Henry VIII – James I
Tudor England
Henry VIII
• Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia at
Greenwich. The third child of Henry VII and
Elizabeth of York. His grandparents were King
Edward IV of England and Queen Elizabeth
Woodville.
• Only three of Henry VIII's six siblings: Arthur (the
Prince of Wales), Margaret and Mary, survived
infancy.
• Already as a child:
appointed Constable of Dover Castle, Lord
Warden of the Cinque Ports, created Duke of
York, appointed Earl Marshal of England,
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
 His elder brother Arthur
married the Spanish
Catherine of Aragon but
died a couple months later.
At the age of eleven, Henry,
Duke of York, became
heir-apparent to the Throne.
He was also created
Prince of Wales.
• Henry VII demanded an alliance between
England and Spain through a marriage between
Henry, Prince of Wales, and Catherine. Since
the Prince of Wales was supposed to marry his
brother's widow, he first had to get a
dispensation from the Pope.
• Henry became King after his father’s
death in 1509. Henry married
Catharina 11’Th of June 1509.
Cathatinas first pregnancy ended
in miscarriage in 1510. In January
1511 she gave birth to a son that
died two month later.
• King Henry became attracted to the young Anne
Boleyn, and at the same time infuriated with
Catherine’s inability to produce a healthy male heir.
• He asked the Church to
annul their marriage.
The pope refused the
king’s request in fear that
It would anger the Holy
Roman Emperor, Charles V,
who was Catherine’s nephew.
• The Pope went on to excommunicate Henry in July
1533. Considerable religious upheaval followed. The
Act of Supremacy 1534 declared that the king is
head of the English church. This was the beginning
of the English Reformation.
• Rejecting the decisions of the Pope, Parliament
validated the marriage between Henry and Anne
with the Act of Succession 1534.
• In 1536, Queen Anne began to lose Henry's
favour. After the Princess Elizabeth's birth,
Queen Anne had two pregnancies that ended in
either miscarriage or stillbirth.
• Henry VIII had begun to turn his attentions to
another lady of his court, Jane Seymour.
• In May 1536, the Court condemned Anne and
her brother to death.
• Only days after Anne's execution in 1536, Henry
married Jane Seymour.
• Jane gave birth to a son, the Prince Edward, in
1537, and died two weeks later
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Major Acts
At about the same time as his marriage to Jane
Seymour, Henry granted his assent to the Laws
in Wales Act 1535, uniting England and Wales
into one nation.
During the English Reformation Henry continued
persecute his religious opponents and the
Dissolution of Monasteries.
In 1536, an uprising called Pilgrimage of Grace
broke out in Northern England.
To calm the rebellious Roman Catholics, Henry
agreed to allow Parliament to address their
concerns. Furthermore, he agreed to grant a
general mercy to all those involved.
• He kept neither promise, and a second uprising
occurred in 1537. As a result, the leaders of the
rebellion were convicted of treason and
executed.
• In 1539, England's remaining monasteries were
all dissolved, and their property transferred to
the Crown. Abbots and priors lost their seats in
the House of Lords; only archbishops and
bishops stayed.
• The Lords Spiritual, were for the first time
outnumbered by the Lords Temporal.
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Henry's mistresses
Historians are only sure of the names of two of
Henry's mistresses: Bessie Blount and Mary
Boleyn (Anne's sister).
Several others:
Jane Popicourt, in 1510
a Frenchwoman at the court
a mistress of the kidnapped Duc de Longueville
Lady Anne Stafford, in 1514
Margaret (Madge) Shelton, in 1534-5
There are also references to a lady he housed in
a manor house (unknown year), an 'unknown
lady' in 1534 and a lady from Tournai, in his
excursions into France in 1513.
Henry's innovative court
• Henry’s court was a centre of artistic innovation.
The discovery of America or "The New World"
set the stage for Henry's innovative attitude.
• Henry was among the first European rulers to
learn about the true geography of the world, a
revolutionary discovery.
• In 1507, the cartographers Martin
Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann
published the first "modern" map of the world,
the first map to accurately illustrate the American
Continent and a separate Atlantic and Pacific
Ocean, a radical thought for the time.
More wives
• Henry wanted to get married again. Thomas
Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex suggested Anne, the
sister of the Protestant Duke of Cleves, who was
seen as an important ally in case of a Roman
Catholic attack on England.
• Hans Holbein the Younger was sent to Cleves to
paint a portrait of Anne for the King. After
regarding Holbein's flattering portrayal, Henry
agreed to wed Anne. On Anne's arrival in
England, Henry is said to have found her very
ugly. Nevertheless, he married her on 6 January
1540.
• Henry wanted to end the marriage, not only
because of his personal feelings but also
because of political considerations.
• The Duke of Cleves had become engaged in a
dispute with the Holy Roman Emperor.
• On 28 July 1540 Henry married the young
Catherine Howard, Anne Boleyn's first cousin.
• Thomas Cranmer, who was opposed to the
powerful Catholic Howard family, brought
evidence of Queen Catherine's affairs with other
men to the King.
• Catherine's marriage was annulled shortly
before her execution.
Death
• Catherine Parr was the last
of his six wives
• Later in life, Henry was
grossly overweight, with a waist
measurement of 137 cm,
and possibly suffered from gout.
• Henry's increased size dates from an accident in
1536. He suffered a thigh wound which not only
prevented him from taking exercise and may
have indirectly led to his death, which occurred
on 28 January 1547.
King
Edward VI
King Edward VI
• Born: 12 October 1537
Hampton Court Palace
• Died: 6 July 1553
Greenwich Palace
(15 years old)
King Edward VI
• Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547, when
Edward was only 9 years old.
• Edward VI was crowned as king at Westminster
Abbey on 20 February 1547
• Reign: 28 January 1547 - 6 July 1553
– From the age of 9 to his death at the age of
15
King Edward VI
 Edward's reign was marked by increasingly
harsh Protestant reforms, the loss of control of
Scotland, and an economic downturn. A period
of social unrest begun earlier intensified during
his rule, and conflicts with the French increased.
 As he grew up he noticed that there were not as
many people from a poorer background
attending church so reigned the country by
removing the most ornate ornaments from the
churches; this resulted in King Edward bringing
himself closer to his people through the use of
religion.
King Edward VI
• Edward VI's uncle, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke
of Somerset, ruled England in the name of his
nephew as Lord Protector from 1547 to 1549.
• Henry VIII’s will named sixteen executors, who
were to act as a Council of Regency until
Edward VI achieved majority at the age of
eighteen.
 Edward's entire rule was mediated through a
council of regency as he never reached maturity.
King Edward VI
• Edward VI was England's first ruler who was
Protestant at the time of his ascension to the
throne.
• Many Catholic rites were replaced with
Protestant ones during the reign of Edward VI
• One of the most notable was Cranmer's Book of
Common Prayer, which was published in 1549
to replace the old liturgical books in Latin.
King Edward VI
• Inflation and the cost of war combined to double
prices from 1547 to 1549.
• On 8 August, taking advantage of internal strife,
the French, under Henry II, formally declared
war on England.
• The Duke of Somerset became extremely
unpopular, even among his own Council.
• In October 1549 he was deposed and sent
under arrest to the Tower of London by John
Dudley, Earl of Warwick
King Edward VI
• The Duke of Somerset became extremely
unpopular and in October 1549 he was deposed
and sent under arrest to the Tower of London by
John Dudley, Earl of Warwick
• John Dudley, Earl of Warwick did not make
himself Lord Protector, and even encouraged
Edward VI into declaring his majority as soon as
he was sixteen.
• Unlike Somerset, Warwick was a man of action
who was full of ambition to officially install and
enforce an inflexible form of Protestantism and
enrich himself with land and power.
King Edward VI
• The rise of the Earl of Warwick (later Duke of
Northumberland) was accompanied by the fall of
Catholicism in England
– Use of the Book of Common Prayer in all
Church services was more strictly enforced
– all official editions of the Bible were
accompanied by anti-Catholic annotations.
– Catholic symbols in churches were
desecrated by mobs
– the Ordinal of 1550 replaced the divine
ordination of priests with a government-run
appointment system
King Edward VI
• The first symptoms of tuberculosis were
manifest in January 1553 and by May it was
obvious that his condition was fatal. Edward was
enough the master of his own destiny to have
concerns about the succession addressed
• Having been brought up a Protestant, he had no
desire to be succeeded by his older half-sister
and devout Catholic, Mary.
King Edward VI
 When it became clear that Edward's life was to
be a short one, the king's advisors persuaded
him to attempt to exclude his two half sisters, the
devout Catholic Mary and moderate Protestant
Elizabeth, from the line of succession to the
throne in order to put the Lady Jane Grey, the
solidly Protestant daughter-in-law of the chief
Regent, next in line to succeed the king.
King Edward VI
• The Duke of Northumberland then foolishly
attempted to rule through the Duchess of
Suffolk's daughter, the Lady Jane Grey. Jane
was married off to the Duke of Northumberland's
younger son, Guilford Dudley
• Northumberland plotted to have his daughter-inlaw, the Lady Jane, placed next in line to
succeed Edward
King Edward VI
• The first draft of Edward VI’s will excluded Mary,
Elizabeth, the Duchess of Suffolk and the Lady
Jane from the line of succession on the theory
that no woman could rule England. The Crown
was to be left to the Lady Jane's heirs-male.
• This plan, however, was not to Northumberland's
liking (probably because Lady Jane had no male
heirs at this time, having been married only
about a month before)
King Edward VI
• The draft was changed to leave the Crown
to Jane and her heirs-male. Mary and
Elizabeth were excluded because they
were officially illegitimate
 As Edward VI lay dying, the Duke of
Northumberland (according to legend)
symbolically stole the crown from him and
gave it to his daughter-in-law, the Lady
Jane.
King Edward VI
• Edward VI died at Greenwich Palace on 6 July
1553, either of tuberculosis, arsenic poisoning,
or syphilis. His last words were said to have
been: "Oh my Lord God, defend this realm from
papistry and maintain their true religion."
• He was buried in Henry VII Lady Chapel at
Westminster Abbey by Thomas Cranmer with
Protestant rites on 9 August, while Mary had
Mass said for his soul in the Tower
King Edward VI
• Jane's proclamation was revoked as an act done
under coercion; her succession was deemed
unlawful.
• Lady Jane was Queen for only nine days, during
that time reigning in name only,
• Thus, Edward VI's de jure successor was Mary I
(1553–58), but his de facto successor was Jane.
Queen
Mary I
Queen Mary I
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Also known as Mary Tudor or Bloody Mary
Born: 18 February 1516
Died: 17 November 1558
Reign: 19 July 1553–17 November 1558
Mary became Queen at the age of 37 and died
42 years old
• Coronation: 1 October 1553
Queen Mary I
• Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6
July 1553 (de jure) or 19 July 1553 (de facto)
until her death.
• Mary, the fourth and penultimate monarch of the
Tudor dynasty
• Her mother was Catherine of Aragon
Queen Mary I
 Mary was deemed illegitimate and her place in
the line of succession, as well as the title
princess, was transferred to her half-sister, the
future Elizabeth I when Henry broke with the
Church
– Mary was expelled from Court,
– Her servants were dismissed from her service
– She was forced to serve as a lady-in-waiting to
Elizabeth.
– She was not permitted to see her mother Catherine
– She was not permitted to attend her mothers funeral
in 1536.
Queen Mary I
• In 1544, through an Act
of Parliament, Henry
returned Mary and
Elizabeth to the line of
succession after
Edward. Both women,
however, remained
legally illegitimate.
• In 1547, Henry died and
was succeeded by
Edward VI
Queen Mary I
 When Mary, who had remained faithful to the
Catholic Church, asked to be allowed to worship
in private in her own chapel, she was ordered to
stop. After appealing to her cousin Charles V,
who threatened to go to war with England, she
was allowed to worship privately. Religious
differences would continue to be a problem
between Mary and Edward
Queen Mary I
• On 19 July 1553, Jane's accession proclamation
was deemed to have been made under coercion
and was revoked.
• Mary was proclaimed queen in her place and
her reign is considered to have begun on this
day. On 3 August 1553, with support for Jane
evaporating, Mary rode into London triumphant
and unchallenged, with her half-sister Elizabeth
at her side.
• Mary's first act of Parliament retroactively
validated Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of
Aragon, and legitimated herself
Queen Mary I
• Queen Mary I married the 11
years younger Philip II
• Although Mary enjoyed
tremendous popular support
and sympathy for her
mistreatment during the
earliest parts of her reign, she
lost almost all of it after
marrying Philip.
Queen Mary I
• Philip II (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598)
was the first official
• King of Spain from 1556 until 1598,
• King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598,
• King of England (as King-consort of Mary I) from
1554 to 1558,
• King of Portugal and the Algarves (as Philip I)
from 1580 until 1598 and
• King of Chile from 1554 until 1556.
Queen Mary I
• During her reign, Mary's weak health led
her to suffer two false pregnancies. After
such a delusion in 1558, Mary decreed in
her will that her husband Philip should be
the regent during the minority of her child.
No child, however, was born, and Mary
died at the age of 42, most probably of
ovarian cancer, at St. James's Palace on
17 November
Queen Mary I
• She is remembered for returning England from
Protestantism to Roman Catholicism.
• To this end, she had almost three hundred
religious dissenters executed; as a
consequence, she is often known as Bloody
Mary.
• Her religious policies were in many cases
reversed by her successor and half-sister,
Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
• Edward's religious laws were abolished by
Mary's first Parliament and numerous Protestant
leaders were executed in the so-called Marian
Persecutions
Queen Mary I
• Mary did not have many successes; she was,
however, known for her "common touch". She
would wear a country's national dress when
meeting its ambassador, and many of those who
waited upon her personally later expressed
great love and loyalty to her.
Queen Mary I
• The persecution of Protestants earned
Mary the appellation "Bloody Mary"
although many historians believe Mary
does not deserve all the blame that has
been cast upon her. During Mary's fiveyear reign, 283 individuals were burnt at
the stake, twice as many as had suffered
the same fate during the previous centuryand-a-half of English history
ELIZABETH I
•Elizabeth was born in the Palace of
Placentia in Greenwich, on September
7, 1533. Upon her birth, Elizabeth was
the heir presumptive to the throne of
England despite having an older half
sister
 Elizabeth was the only surviving child of
King Henry VIII of England by his second
wife, Anne Boleyn, Marchioness of
Pembroke
 In terms of personality, Elizabeth was
resourceful, determined, and exceedingly
intelligent.
 She loved learning for its own sake. Like
her mother and father, she was flirtatious
and charismatic.
 It is believed that Seymour made
advances towards Elizabeth while she
lived in his household. There, Elizabeth
received her education under Roger
Ascham.
 She came to speak and read six
languages: her native English, as well as
French, Italian, Spanish, Greek, and Latin.
Under the influence of Catherine Parr and
Ascham, Elizabeth was raised a
Protestant.
 In November 1558, upon Queen Mary's death,
Elizabeth ascended the throne. She was far
more popular than Mary, and it is said that after
the death of her half-sister the people rejoiced in
the streets
 Legend has it Elizabeth was sitting beneath an
oak tree reading the Greek Bible at Hatfield
when she was informed of her succession to the
throne. As it was November and winter, it was
unlikely Elizabeth would have been quietly
reading but perhaps enjoying a brisk walk.
 Elizabeth's coronation was on 15 January
1559. She was 25 years old
 Communion with the Catholic Church had
been reinstated under Mary I, but was
ended by Elizabeth.
• the government entered two new bills into
the Houses — the Act of Supremacy and
the Act of Uniformity. The Act of
Supremacy confirmed Elizabeth as
Supreme Governor of the Church of
England, as opposed to the Supreme
Head.
 Governor was a suitably equivocal
phrasing that made Elizabeth head of the
church without ever saying she was,
important because in the sixteent century,
it was felt that women could not rule a
church
 Elizabeth never changed the Religious
Settlement despite Protestant pressure
(previously thought to originate from the
Puritan choir) to do so and it is in fact the
1559 Settlement that forms much of the
basis of today's Church of England.
 At the end of 1562, Elizabeth fell ill with
smallpox, but later recovered. In 1563,
alarmed by the Queen's near-fatal illness,
Parliament asked that she marry or
nominate an heir to prevent civil war upon
her death. She refused to do either,
• The Queen's health remained good until the fall
of 1602, when a series of losses among her
remaining friends appeared to throw her into a
melancholy. In her depression, she was
lethargic and silent, quite unlike her usual brisk
manner. Her courtiers anxiously tried to cheer
her, but as she admonished her godson, John
Harington
 On March 21, 1603, the Lord Admiral finally
persuaded the Queen to go to bed. They had
to saw the Coronation Ring off her finger where
it had grown into the flesh. She could no longer
speak
• It is sometimes claimed that Elizabeth
named James her heir on her deathbed.
•According to one story, when asked whom she
would name her heir, she replied, "Who could that
be but my cousin Scotland?" According to
another, she said, "Who but a King could succeed
a Queen?" Finally, a third legend suggests that
she remained silent until her death.
JAMES I
 James was the only child of
Mary I, Queen of Scots and
of her second husband,
Henry Stuart, Duke of
Albany, more commonly
known as Lord Darnley
 James was born on 19 June 1566 at
Edinburgh Castle, and as the eldest son of
the monarch and heir-apparent,
automatically became Duke of Rothesay
and Prince and Great Steward of
Scotland. He received the name Charles
James, the first name in honour of his
godfather Charles IX of France, thus
becoming the first British monarch to have
more than one forename.
 was King of Scots, King of England, and
King of Ireland. He was the first to style
himself King of Great Britain. He ruled in
Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567;
from the 'Union of the Crowns', he ruled in
England and Ireland as James I, from 24
March 1603 until his death
• In 1586, James VI and Elizabeth I
became allies under the Treaty of
Berwick. James sought to remain in the
favour of the unmarried Queen of
England, as he was a potential
successor to her Crown James managed
to reduce significantly the influence of
the Roman Catholic nobles in Scotland.
 He further endeared himself to
Protestants by marrying Anne of
Denmark and Norway—a princess from
a Protestant country and daughter of
Frederick II of Denmark and Norway—
by proxy in 1589
 The couple produced eight living
children and one who was stillborn
 James became obsessed with the threat
that witches and witchcraft might pose to
him and his country. During this period, he
wrote a treatise on demonology, as a
result of which hundreds of Scottish men
and women were put to death for
witchcraft, their bodies later being found in
what was then called Nor Loch, now
Princes Street Gardens in Edinburgh
 James lapsed into senility during the last
year of his reign. Real power passed to
Charles and to the Duke of Buckingham
 James died at Theobalds House in 1625 of
probably brought upon by kidney failure
and stroke
• The ‘’King James Bible’’ became the standard
edition of the Bible throughout the Englishspeaking world, replacing the Great Bible of
Henry VIII, the Geneva Bible and other
translations. The beauty of its language makes it
stand as one of the greatest works of English
literature.
• The king also designed the British flag in 1603
by combining England's red cross of St. George
with Scotland's white cross of St. Andrew. Some
conclude that the term Union Jack may have
come from James' name, Jac meaning Jacobus
which is Latin for James, i.e. King Jac's Union
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Henry VIII – James I Tudor England