World Geography
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A) What is culture?
2
Culture- shared ideas
about what people
think, believe and do
(thinking, believing,
behaving)
 Material vs. Nonmaterial
 Culture Traitsbehaviors and activities
that people repeatedly
practice

3
Provide four specific examples for the
following items. (ie. traditions, practices and
beliefs)
1. Describe your culture at home.
2. Describe your culture at school.
3. Describe culture in Atlanta.
4. Describe culture in America.
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B) How do we learn what to do in our culture?


Values- ideas of what is desirable in life (good
& bad/ugly & beautiful)
Norms- rules of behavior that develop out of
a group’s values
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Folkways- norms that are not strictly enforced
Mores- “core values,” we insist on conformity
(stealing, rape, murder)
 Taboo- Prohibition of a behavior, thing, person, etc.
based on cultural or social norms.



Do the examples of mores, folkways and norms vary
from society to society?
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C) Does culture ever change? Why and how?



Innovation- changes within the culture
(technology)
Diffusion- movement of ideas and customs
Syncretism- combining systems of belief
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Ethnocentrism- judging other cultures by the
standards of your own
 Racism- belief that your racial group is superior
to another
 Counterculture- a culture with lifestyles and
values opposed to those of the established
culture
 Subculture- a social group within a national
culture that has distinctive patterns of behavior
and beliefs

8
Globalization- economic,
political and cultural
interdependence worldwide
through increasing contact in
trade, communication and technology
 In what way do the consequences of globalization
extend beyond the economy?
 Are all consequences positive? Give examples.

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
Family: forms the basis for societies structure (most
important unit)
 Nuclear Family: wife, husband, their children- found in
industrial societies
 Extended Family: several generations under one rooffound in agricultural societies



Patriarchal- characteristic of a form of social organization in which the
male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
Matriarchal- A social system in which the mother is head of household,
having authority over men and children; A system of government by
females
Why do societies favor extended, or nuclear
families?
10

How is family structure changing today in America?
 “Single-adult households have displaced two-parent
families with children as the most common kind of U.S.
household”
 “two married parents and a child -- were the most
common as recently as 1990…but by 2000, nuclear-family
households fell to second place”
 “single-adult households are continuing to grow and
might even hit 34 million by the 2010 census. This is
because people are most likely to live alone "at either end
of the life cycle" -- in youth or as senior citizens”
 “More Homes in the US Go Solo,” Wash. Times, Aug. 17, 2005
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
Is there a reason for this shift in our society?

How might this further change our culture? Is
this a dangerous shift?
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

Stratification: the hierarchical or vertical
division of society according to rank, caste, or
class
Two Types:
 Closed- movement between classes is impossible,
assigned a status at birth (ascribed status)
 Open- movement is possible (achieved status)
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
How open is the United States?
Closed
Open

Social Mobility- ability to move up or down
in class
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Open Class System:
 Social classes may
depend on different
criteria from culture to
culture:





Livestock
Land
Academics
Occupation
United States ?
15

What is religion?

What separates a religion from a set of ideas?
1. Belief: the things/ideas that are sacred
2. Practice: (rituals)
3. Moral Community: Church, Mosque
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
Animism- spirits are active in influencing
human life, animals, plants, rivers, etc. all
have spirits
 In some cases these spirits can be manipulated


Theism- belief in a god (polytheism &
monotheism)
Ethicalism- religion based on ethical
principles, meditation and principles
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Ethicalism- Confucianism
Monotheism- Christianity
Polytheism- Hinduism
Animism- Native Americans
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
Relationship between government and religion:
1.
Theocracy- government controlled by a religious
leader(s)
▪
2.
State-Sponsored- government backed religious
organization, gives money/support
▪
3.
Iran, Vatican City, Afghanistan (Taliban)
Great Britain, Greece, Saudi Arabia
Secular State- no official religion, little or no
participation of government in religion “Seperation of
Church and State”
▪
United States, Turkey
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
Government: the way in which a society
keeps order and provide for common needs,
refers both to the people who hold power
and the laws/institutions
1. Geographic Distribution
2. Participation
3. Degree of Authority
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
Participation: who has the decision making
power
 Autocracy- rule by one person (dictatorship,
monarchy)
 Oligarchy- rule by a group (aristocracy, theocracy,
communism)
 Democracy- rule by the people
▪ Representative (Republic) vs. Direct
21

Parliamentary: limited
separation of branches
 Prime Minister- selected
from Parliament

Presidential: three
distinct branches,
executive, legislative
and judicial
 President- elected directly
by the people
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
Geographic power distribution:
 Unitary- central government makes laws for the entire
nation and gives local governments only limited power
and authority
▪ Great Britain, Japan and France
 Federal System- gives the national government certain
powers and reserves others for the states
▪ United States, India, Mexico, Russia
 Confederation- smaller political units keep their
sovereignty and give the central government very limited
powers
▪ Articles of Confederation, United Nations, European Union
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
Degree of authority:
 Anarchy- absence of any governmental authority
 Totalitarian- leaders control every part of society
(politics, economy, even people’s personal lives)
 Limited/Constitutional- state must maintain
limited civil liberties and civil rights
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
Economics- the study of how people use
their limited resources (scarcity) to satisfy
unlimited wants
1.
What to produce?
How much to produce?
At what price?
2.
3.
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
Demand Economies“Capitalism,” resources and
industries are owned by
private individuals

1.
2.
3.
Laissez Faire- “leave things
alone,” no government
involvement (Adam Smith),
the “invisible hand” of
competition will improve
everyone’s lot in society
What to produce?
How much to produce?
At what price?
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
Regulated Capitalism(mixed) limited role of
government in society
for the protection of the
public
 Resources and industries
are controlled by private
individuals, but with
government regulation
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
Socialism- (mixed) state runs and owns some
basic industries, others are privately owned
 “cradle to grave services” are paid for by higher
tax rates (Welfare State)
 Nationalization- an industry/company is taken
over by the government
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Command Economy- the state controls all
resources and means of production


1.
2.
3.
Soviet Economy was a corruption of Karl Marx’s
original philosophy
How much to produce?
At what price?
What to produce?
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Human Geography
People and Places
Geography and the
environment help shape
human cultures, but
humans also
use and alter the
environment to fulfill
their needs.
Petroglyphs like this one offer evidence of human life in
the desert.
NEXT
TODAY’S ISSUES
People and Places
SECTION 1
The Elements of Culture
SECTION 2
Population Geography
SECTION 3
Political Geography
SECTION 4
Urban Geography
SECTION 5
Economic Geography
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Section 1
The Elements of Culture
• Human beings are members of social groups
with shared and unique sets of behaviors and
attitudes.
• Language and religion are two very
important aspects of culture.
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SECTION
1
The Elements of Culture
Defining Culture
Culture
• Knowledge, attitudes, behaviors shared over
generations is culture
• Society is a group that shares geographic region,
identity, culture
• An ethnic group shares language, customs,
common heritage
Chart
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SECTION
1
Culture Change and Exchange
Innovation
• Innovation is creating something new with existing
resources
• Example: weaving baskets from reeds to solve
storage problem
Diffusion
• Spread of ideas, inventions, patterns of behavior
called diffusion
• Cultural hearth—site of innovation; origin of cultural
diffusion
• Example: Nile River civilizations in Africa
Continued . . .
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SECTION
1
continued
Culture Change and Exchange
Acculturation
• Acculturation—society changes because it accepts
innovation
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SECTION
1
Language
Importance of Language
• Enables people within a culture to communicate
• Reflects all aspects of culture
Language and Identity
• Language helps establish cultural identity, unity
• Language can also divide people, cause conflict
Continued . . .
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SECTION
1
continued
Language
Language Families
• Between 3,000 and 6,500 languages spoken
worldwide
• Similar languages belong to same language family
• Dialect—a version of a language, like Southern
drawl
Interactive
Language Diffusion
• Language can spread via trade routes, migration
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SECTION
1
Religion
Belief Systems
• Religion—belief in supernatural power that made,
maintains universe
• Monotheistic faiths believe in one god
• Belief in many gods called polytheistic
• Animistic, or traditional, faiths believe in divine
forces of nature
Spread of Religion
• Religion spreads through diffusion and conversion
• Conversion—some religions try to recruit others to
their faith
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SECTION
1
Major Religions
Judaism
• Monotheistic; evolved 3,200 years ago; holy book
called the Torah
Christianity
• Evolved from Judaism; based on teachings of Jesus
Christ
• Largest religion—2 billion followers worldwide
Islam
• Monotheistic; based on teachings of Prophet
Muhammad
• Followers, called Muslims, worship God, called Allah
• Holy book called the Qur’an
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
1
continued
Major Religions
Hinduism
• Polytheistic; evolved in India around 5,000 years
ago
• Hindu caste system has fixed social classes, specific
rites/duties
Buddhism
• Offshoot of Hinduism; evolved around 563 B.C. in
India
• Founder Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha, or
Enlightened One
• Rejects Hindu castes; seeks enlightened spiritual
state, or nirvana
Chart
Image
Other Asian Practices
• Include Confucianism, Taoism, Shinto
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SECTION
1
Creative Cultural Expressions
Creative Cultural Expressions
• All cultures express themselves creatively
• Performing arts include music, dance, theater, film
• Architecture, painting, sculpture, textiles are forms
of visual arts
• Oral and written literature include poems, folk tales,
stories
Image
NEXT
Section 2
Population Geography
• People are not distributed equally on the
earth’s surface.
• The world’s population continues to grow,
but at different rates in different regions.
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SECTION
2
Population Geography
Worldwide Population Growth
Birth and Death Rates
• Number of live births per thousand population is
the birthrate
• Fertility rate—average, lifetime number of children
born to a woman
• Number of deaths per thousand people is the
mortality rate
• Infant mortality rate—deaths under age 1 per 1,000
live births
• Population growth rate, or rate of natural increase,
figured by:
- subtracting the mortality rate from the birthrate
- warm summers and cold winters
Continued . . .
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SECTION
2
continued
Worldwide Population Growth
Population Pyramid
• A population pyramid shows a population’s
sex, age distribution
• Enables the study of how events (wars, famines)
affect population
Chart
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SECTION
2
Population Distribution
Habitable Lands
• 2/3 of world’s population lives between 20°N and
60°N latitude
• Human habitation in this zone:
- dense where temperature and precipitation allow
agriculture
- also dense along coastal areas and in river
valleys
- more sparse in polar, mountain, desert regions
Urban–Rural Mix
• More than half of world’s population rural; rapidly
becoming urban
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
2
continued
Population Distribution
Migration
• Reasons for migrating sometimes called push-pull
factors
• Push factors (drought, war) cause migration from
an area
• Pull factors (favorable economy, climate) spur
migration to an area
Image
Image
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SECTION
2
Estimating Population
Estimating Population
• Population density is the average number of people
living in an area
Carrying Capacity
• Carrying capacity is the number of organisms an
area can support
- affected by fertile land, level of technology,
economic prosperity
NEXT
Section 3
Political Geography
• The world is divided into many political
regions.
• Local, national, and regional governments
control aspects of life within the
boundaries of the unit.
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SECTION
3
Political Geography
Nations of the World
Politics and Geography
• An independent political unit, a state, or country:
- occupies specific territory
- controls its internal, external affairs
• Nation—unified group with common culture living in
a territory
• A nation and state occupying same territory is a
nation-state
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
3
continued
Nations of the World
Types of Government
• In a democracy, citizens hold political power
• Political power held by a king or queen is a
monarchy
• In a dictatorship, a group or individual holds all
political power
• Communism is a governmental and economic
system
- political, economic power held by government
in people’s name
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SECTION
3
Geographic Characteristics of Nations
Size
• Physical size does not accurately reflect political,
economic power
Shape
• Shape affects governance, transportation, relations
with neighbors
Map
Location
• A landlocked country has no direct outlet to the sea
- may limit prosperity, as shipping and trade
bring wealth
• Hostile neighbors necessitate increased security
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SECTION
3
National Boundaries
Natural Boundaries
• Formed by rivers, lakes, mountain chains
Artificial Boundaries
• Fixed line, generally following latitude, longitude:
• Example: 49 degrees N latitude separates U.S. from
Canada
- often formally defined in treaties
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SECTION
3
Regional Political Systems
Political Subdivisions
• Countries divide into smaller political units like
cities, towns
• Smaller units combine regionally into counties,
states, etc.
• Countries may join together to form international
units:
- examples: United Nations, European Union
NEXT
Section 4
Urban Geography
• Nearly half the world’s population lives in
urban areas.
• Cities fulfill economic, residential, and
cultural functions in different ways.
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SECTION
4
Urban Geography
Growth of Urban Areas
Cities
• Urban geography is the study of how people use
space in cities
• Cities are populous centers of business, culture,
innovation, change
Urban Areas
• Urban area develops around a central city; may be
surrounded by:
- suburbs—border central city, other suburbs
- exurbs—have open land between them and
central city
• Central city plus its suburbs and exurbs called a
metropolitan area
Continued . . .
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SECTION
4
continued
Growth of Urban Areas
Urbanization
• Urbanization—rise in number of cities, resulting
lifestyle changes
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4
City Locations
Location and Function
• Cities are often located near:
- good transportation—lakes, rivers, coastline
- plentiful natural resources
• As a result, cities tend to:
- become transportation hubs
- specialize in certain economic activities
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SECTION
4
Land Use Patterns
City Patterns
• Basic land use patterns found in all cities:
- residential (housing)
- industrial (manufacturing)
- commercial (retail)
• Central business district (CBD)—core area of
commercial activity
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SECTION
4
The Functions of Cities
A
•
•
•
Variety of Functions
Shopping, entertainment, government services
Educational, recreational, and cultural activities
Transportation is essential to accomplish functions
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Section 5
Economic Geography
• Economic activities depend on the
resources of the land and how people use
them.
• The level of economic development can
be measured in different ways.
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SECTION
5
Economic Geography
Economic Systems
Economies
• Economy—the production and exchange of
goods and services
• Economies are local, regional, national,
international
• Geographers study economic geography by
looking at:
- how people in a region support themselves
- how economic activity is linked regionally
Continued . . .
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SECTION
5
continued
Economic Systems
Types of Economic Systems
• Economic system: way people produce
and exchange goods, services
• Four types of economic systems:
- traditional, or barter, economy
- command, or planned, economy
- market economy, also called capitalism
- mixed economy, a combination of command
and market
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SECTION
5
Economic Activities
Types of Economic Activity
• In subsistence agriculture, food is raised
for personal consumption
• Raising food to sell to others is called
market-oriented agriculture
• Cottage industries involve small, home-based
industrial production
• Large industrial production comes from
commercial industries
Image
Continued . . .
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SECTION
5
continued
Economic Activities
Levels of Economic Activity
• Four levels of economic activities:
- primary involves gathering raw materials for
immediate use
- secondary adds value to material by changing
its form
- tertiary involves business or professional services
- quaternary provides information, management,
research services
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SECTION
5
The Economics of Natural Resources
Utilizing Nature’s Bounty
• Natural Resources—Earth’s materials that have
economic value
• Materials become resources when they can be
turned into goods
Continued . . .
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SECTION
5
continued
The Economics of Natural Resources
Utilizing Nature’s Bounty
• Geographers divide natural resources into three
types:
- renewable resources (trees, seafood) can be
replaced naturally
- nonrenewable resources (metals, oil, coal)
cannot be replaced
- inexhaustible resources (sun, wind) are
unlimited resources
• Natural resources are a major part of world trade
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SECTION
5
Economic Support Systems
Infrastructure
• Infrastructure—basic support systems to sustain
economic growth
- power, communications, transportation systems
- water, sanitation, and education systems
• Communications systems and technology both
critical to development
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SECTION
5
Measuring Economic Development
Comparing Economies
• Per capita income: average earnings per
person in a political unit
GNP and GDP
• Gross national product (GNP)—statistic to
measure:
- total value of goods, services produced by a
country, globally
• Gross domestic product (GDP)—statistic to
measure:
- total value of goods and services produced
within a country
Continued . . .
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SECTION
5
continued
Measuring Economic Development
Development Levels
• Developing nations have low GDP, per capita
income
• Developed nations have high GDP, per capita
income
NEXT
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Human Geography