Cross-Development on Mac
May, 2006
André Krützfeldt
Tokyo Jamboree #8
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
1
Macintosh and Xcode
OS X does come with Xcode bundled
• Newest version at:
• http://developer.apple.com/tools/xcode/index.html
• Includes all gnu compilers (4.0.1) and utilities
• Download is about 900MB
• Good for Apple development
– you will need it
• For embedded systems, not applicable
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
2
Complete your Mac tools
Make your development complete!
• Use fink
• http://fink.sourceforge.net/
• It installs everything under /sw
• After install use FinkCommander
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
3
Complete your Mac tools (2)
• Add the fink distribution to your path
– Easy:
• more “test -r /sw/bin/init.sh && . /sw/bin/init.s
h” >> .profile
• Close your terminal window and open it again.
• Now the path should look like:
• $ echo $PATH
– /sw/bin:/sw/sbin:/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:
/usr/sbin:/usr/local/teTeX/bin/powerpc-apple-darwincurrent:/usr/X11R6/bin
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
4
Compile the Compiler
Next step is to select a Cross Compiler
Best: Crosstool
http://www.kegel.com/crosstool/
Current version 0.42
Supports: gcc-2.95, gcc-3.2.x - gcc-4.0.x
Check the current build results:
http://www.kegel.com/crosstool/crosstool-0.42/buildlogs/
If you intend to compile for Motorola devices, use:
Crosstool for EZX
http://lsb.blogdns.net/ezx-crosstool
Current version 0.5
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
5
Compiler the Compiler (2)
Extract the downloaded files with:
• gzip if the file ends with .gz
• bzip2 if the file ends with .bz2
(Both in fink)
Make sure you have ‘wget’ installed
– the build process uses it
– Check with: $ type wget
wget is /sw/bin/wget
You MUST be online to do the build!
– It will get the sources to compile from websites
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
6
Compiler source download
The scripts use wget to download the libraries and linux components
defined in:
gcc-<version>-glib-<version>.dat
If you have a proxy setup, make sure that wget can work with it.
If you cannot get wget to work, just run the demo-XYZ.sh
It will try to access the sites, use <ctrl>-c to stop it and use a normal
browser to download the needed files.
Place then into the download directory, usually
$HOME/download
Start demo-XYZ.sh again
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
7
Setup the target directory
At the end you will have to install your cross compiler.
Best to setup the directory and rights now.
• sudo mkdir /opt/crosstool
• sudo chown $USER /opt/crosstool
The following script will build the Motorola cross compiler
and install the result into the same directory!
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
8
How to compile the compiler
build.sh from ezx-crosstool derived from demo-*.sh
#!/bin/sh
set -ex
CROSSTOOL_DIR=`pwd`
TARBALLS_DIR=$CROSSTOOL_DIR/downloads
RESULT_TOP=$CROSSTOOL_DIR/gcc-arm-iwmmxt
SRC_DIR=$CROSSTOOL_DIR/src
export TARBALLS_DIR RESULT_TOP SRC_DIR
GCC_LANGUAGES="c,c++"
export GCC_LANGUAGES
# Really, you should do the mkdir before running this,
# and chown /opt/crosstool to yourself so you don't need to run as root.
mkdir -p $RESULT_TOP
# Build the toolchain. Takes a couple hours and a couple gigabytes.
eval `cat arm-ezx.dat gcc-3.3.6-glibc-2.3.2.dat` sh all.sh --notest
echo Done.
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
9
What if there is an Error?
Mostly errors are not really errors.
The Mac uses different versions of GNU Utilities.
Look at the error and see what produced it.
E.g. Error in an awk-script is not the script:
– Use fink and install ‘gawk’
– Run “./build.sh” again
– Mostly the error is gone.
Unfortunately it does take hours and the “./build.sh” always
starts from the beginning.
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
10
Expected Error
There is an expected error:
• At the end it will complain about:
– PATH_MAX is undefined
• This is to be ignored.
ALSO (known):
Apple make does have a bug/feature:
• .m files are treated differently! (Objective-C)
• Get a make from gnu and compile it separately
• Copy it in /sw/bin do not copy it in /usr/bin!
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
11
Distributed Compile
Once you are done, you will have a cross compiler for your
embedded device.
If you happen to have more than one Mac, you can
distribute the cross compiler and compile in your
network.
Tool to use is‘distcc’ which is part OS X Xcode.
(Very advanced, I have not tested it yet.)
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
12
Cross-compile Trick
Some developers prefer to use a different shell for the
cross compilation.
This assures that the builds do not interfere.
E.g. ‘tcsh’ uses‘.tcshrc’
Set the PATH and other values to the target compiler.
And do not forget:
./configure --host=arm-linux
This tells configure that you are cross compiling
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
13
Set the environment
The PATH must be set to the cross compiler:
PATH=/opt/crosstool/gcc-3.4.5-glibc-2.3.3/arm-linux/bin:…
Also set the environment variables:
AR=arm-linux-ar
CC=arm-linux-gcc
CXX=arm-linux-g++
LD=arm-linux-ld
RANLIB=arm-linux-ranlib
STRIP=arm-linux-strip
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
14
Tools for Mac
iTerm as xterm substitute, it supports bookmarks:
http://iterm.sourceforge.net/
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
15
Tools for Mac (2)
Fugu to copy over ssh
http://rsug.itd.umich.edu/software/fugu/
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
16
Utilities for Mac
Some devices use Ethernet over USB:
Get the Mac driver at:
http://www.dsitri.de/wiki.php?page=AJZaurusUSB
Originally for the Zaurus, but works with most USBLan or
USBNet enabled devices.
If you want to enable a device this way, look at:
http://www.linux-usb.org/usbnet/
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
17
Devices
A780
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
Rokr E2
A1200
18
Copyright 2006 Aplix Corporation. All rights reserved.
19
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