Modern History of al-Qaeda and Terrorism against ………? 1979-2008 What is al-Qaeda? • Al Qaeda is a stateless (meaning without a country) terrorist organization. • led and financed by Osama bin Laden, a radical Shi’a Muslim. When did al-Qaeda form? • The beginnings of al-Qaeda go back to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Grace Intro: The War How did it start: • The soviet attacks Afghanistan on December 27, 1979 after the death of afghan’s PM/minister of defense. Why did it start: • Before the war, afghan government had turned to the soviets in order to stabilize their economy. However, due to the soviet’s determination to spread communism. What was the issue: • A group called Guerrillas (mujahidin) a.k.a was formed in order to fight communism. They've received helps from USA, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan Proxy War The Soviet-Afghan war was a example of proxy war. The two great powers were the Soviet Union and the United States of America. The US played an indirect (third party) part of the war effort supporting the Afghan Mujahidin. By supplying them with artillery and other weapons of destructions. The US and the Soviet Union were two rivalling powers who believed into two different types of Power. Democracy Vs. Communism. Therefore the reason the US got involved in the war was to help Afghanistan fight and win the battle between the Soviet Union. Former president Jimmy Carter believed the Soviets were creating a huge threat to the peace achieved at the end of Second World War because it was the battle of gaining a lot of fossil fuel. Jimmy Carter also places an embargo (a ban) US on shipment of commodities, like grains and high technology to the Soviet Union. Also Jimmy Carter sees this as a threat to the Persian Gulf region of invasion. With other country giving financial help to General Zia, the Afghan ruler who took the financial aids to build their army well trained and well funded. When there was a President in power for the United State in 1981, Ronald Reagan give even more aids to the Afghan. As of this United States, Pakistan Iran, China, Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom created or forum as the Afghan Mujahideen. Beliefs = how the problem escalated • The Afghanistan government didn’t seem to be prepared for doing what was necessary for the benefit of the country; instead the Soviets invaded and took control of the situation after getting rid of Amin. • The Afghan resistance movement during the mid 1980s was assisted by the U.S., U.K., China, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others, that contributed to the Moscow’s high military costs and stressed international relations. In result, Afghan guerrillas were armed, funded, and trained mostly by the U.S. and Pakistan. Plus, the donation of American-created FIM-92 Stinger anti-aircraft missile systems increased the losses of the Soviet Air Force. • 1979 was during the Cold War, a time when the USA was a rival to the Soviet Union. The USA wanted to help Afghans fight the Soviets. • The CIA sent stinger missiles to Afghans to shoot down Soviet helicopters. Other trees = other things influencing the problem • Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and Special Service Group (SSG) were actively involved in the conflict, and in cooperation with the CIA and the U.S. Army Special Forces all supported the armed rebellion against the Soviet threats. • After the Soviet invasion, Pakistan’s military ruler General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq accepted financial aid from the Western powers to help the Muhajideen rebellion. The United States, the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia became major financial contributors to General Zia who was the ruler of a neighbour country and helped by ensuring the Afghan resistance was well-trained and well-funded. • In the 19780s, Pakistan received aid from the U.S. and took in millions of Afghan (mostly Pashtun) refugees fleeing the Soviet occupation. The Fishbone 4. 1988: Yhe birth of al-Qaeda • August 11, 1988, bin laden stated in his meeting that the purpose of the meeting was to, “the establishment of a new military group,” Bin Laden in Afghanistan • Son of a wealthy Saudi Arabian family, Osama bin Laden made lots of like-minded friends. • He learned that scantilyarmed Muslims could defeat a powerful Christian army • The Soviet army left in 1988. Bin Laden moves to Sudan • Bin Laden and his friends, feeling powerful, wanted to set up a base for future jihads. A jihad is a Muslim word for holy war, usually against Christians. He stays in Sudan about 5 years. Note: Most Muslims don’t feel that jihads are about car bombs and plane hijackings. • In 1983, during the presidency of Ronald Regan, a terrorist group bombed a Marine barracks in Lebanon. Reagan did not retaliate. 283 killed. Desert Storm (Gulf War I) • In 1990, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein invaded the tiny, oil-rich country of Kuwait. Kuwait owed Iraq money, so Hussein wanted to secure Kuwaiti oil fields. Operation Desert Storm • The United States imports oil from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. If Saddam Hussein wanted to, he could take his army into Saudi Arabia and seize their oil fields too. Iraqi tanks US and Saudi coalition • The United States asked the Saudis for permission to establish military bases in their country. The Saudis have a tough choice to make. Do they allow a Christian army into the holiest country of Islam? Can the Saudis themselves stop Saddam Hussein? Saudi’s choice • Osama bin Laden was back home from Afghanistan. He offered the Saudis the use of his soldiers to fight the Iraqi army because once America establishes a base, they won’t leave. Christian armies have no place in the land of Islam. Saudis chose the USA and snubbed bin Laden. • President George H.W. Bush liberates Kuwait and pushes the Iraqi army back into Iraq. Bin Laden • Osama bin Laden overtly criticizes the Saudi government. Saudi Arabia banishes him; his family disowns him (officially). • Bin Laden leaves Saudi Arabia for Sudan to further build al Qaeda. USA in Somalia • Dec. 4, 1992, George H.W. Bush sends 28,000 American troops to Somalia. • Bush wanted to help the Somali people since all attempts to send food to them were intercepted by war lords. Black Hawk Down! • In 1993, 18 Americans died when their Black Hawk helicopter was shot down over Mogadishu, Somalia. al Qaeda? • We think al Qaeda operatives taught the Somalians how to shoot down helicopters just like they did in Afghanistan against the Soviets. World Trade Center bombing • 9-11 was not the first terrorist attack on the WTC. In 1993, a man rented a Ryder truck and detonated a large bomb in one of the towers hoping to knock it over onto the other tower. Ramzi Yousef • He was a planner of the WTC bombing. He was a member/leader of al Qaeda. • Yousef stated, "Yes, I am a terrorist, and proud of it as long as it is against the U.S. government." • Speaks 7 languages and has college degrees in engineering and chemistry. • Currently serving a life sentence. 1993 WTC bombing It killed 6 people and injured over 1000. 1996 car bombing of Khobar Towers • The Khobar Towers provided housing for American military stationed in Saudi Arabia. 19 Americans were killed and hundreds injured. Look familiar? Fatwa • In August of 1998, Osama bin Laden and 4 of his close associates sign and distribute a statement declaring “it is the individual duty for every Muslim who can do it” to kill Americans. Kenyan embassy bombings • Two American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were bombed simultaneously in 1998. 220 people were killed. Clinton responds. • President Clinton, risking “Wag the Dog” criticism during the Lewinsky scandal, decided to attack al Qaeda in response. US attacks al Qaeda training camps in Sudan and Afghanistan with Tomahawk missiles. Camps were destroyed. Osama lives. USS Cole attack Oct. 2000 • In Yemen, Al Qaeda operatives sent a suicide bomber aboard a small ship near the USS Cole and detonated its bomb, blowing a large hole in the US Navy ship. 17 sailors killed. Where is Sudan and Yemen? September 11, 2001 • Four airplanes were hijacked by al Qaeda terrorists. • Two crashed into the 2 World Trade Center towers. • One crashed into the Pentagon, the military building of the US armed forces. • One crashed into a field in Pennsylvania, likely because passengers forced the plane down. • 2819 people were killed • 343 firefighters and paramedics were killed Khalid Sheik Muhhamad was the central Planner of the 9/11. Most terrorists (at right) were from Saudi Arabia. / Firemen going up before towers collapsed. Shoes people left behind to run faster. Pentagon • A plane crashed into the Pentagon killing hundreds. • It showed Americans that terrorism doesn’t just happen in New York and our most important buildings are vulnerable. Pentagon after attack Flight 93 crashed in Pennsylvania Its target was possibly the White House or Capitol building. We think the passengers forced the plane down. Taliban • Al Qaeda and the Taliban government of Afghanistan were virtually one and the same. • President George W. Bush sent a small force into Afghanistan to eliminate the government and destroy al Qaeda. • This war is still going on. • Many criticize President Bush for taking troops out of Afghanistan to fight in Iraq. Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan Where is Afghanistan? Tora Bora • Famous battle in Afghanistan where al Qaeda allegedly saved Osama bin Laden’s life and snuck him out of the area. Tora Bora Today in Afghanistan • In ‘08, more US troops die in Afghanistan than in Iraq. US troops are still fighting Taliban and Al Qaeda troops near the Pakistani border. • In ’04 Afghanistan had its first election. The people voted for Hamid Karzai • Despite terrorist attacks, daily life is better in Afghanistan. Where was Osama bin Laden ? • Well, where do you think he was? Unfortunately • Bin Laden was very smart. He was probably hiding inside the lawless region of Pakistan, near the Afghan border. • Pakistan is a powerful Muslim country who has cooperated with the USA for years. They have nuclear weapons. • While the Pakistani government likes the USA, its citizens don’t. Pakistan cont. . . • Pakistani government goes after Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda too strongly, the Muslim people could overthrow the government and be the first al Qaedadominated nuclear power. This was what bin Laden wanted! Review Quiz Are you ready? Review Quiz • 1. Name 3 Al Qaeda leaders. • 2. The Soviet Union invaded what country in 1979 where al Qaeda formed? • 3. In the first Gulf War, what was bin Laden’s objection regarding American troops in Saudi Arabia? • 4.Was Osama bin Laden friends with Saddam Hussein of Iraq? • 5. After the first Gulf War, what did Iraq try to do to upset the USA? • 6. How was the WTC attacked in 1993? • 7. What American embassies were bombed in 1998? • 8. What Navy ship was bombed in 2000? • 9. How many planes were hijacked on 9/11/2001? • 10. Where could Osama bin Laden possibly be hiding?