THE 5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY DEFINITION OF GEOGRAPHY ge·og·ra·phy 1 : a science that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of the diverse physical, biological, and cultural features of the earth's surface Source-Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary Where did it come from? ► The five themes were written in 1984 by the Joint Committee on Geographic Education of the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) and the Association of American Geographers (AAG). They are outlined in greater detail in the NCGE/AAG publication Guidelines for Geographic Education, Elementary and Secondary Schools. THE FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY ►Location ►Place ►Human-Environment Interaction ►Movement ►Regions LOCATION Where are we? ► Absolute Location A latitude and longitude (global location) or a street address (local location). Paris France is 48o North Latitude and 2o East Longitude. The White House is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. ► Relative Location Described by landmarks, time, direction or distance. From one place to another. Go 1 mile west on main street and turn left for 1 block. Latitude ► Latitude: “I'm climbing the Ladder of latitudes, latitudes, latitudes. I'm climbing the ladder of latitudes, all around the world.” Latitude is measured from the equator, with positive values going north and negative values going south. Longitude ► Longitude: “It's a LONG, LONG way from pole to pole, pole to pole, pole to pole It's a LONG, LONG way from pole to pole, so we call those LONGITUDES.” Longitude is measured from the Prime Meridian (which is the longitude, with positive values going east and negative values going west. ► Latitude and Longitude Grid Combining latitude and longitude results in a grid that covers the globe. Every point can be defined by a north/south degree and an east/west degree. ► For example, Seattle, Washington, USA is at latitude 47° North and longitude 122° West. From the center of the earth, look up 46° from the equator and turn right (west) 122° from the Prime Meridian and you will be looking right at Seattle. ► PLACE What is it like there, what kind of place is it? ►Human ►Physical Characteristics Characteristics ► What are the main languages, customs, and beliefs? ► How many people live, work, and visit a place? ►Landforms (mountains, rivers, etc.), climate, vegetation, wildlife, soil, etc. PLACE ► What kind of place is it? What do you think of when you imagine China? Egypt? Mexico? ► Places have both human and physical characteristics, as well as images. ► Physical characteristics include mountains, rivers, soil, beaches, wildlife, soil. ► Places have human characteristics also. These characteristics are derived from the ideas and actions of people that result in changes to the environment, such as buildings, roads, clothing, and food habits. PLACE ► Place is a theme of geography that conjures up a mental picture of a place with people going about their everyday lives in the familiar environment. Place is the personality of geography. ► How is your hometown connected to other places? ► What are the human and physical characteristics of Gilbert? ► How do these shape our lives? HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION ► How do humans and the environment affect each other? We depend on it. ► People water. depend on the Colorado River for We modify it. ► People modify our environment by ► heating and cooling buildings for comfort. We adapt to it. ► We adapt to the environment by wearing clothing suitable for summer (shorts) and winter (coats), rain and shine. HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION ► All places on Earth have advantages and disadvantages for human settlement. One person's advantage may be another person's disadvantage. ► Some like the excitement of large cities whereas others prefer remoteness. Environment is not just trees, spotted owls, and rain forests. Environment is a feeling. ► What is the environment of a big city? Boston? Los Angeles? Dallas? HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION ► Given the choice, where would you live? Why? What is the environment? How do people interact with the environment? How do the physical features affect us? ► How have we adapted to or changed our landscape? The construction of Hoover Dam on the Colorado River, for example, changed the natural landscape, but it also created a reservoir that helps provide water and electric power for the arid Southwest. Higley, AZ - Then Higley, AZ - Now MOVEMENT ► How are people, goods, ideas moved from place to place? Human Movement ►Trucks, Trains, Planes Information Movement ►Cell Phones, computer (email), mail Idea Movement ►How do fads move from place to place? TV, Radio, Magazines MOVEMENT The movement of people, the import and export of goods, and mass communication have all played major roles in shaping our world. People everywhere interact. They travel from place to place and they communicate. We live in a global village and global economy. ► People interact with each other through movement. Humans occupy places unevenly on Earth because of the environment but also because we are social beings. We interact with each other through travel, trade, information flows (E-Mail) and political events. ► Not only do humans move but also ideas move; fashions move; fads move. What is an example of an idea that moves? Fashion? Fad? How do we depend on people in other places? How would our lives change if our movement options changed? What would happen if we traveled by camel or horse? How do we move from place to place? How do we actually get food? ► REGIONS ►A region is the basic unit of study in geography. A region is an area that is similar in terms of the government, language, or possibly the landform or situation. ► Regions are human constructs that can be mapped and analyzed. ► There are 3 basic types of regions: Formal regions, Functional regions, & Vernacular regions. REGIONS ► How are Regions similar to and different from other places? Formal Regions ► Regions defined by governmental or administrative boundaries (States, Countries, Cities) ►Regions defined by similar characteristics (Southwest region, Rocky Mountain region, Chinatown). Functional Regions ► Regions defined by a function (newspaper service area, cell phone coverage area). Vernacular Regions ► Regions defined by peoples perception (middle east, the southwest, etc.) REGIONS ► What region do we live in? What type of region is it? What are its characteristics? ► What states do you define as the South? The Northeast? The Bible Belt? What characteristics and perceptions go along with these regions? Remembering the 5 themes ► If you can’t remembering what they are just ask MR. HELP!!! ►M – Movement ►R – Regions ►HE – Human Environment interaction ►L – Location ►P - Place Review Why is it Important? ► The 5 Themes of Geography are used in Social Studies and History lessons throughout the school year. ► You need to be familiar with each theme of geography, provide examples of each, and understand its importance. ► Geographers use the 5 Themes of Geography to study and learn about the world. ► Take a Quiz http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=five-themes-geography_2 5 Themes of Geography Poster Project ► Pass out project description and review expectations with students.