Music in the early ages
Johnny Luong
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Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance (a cultural
movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century)
Madrigals were secular (not religious) songs, usually love songs, that were sung in
multiple parts without any instrumental accompaniment
Instrumental music was specifically written for instruments only
Much of the instrumental music of the time was written in a polyphonic form
Multiple instruments would be played in a song (one plays, then the other follows
throughout the songs, then more come in as the song progresses)
Dance music was very popular for instrumentalists
The development of Church introduced secular songs
European music differed from other cultures because they had more technology to
create instruments that played well
There were two forms of church music. These two forms were the 'mass' and the
'motet'
The mass is a musical setting, which is usually performed during the celebration
of the Eucharist in the Roman Catholic Church
Church music expressed human feelings, emotions, and moods
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Drums
Moving both feet and body
Fast beats
Wild dancing
Instruments such as the djembe, tama, and sabar were used (drums)
Vocal music and songs are an important part of all West African cultures
Choral music is generally sung in unison or octaves in West Africa
West Africa’s musical rhythm: a steady tempo is divided into pulses-the smallest units of
rhythm-that serve as a way of orienting time
Groups of pulses are organized by beats every 3, 4, 6, 8, or 12 pulses
Actual instrumental parts and song melodies are then organized by cycles, repeating patterns
that usually last 8, 16, or 24 beats
This complexity is usually held together by a time line, which is a steady, repeating (though
usually syncopated) pattern played on a bell, sticks, or the side of a drum.
Music often accompanies religious rituals or ceremonies that mark cycles of life, such as birth,
puberty, weddings, and funerals
Young males are sometimes taken away from their families to learn their new social roles
learning special songs and instruments that they would play upon their return
Many places women coordinate pounding millet with a mortar and pestles to produce rhythmic
patterns
Musicians sometimes played for politic reasons. They would play songs of praise and stories of
the history of the ruling family
Drums were the defining element of West African music
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The Inca had a genre of historical songs, while the Aztec carved symbolic pictures onto some
instruments indicating how, when, where, and by whom they were played
Chanting/praying
Traditional tribal music
Gender played an important role in Native American music
Instruments, songs and dances are often peculiar to one or the other sex, and many musical
settings are strictly controlled by sex
The Iroquois water drum is a small cup-shaped wooden vessel, with water inside it, and a
moistened tanned hide stretched across the top opening; the wetness and tightness of the
tanned hide produce changes in pitch as the water drum is played over time
The Yaqui type of water drum is actually a half gourd, large in size, that floats in a tub of water
like a bubble on the surface; the outer round surface of the gourd is struck with a drum stick,
and the vibrations are amplified using the tub of water as a resonator.
For the Native American, song is traditionally the chief means of communicating with the
supernatural powers, and music is seldom performed for its own sake; definite results, such as
the bringing of rain, success in battle, or the curing of the sick, are expected from music
There are three classes of songs—traditional songs, handed down from generation to
generation; ceremonial and medicine songs, supposed to be received in dreams; and modern
songs, showing the influence of European culture
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During the Renaissance, printing made music more
widely available
A type of vocal music called a motet was
developing during the end of the Middle Ages and
came into real importance during the Renaissance
Madrigals were very popular during the
Renaissance period
Most instruments during the Renaissance period
were string instruments
The most popular and most played instrument
during the period was the lute
The Renaissance time period was one of the most
productive time periods because of the
advancement of music
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All three types of music both shared similar
rhythm taste and differences. The West
African and Native Americans were similar in
how the beats were played and how their
style was displayed as of Europeans displayed
more of a joyful taste in music and how calm
and unique their instruments were than the
other two cultures.
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Oral cultures, depending on the transmission of information by the spoken word
rather than through print, on the passage of traditions through storytelling and
song, music and crafts.
Baroque music is a type of European classical music approximately extending
from 1600 to 1750.
This music age began this type of music after the Renaissance and was followed
by the Classical era.
The word “baroque” came from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning “misshapen
pearl.”
Baroque music forms a major portion of the classical music canon, being widely
studied, performed, and listened to.
A few composures who performed baroque music are Johann Sebastian Bach,
George Frideric Handel, and Alessandro Scarlatti.
Music described as Baroque is a broad range of styles from a wife geographic
region, mostly in Europe, composed during a period of approximately 160 years.
The Baroque suite generally began with a French overture.
The allemande was a very popular dance that had its origins in the Renaissance
era, when it was more often called the almain.
Baroque music shares with Renaissance music a heavy use of polyphony and
counterpoint.
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The 17th century was the golden age of the organ in
Germany.
The organ of Germany was a period when English and
Italian advances in keyboard forms and techniques were
grafted onto an already vigorous German keyboard style.
Germany has been known since the eighteenth century for
music of high quality and serious purpose, as the fame of
Bach, Handel, Beethoven, and Wagner.
During the 17th century, German composers began the
process of assimilating foreign genres and techniques to
the needs of the German Lutheran liturgy, with its popular
hymns or chorales.
Germany’s magnificent instruments that inspired an
unparalleled interest in music for the King of Instruments
during the Baroque era.
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The Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between
1750 to 1820.
The term classical music is used colloquially to describe a variety of Western
musical styles from the ninth century to the present, and especially from the
sixteenth or seventeenth to the nineteenth
The classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods.
In the middle of the 18th century, Europe began to move towards a new style in
architecture, literature, and the arts, generally known as Classicism.
It moved towards a style where a melody over a subordinate harmony, a
combination called homophony, was preferred.
Nobility became the primary patrons of instrumental music, and there was a rise in
the public taste for comic opera.
The simplification of texture made such instrumental detail more important, and
also made the use of characteristic rhythms, such as attention-getting opening
fanfares, the funeral March rhythm, or the minuet genre, more important in
establishing and unifying the tone of a single movement.
Classical music has a lighter, clearer texture than Baroque music and is less
complex.
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A sweet melody for classical music made the tonal
structure of works more audible.
This new style was pushed by changes in the
economics order and in social structure.
Classical music was mainly homophonic.
Variety and contrast within a piece became more
pronounced than before.
Variety of keys, melodies, rhythms and dynamics,
along with frequent changes of mood and timbre
were more commonplace in the Classical period than
they had been in the Baroque.
Melodies tended to be shorter than those of Baroque
music, with clear-cut phrases and clearly marked
cadences.
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The main kinds of importance in music were sonata, trio, string quartet, symphony, concerto,
serenade, and divertimento.
The most important and prevalent type of serenade in music history is a work for large
instrumental ensemble in multiple movements, related to the divertimento, and mainly being
composed in the Classical period.
The most famous examples of serenade from the 18th century are by Mozart
In church music and opera, up to the end of the 18th century, the castrato voice is widely
considered the most thrilling sound in music, bringing fortunes to the singers themselves.
Opera was the ruling 17th century form, and French composers wrote operas of a uniquely
French type.
French composers combined elements of opera, ballet, and spoken drama in a form sometimes
called opera-ballet.
French harpsichord music of the baroque period was of high quality.
It consisted mostly of suites of dance movements and short character pieces rather than the
longer preludes and fugues, toccatas, and fantasias cultivated by the Germans.
Opera started in Italy at the end of the 16th century.
In the 18th century, Italian opera dominated most of Europe, except France.
The words of an opera are known as the libretto (meaning little book)
Opera was elevated in tone and highly stylized in form, usually consisting of secco recitative
interspersed with long da capo arias.
Farinelli was the most famous singer of the 18th century.
Italian opera set the Baroque standards.
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Serenade – a musical composition, a performance, in someone’s
honor. Serenades are typically calm, light music.
Overture - a musical form widely used in the Baroque period. It
is in three parts: the first is slow, often with over-dotted, the
second is quick and fugal, and the first part returns at the end.
Alman - is one of the most popular instrumental dance forms in
Baroque music, and a standard element of a suite. Originally, the
allemande formed the first movement of the suite, before the
courante, but, later, it was often preceded by an introductory
movement, such as a prelude.
Classicism - in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for
classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the
classicists seek to emulate.
Baroque music - describes a style of European classical music
approximately extending from 1600 to 1750. Development of
functional tonality
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Wrote madrigals, masses, chansons and motets
Musical work: Published 6 books of madrigals for 5
voices and three volumes of masses for 3 to 7 voices
along with 24 motets and 126 French chansons.
Born: Belgium 1500s, died on October 14, 1568 in
Paris
Composer of secular vocal music
Arcadelt was a singer and later a choirmaster in the
papal chapel in Rome (1539–49), and he
subsequently spent time in France and again in Italy.
He entered the service of Charles, duc de Guise, in
1555 and in 1557 was a member of the French royal
chapel.
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1510-1585
Thomas Tallis, an English composer, flourished
as a church musician, and is considered one of
the church's best early composers. Tallis served
under four English Monarchs and was treated
very well. Queen Elisabeth granted him and his
pupil, William Boyd, exclusive rights to use
England's printing press to publish music; a first
of its time. Although Tallis composed many
styles of music, the majority of it is arranged for
choir as Latin motets and English anthems.
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27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791
Was a prolific and influential composer of the
Classical era
He composed over 600 works, many
acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic,
concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral
music
Austrian composer and pianist
Many people think he was one of the best
composers of music of all time
He was born in the city of Salzburg
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Naples, 26 October 1685 – Madrid, 23 July
1757
Was an Italian composer who spent much of
his life in the service of the Portuguese and
Spanish royal families
He is classified as a Baroque composer
chronologically, although his music was
influential in the development of the Classical
style.
Today he is known almost exclusively for his
555 keyboard sonatas.
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17 December 1770 – 26 March 1827
Was a German composer and pianist. He is
considered to have been the most crucial
figure in the transitional period between the
Classical and Romantic eras in Western
classical music, and remains one of the most
famous and influential composers of all time.
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31 March 1732 – 31 May
Was an Austrian composer, one of the most
prolific and prominent composers of the
classical period.
He is often called the "Father of the
Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet"
because of his important contributions to
these genres.
He was also instrumental in the development
of the piano trio and in the evolution of
sonata form.
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1. What was the important era for European music?
Renaissance Era
Columbus Era
Middle Ages
Industrial Revolution
2. Which culture had the defining element of music in
drums?
Europeans
West Africans
Australians
Native Americans
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3. What introduced secular songs?
The Pope
The Church
Dance ceremonies
Orchestras
4. True or False: The mass is the musical setting
which is usually performed during the celebration
of some churces
True
False
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5. Out of all the cultures, which one was most
influenced by religion?
West Africans
Canadians
Native Americans
Renaissance
6. What was the most popular instrument played
during the Renaissance?
Flute
Lute
Trumpet
Saxophone
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7. Whom did the Inca come from?
Native Americans
Aztecs
Europeans
Spain
8. Which culture had the smoothest and calm
music taste?
The Church
Native Americans
Incas
Europeans
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9. True or False: For Native Americans, songs
were initially used to be played for farming and
hunting for food and at night, they sacrificed the
animals they slaughtered with the help of musical
beats playing.
True
False
10.True or False: West Africa’s musical rhythm
consists of steady tempos.
True
False
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11. Where does the word “baroque” come from?
Portuguese
England
Germany
Italian
12. Which country was known for high quality
music?
England
Italy
Germany
Spain
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13. True or False: The most famous examples of
serenade from the 18th century are by Mozart
True
False
14. What new style of art was being developed in
the 18th century?
Boroque Era
Classicism
Renaissance
Music Theory
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15. Which type of opera dominated most of
Europe?
German
Italian
English
American
16. What do the words of the opera mean?
Little book
Serenade
Dancing and performing
Melody of high class
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17. Who was the most famous singer of the 18th
century?
Mozart
Beethoven
Farinelli
18. What is an overture?
Music form in Classicism
Form in Boroque
A piano
A type of genre relating to music based on slow
melodies, fast singing, and repetitive dancing
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19. True or False: French harpsichord music
of the baroque period was of low quality
True
False
20. True or False: Mozart produced over 600
pieces of work.
True
False
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21. True or False: Franz Joseph Haydn was a
composer of the classical period.
True
False
22. True or False: Beethoven was professional
in sheet music
True
False
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23. Music notation was written in what?
Symbols
Language
24. True or False: Sheet Music comes in
different formats.
True
False
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25. Jazz used what type of basic indication?
Melodies.
Chord Changes
Arrangements
All of the above
26. True or False: Sheet music can be used as a
record of, a guide to, or a means to perform, a
piece of music.
True
False
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27. Sheet music is a hand-written or printed
form of musical rhythm
True
False
28. Yankee Doodle was a song made by a
British man named Richard Shalman
True
False
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29. A vocal score is a reduction of the full
score of a vocal work
True
False
30. Lead sheet is commonly used in popular
music to capture the essential elements of
song without specifying how the song should
be arranged or performed.
True
False
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1. A
2. B
3. B
4. A
5. C
6. A
7. D
8. B
9. A
10. A
11. A
12. C
13. A
14. B
15. B
16. A
17. C
18. B
19. B
20. A
21 A
22. A
23. A
24. A
25. D
26. A
27. B
28. B
29. A
30. A
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