Composers and audience came from the same
social class
Few composers were financially successful
– Most supported
themselves through
performing, teaching
lessons, and/or
authoring
Chapter 2
Chapter 3: The Art Song
Composition for solo voice and piano
– Accompaniment integral part of the song
Linked to vast amount of poetry in this period
– Composers interpret poem’s, mood, atmosphere and
imagery into music
- Mood often set at beginning with piano introduction and
summed up at end with piano postlude
Chapter 3
Strophic and Through-Composed Form
Strophic form repeats music for each verse
Through-composed—new music for each verse
Sometimes modified strophic form used
The Song Cycle
Group of songs unified in some manner
– Storyline or musical idea may link the songs
Chapter 3
Chapter 4: Franz Schubert
Born in Vienna (1797-1828)
Early Romantic composer
Prodigious output
– When eh was 18 years old, he wrote 143 songs
– At 19 years of age, he wrote 179 works
- Included two symphonies, an opera, and a mass
Not financially successful
– His symphonies were not performed until after his death
Chapter 4
Schubert’s Music
Wrote over 600 songs
– Also symphonies, string quartets, other chamber music,
sonatas, masses, operas, and piano works
- The Unfinished Symphony: only two movements, not four
Chapter 4
Listening
Erlkonig (The Erlking; 1815)
Franz Schubert
Vocal Music Guide: p. 223
Brief Set, CD 3:12
Based upon narrative ballad with supernatural topic by Goethe
Listen for:
Through-composed form
Piano portrays galloping horse
Different characters have their notes pitched at
different levels to emphasize dialog
Dramatic ending
Chapter 4
Chapter 11: Johann Sebastian Bach
German, late baroque composer
Organist and violinist
– Deeply religious (Lutheran)
– Worked in sacred and secular positions
- Weimar, Cothen, Leipzig
Large family
Chapter 11
Known during lifetime as keyboardist, not composer
– Master of improvisation
Almost unknown outside Germany
Baroque style going out of fashion during his lifetime
– Bach’s music fell from use following his death
Chapter 11
Bach’s Music
Wrote in every form except opera
– Compositions recognized for technical mastery
- Highpoint of polyphony combined with harmony
- All music majors study Bach’s compositions
His extensive instrumental works indicate the new
importance of instrumental music
Wrote music exploring musical concepts
– Art of the Fugue demonstrates potential of this form
– Six suites for solo cello demonstrates cello techniques
– Well-Tempered Clavier explores new method of tuning
Chapter 11
Chapter 13: The Chorale and
Church Cantata
Lutheran church service was social event of the
week
– Lasted four hours with one-hour sermon
– Music was major part of worship service
– Congregation participated in singing chorales
Chapter 13
Chorale: hymn tune with German text
Cantata
– Multi-movement church work for chorus, soloists,
and orchestra
– Vernacular religious text
– Resembled opera in its use of choruses, recitatives,
arias, and duets
Chapter 13
Listening
Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme
(Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731)
Johann Sebastian Bach
Based upon a chorale tune that was then over 130 years old
Listening Guide: p. 135
Brief Set, CD 2:45
Listen for: Vernacular (German) text
A A B form
Chapter 13
Listening
Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme
(Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731)
Johann Sebastian Bach
First movement: Chorus and Orchestra
Listening Guides: pp. 136-138
Basic Set, CD 2:39
Listen for: Vernacular (German) text
Chorale tune basis
Polyphonic
Ritornello form
Chapter 13
Listening
Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme
(Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731)
Johann Sebastian Bach
Fourth movement: Tenor Chorale
Vocal Music Guide: p. 139
Basic Set, CD 2:39 (Brief Set, CD 2:12)
Listen for: Scored for tenors, violins/violas in unison,
and basso continuo
Chorale tune basis
Ritornello form
Chapter 13
Listening
Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme
(Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731)
Johann Sebastian Bach
Seventh movement: Chorale
Vocal Music Guide: p. 140
Basic Set, CD 2:45 (Brief Set, CD 2:15)
Listen for: Chorale tune basis
Homophonic, instruments double voices
Simple/tuneful—congregation could join in
Chapter 13
Chapter 14: The Oratorio
Like opera:
– Large-scale work for chorus, soloists, and orchestra
– Contains arias, recitatives, ensembles
Unlike opera:
– No acting, scenery, or costumes
– Based upon biblical stories
Not intended for religious services
– Commonly performed today in both churches and
concert halls
Chapter 14
Chapter 15: George Frederic Handel
Born in Germany—same year as Bach
– Not from musical family
- Father wanted him to be a lawyer
Studied music in Germany, then to Italy to study
opera, finally England to work
– Became England’s most important composer
– Wrote many operas in London
– Had own opera company
- Worked as composer, performer, and impresario
– Buried in Westminster Abbey
Chapter 15
Handel’s Music
Wrote in every baroque form
– Bulk of his work in oratorios and operas
- Favored Old Testament stories as topics for oratorios
His music has more changes in texture than Bach’s
Extensive use of changing moods
– Shifts between major and minor keys
– His arias showcase virtuoso singers’ abilities
Chapter 15
The Messiah (1741)
George Frederic Handel
2½ hours of music written over a period of 24 days
Premiered to wide acclaim during a trip to Ireland
Poorly received in England until a performance to
benefit an orphanage
Topic: Prophesies about Christ, his birth, and death
Text drawn from Biblical passages
Chapter 15
Listening
The Messiah (1741)
George Frederic Handel
Ev’ry Valley Shall Be Exalted
Aria for tenor, strings, and basso continuo
Vocal Music Guide: p. 144
Brief Set, CD 2:10
Listen for: Opens and closes with string ritornello
Extensive text painting
Chapter 15
Listening
The Messiah (1741)
George Frederic Handel
For unto Us a Child is Born
Chorus, strings, and basso continuo
Listening Guide: p. 147
Basic Set, CD 2:51
Listen for: Joyful musical mood
Subdued dynamics until forte outburst
Extensive text painting
Chapter 15
Listening
The Messiah (1741)
George Frederic Handel
Hallelujah Chorus
Vocal Music Guide: pp. 146-147
Brief Set, CD 2:11
Listen for: Mixture of monophonic, polyphonic,
homophonic textures
Words and phrases repeat over and over
Chapter 15
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Music: An Appreciation by Roger Kamien