TUDOR KINGS & QUEENS (1485-1603) Review from last semester: • England turmoil of Wars of the Roses (Lancaster vs. York) – 1485—a Lancaster, Henry Tudor (Henry VII), defeated the Yorks and established a new monarchial dynasty- the Tudor line – Henry VII brought nobles under control with the Court of the Star Chamber and effectively eliminated aristocratic opposition for his successor, Henry VIII – Henry VIII focused on eliminating the challenge of the papacy – HENRY VII (FIRST TUDOR) r. 1485 - 1509 • Defeated Richard III at Bosworth • Used marital diplomacy to secure his throne and unite claims of Lancaster and York. – Elizabeth of York was the daughter of Edward IV, sister of Edward V, niece of Richard III—lots of York ancestry!! • Married his son Arthur to Catherine of Aragon and his daughter Margaret to King James IV of Scotland. • The expedition of John Cabot claimed Nova Scotia and Newfoundland for England. HENRY VIII r. 1509 - 1547 HENRY VIII • Fought for territory on the continent • Made England a naval super power. • Had six wives. 1.Catherine of Aragon (his older brother’s wife!) from which came Mary. Divorce. 2.Anne Boleyn from which came Elizabeth. Beheaded 3.Jane Seymour from which came Edward. Died during childbirth. 4.Anne of Cleves. Divorced. 5.Catherine Howard. Beheaded. 6.Catherine Parr. Outlived the king. • Henry broke from the Roman Catholic Church over his divorce of Catherine, among other things. He created The Church of England in which he was the head. • He worked closely with the House of Commons, giving them more power than that of the Lords. HENRY’S LEGACY (BEYOND THE WOMEN) In his youth was considered to be the most accomplished prince in Europe. Act of Supremacy declared him the head of a new Church of England. Dissolution of the Monasteries began in 1536. Built a navy to rival that of Spain. Created a fairly positive relationship with Parliament—how/why? Was named Defender of the Faith. C(K)ATHERINE OF ARAGON • • • • • • Widow of Arthur, Henry’s brother Gave birth to Mary Catholic One still born, three miscarriages Prince Henry dies at 52 days Divorced following The Act of Supremacy ANNE BOLEYN • • • • • • M. 1533 executed 1536 Gave birth to Elizabeth Had one miscarriage Henry began seeing Jane Seymore; lady in waiting. Charges against Anne = treason, adultery and incest. She was beheaded with her brother. Good Christian people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul. After being blindfolded and kneeling at the block, she repeated several times: To Jesus Christ I commend my soul; Lord Jesus receive my soul. JANE SEYMORE • • • • • M. 1536 DIED 1537 Married within 24 hours of Anne’s execution Gave birth to Edward Died two weeks after giving birth Only one of Henry’s wives buried with him ANNE OF CLEVES • • • • M. January 1540 Divorced July 1540 Marriage was arrange by Henry’s ministers He nicknamed her “Flanders Mare” Divorced and given title - “King’s Sister” KATHERYN HOWARD • M. July 1540 Executed 1542 • He was 49 and she was 19 • Charged with adultery and incest. KATHERINE PARR • • • • • M. 1543 Widowed 1547 She was married twice before - no kids Became a very good stepmother to all of the children Nursed the king during his last years. Following the death of the king, she married Thomas Seymore; Edward VI’s uncle. EDWARD VI r. 1547 - 1553 • Only surviving son of Henry VIII. • Crowned at age nine. • His uncle, Edward Seymour, was named Protector. • The Book of Common Prayer was introduced. • England moved toward Protestantism. • He never truly exercised his authority as king. • Edward died of tuberculosis at fifteen. • He willed his throne to his cousin Lady Jane Grey. LADY JANE GREY July 1553 (executed 1554) • • • • • • Claim to the throne was weak. Female lineage, great grandfather Henry VII. Unwillingly took the throne at age 16 Reigned for 9 days. Arrested by Mary’s soldiers. She, her husband Lord Dudley and her father-in-law were kept in the Tower of London. All were executed in February 1554. MARY I (Bloody Mary) 1553 - 1558 • Daughter of Catherine of Aragon. Was ten when her parents were divorced. • VERY Catholic • Was declared an illegitimate child by Parliament in 1533. • 37 years old when she ascended the throne. • Married Philip II of Spain (also VERY Catholic). • Executed numerous Protestants • Imprisoned her half-sister Elizabeth. • Died at age 42. ELIZABETH I r. 1558 - 1603 • • • • • • • • • Daughter of Anne Boleyn Ascended without contest Protestant upbringing. Spoke 9 languages Catholics saw her as illegitimate Created the Anglican Church DEFEATED THE SPANISH ARMADA East India Company created. Raleigh in the New World—competition with Spain • NEVER MARRIED !!! Why does this matter? • Last Tudor Domestic Policy • Council of 19 nobles served as advisors. Lord Cecil was her closest confidant. • Believed in social hierarchy. • Statue of Apprentices 1563 = Work is a social and moral duty. Subjects must live and work where they were born. • Poor Laws of 1597 = local areas were responsible for unemployed and homeless. • She loved parties and court ceremonies. • The Queen often sold land and offices for cash. • Her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, plotted against her 3 times. The plots included the King of Spain. Mary was eventually executed in 1587. Religion & Elizabeth • settled religious differences by merging broadly defined Protestant doctrine with traditional Catholic ritual, later resulting in the Anglican Church • 1559- Reintroduction of the Act of Supremacy • 1559 Act of Uniformity – 2nd version of Book of Common Prayer • 1563 - 39 Articles: spells out Anglican doctrine • Issues with zealot Catholics and Protestants (Puritans , Presbyterians and Congregationalists.) More religion • radical Catholics wanted to replace Elizabeth I with Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots • Puritans – Protestants who wanted to purify the church of any “popery”, had two grievances about Elizabeth • the retention of Catholic ceremony in the Church of England • the continuation of the Episcopal system of church governance • Presbyterians – Puritans creation of an alternative national church of semiautonomous congregations governed by representative presbyteries • more extreme Puritans, Congregationalists wanted every congregation to be autonomous Foreign Policy • Continued her father’s policy of building a large navy. • Worked at keeping the peace using a diplomatic concept known as balance of power. • Did not want confrontation with Spain. More foreign policy • • • • English treaty with France Drake and Hawkins Support for Netherlands and Henry of Navarre 1588 - Defeat of the Armada – Protestant resistance everywhere is given hope and Spain is never again a world power • Elizabeth dies in 1603 (69 years old), the last Tudor. James VI of Scotland (James I) takes the throne. Unity between England and Scotland complete. – Why was Elizabeth so impressive to her observers?