Intro to
Geography:
Terms/Ideas
We will refer to these
concepts throughout
the course… if you are
confused ask a
question
What is Geography?
• The study of the Earth's surface and its
various climates, countries, peoples, and
natural resources.
• Two types of geography:
1. Human Geography
2. Physical Geography
Human Geography
Looks at the relationships between the physical
environment and the activities of humans
Iron Mines
Deforestation : Amazon
2000
2010
Human Geography Continued…
Las Vegas
1984
2007
Physical Geography
• Looks at the physical features of the Earth
• What are some examples of physical features?
Mountains in Vancouver B.C.
5 Themes of Geography
1.Location
• Specific location- gives an exact position
• A Street Address or map coordinates
• Relative (general) location- where something is, in
relation to somewhere or something else
• By time (10 min. away) or location
• Who can use the H.S. as an example?
2. Place
• A description of what the place is like, rather than where
it is.
5 Themes Continued
3. Human/Environmental Interaction- The relationship between
people and their environment, or how they work together
• People adapt to the environment (list examples)
• People change landscapes/environments (examples)
• People depend on the environment (list examples)
Changing landscapes
5 Themes Continued
• Culturecharacteristics of a particular group of people,
defined by everything from language, religion, food,
social habits, music and arts
• 4. Cultural Diffusionthe spread of culture (people, goods, languages)
• What promotes diffusion?
• Human interaction
5 Themes Continued
• 5. Regions- Regions are areas that can be grouped
together by a set of similarities special to that region.
areas speaking the same language, or having the
same religion, physical characteristics
What is a cartographer?
• A person who makes maps.
How Latitude and Longitude Form the
Global Grid
Latitude- a point north or south of the
Equator. Lines of latitude are often
referred to as parallels. Think of
Climbing a ladder.
Longitude- a point east or west of the Prime
Meridian. Lines of longitude are often
referred to as meridians.
The Final Result
Types of Maps
• Thematic Maps- Maps that show a specific set of
information for a particular region, or even the world.
ex. Religion, politics, etc.
Types of Maps
• Physical MapsMaps that show
the physical features
for a region.
Mountains, rivers,
lakes, etc,
Population Rates
• Birth Rate: the number of (live) births in a specified area
during a defined period for the total population.
Childbirths per 1,000 people per year
• How do they find the #?
• Basic math- # of live births  total population and
multiply by 1,000.
• In 2011, there were 3,345 live births with a
population of 275,019.
• (3,345/275,019)*1,000= 12.16 births per 1,000
people
Population Rates
• Death Rate- total number of deaths in a population
• Same calculation as birth rate. (per 1,000)
• # of Deaths total population and multiply by 1,000.
• Infant Mortality Rate- The total number of infants’
(children below 1 year) deaths per 1000 live births.
Education Around The World
• Literacy- Ability to read and write
• Literacy Rate- Rate of the population who can read and
write.
• What factors determine people’s ability (or lack there of)
to learn around the World?
Nation
The Gambia
Senegal
Somalia
Sierra Leone
Benin
Guinea
Total Lit
Rate
40%
39%
38%
35%
35%
30%
Male
48%
51%
50%
47%
48%
43%
Female
33%
29%
26%
24%
23%
18%
1st,2nd,3rd World Countries
• 1st World- Developed, capitalist, industrialized countries.
Mostly western countries (U.S., Western Europe, Japan
etc.). These countries are highly developed in terms of
industry.
1st,2nd,3rd World Countries
• 2nd World- Refers to the former communist-socialist,
industrial states. Falls in between
1st and second world countries.
1st,2nd,3rd World Countries
• 3rd World- Underdeveloped. Identifies countries with
high infant mortality, low economic development, high
levels of poverty, don’t use natural resources very well,
heavy dependence on industrialized nations, and
unstable governments, high rates of population growth,
illiteracy, and disease.
Make the key to the map.
• Red –
• Blue• Green-
Gross Domestic Product
• GDP-Measure of the market value of all final goods and
services produced in a country in a given period of time
• Per Capita- per person
Descargar

Intro to Geography: Terms/Ideas