World Geography Today
India
Preview
Section 1: Natural Environments
Section 2: History and Culture
Section 3: India Today
Chapter Wrap-Up
Chapter 25
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 1: Natural Environments
Read to Discover
• What are the major landform regions and
rivers of India?
• Which climate types and resources does
India have?
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 1: Natural Environments
Question
What are the three landform regions of India
and characteristics of each?
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 1: Natural Environments
Landform Regions and Rivers of India
Himalayas—Mountainous, forests, farms;
Kanchenjunga; Kashmir Valley; source of Ganges and
Brahmaputra Rivers
Gangetic Plain—Lowland; northeastern
India; farming; alluvial soil; Ganges River
Deccan Plateau—Old and
eroded; volcanic; farming
with irrigation; bordered by
Eastern
and Western Ghats;
Narmada,
Godavari,
and Krishna
Rivers
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 1: Natural Environments
Climates and Resources
• Six climate types—Tropical humid, tropical wet and dry, arid,
semiarid, humid subtropical, highland
• Plant life reflects rainfall amounts (scrub to evergreen)
• Varied animal life—Crocodiles, deer, elephants, mongooses,
monkeys, tigers, birds, snakes
• Monsoon—Strong influence on climate, flooding
• Key resources—Soils and rivers
• Minerals—Coal, iron ore, bauxite, oil, uranium
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 2: History and Culture
Read to Discover
• What were the major events and empires of
India’s early history?
• How did European contract affect India?
• What religions are practiced in India?
• What are some other features of India’s culture?
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 2: History and Culture
Question
What are some of the important events
and people in India’s history?
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 2: History and Culture
European
trade
Aryan
civilization
Harappan
civilization
Muslim
invasion
Mauryan
Empire
300 B.C.
1500
Gupta
Empire
Mughal
Empire
Muslim
kingdom
A.D. 500
1100
1300
B.C.
B.C.
Independence
Sepoy
Rebellion
A.D.400
500 B.C.
1000
Timur
invades
Ghandi
assassinated
0
1000
1200
1500
1700
1900
1490
1857
1400
1600
1800
2000
1398
1520
1947
1948
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 2: History and Culture
Early History
• Aryans arrived around 1500 B.C., bringing Sanskrit
language, large pantheon, strict system of social classes;
Dravidians were pushed south.
• Hinduism and Buddhism developed.
• Kingdoms developed on Gangetic Plain.
• Mauryan and Gupta empires emerged.
• Muslims invaded and formed kingdom at Delhi in 1200s.
• Mughal Empire established in 1520s.
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 2: History and Culture
European Influence
• Traders arrived in 1490s—first Portuguese, then
Dutch, French, and British.
• Britain defeated France and controlled India by
the mid-1800s.
• British built infrastructure; taught English;
influenced education, law, and government.
• Britain partitioned India at independence.
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 2: History and Culture
Indian Religions
• Hinduism—Main faith, followed by around 80 percent of
the population; large pantheon, all part of a single spirit;
reincarnation, dharma, karma; caste system
• Islam—Largest minority religion, 11–14 percent of the
population, mainly in the north
• Christianity—Some 20 million followers
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 2: History and Culture
Indian Religions (continued)
• Buddhism—Originally from India, now followed by less
than 1 percent of the population
• Sikhism—Combines Muslim belief in one god with Hindu
beliefs of reincarnation and karma; equality of all people
• Jainism—Strict moral code based on preserving life
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 2: History and Culture
Culture
• Many ethnic groups—Aryan descendants, Dravidians, others
• More than 1,000 languages and dialects—Hindi is national
language; English is widely used; 17 official languages
• Typical clothing for hot weather—Sari, choli, loose pants,
lungi, turbans (Sikhs)
• Food—Variety based on climate, crops, regions; curry powder
made of many spices flavors gravy-based dishes
• Festivals—Many holidays, including Holi, Pongal
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 3: India Today
Read to Discover
• What are the main features of India’s
economy?
• How does life in India’s villages compare to
life in its cities?
• What challenges does India face today?
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 3: India Today
Question
What are the characteristics and products
of India’s economy?
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 3: India Today
Agriculture
• Basis of economy
• 25 percent of GDP
• 50 percent of land area
• Rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane,
sorghum, peanuts, sesame
seeds, mangoes
• Small farms
• Depend on monsoon
• Green Revolution
High-tech Businesses
• Concentrated in Bangalore
• Workers part of growing
middle class
Cottage Industries
India’s
Economy
• Work in the home
• Employ millions of people,
particularly women
• Silk fabrics, wooden
statues, silver and gold lace,
other handicrafts
Commercial
Manufacturing
• Textiles leading export
• Durable goods such as diesel
engines and cars
• Jute
• Steel mills
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 3: India Today
Comparing Village and City Life
• Most Indians live in villages, but cities are growing
rapidly.
• Villages are small, with few services; cities are
enormous, with smog, noise, and congestion.
• Many city-dwellers live modern, middle-class lives;
villagers live a more traditional lifestyle.
• Most people in villages and cities are poor, though
urban poor live in giant slums.
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 3: India Today
Villages
• Some now have paved roads, electricity, and phones.
• Sanitation is poor.
• Medical services are limited.
• Literacy level is low.
• Large families are valued; children help in the fields.
• Boys valued higher; do more manual labor, take care of
elderly parents, have more power in society.
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Section 3: India Today
Challenges
• Population growth and related problems—
poverty, health, education
• Environmental damage—Water, forests, wildlife
• Tensions with Pakistan (Kashmir, water) and
China (borders)
• Ethnic conflicts—Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs
World Geography Today
Chapter 25
Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding the Main Ideas
1. What geographic features, such as river systems and
climates, characterize India’s three major landform
regions?
2. At what time of the year do monsoons bring rainfall to
India, and where are the rains the heaviest?
3. In what ways have invasions, trade, and outside control
affected Indian society and culture?
4. What is India’s main religion? Which other religions are
found there?
5. What conflicts does India have with Pakistan?
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