Review from last semester:
• England
turmoil of Wars of the Roses (Lancaster vs. York)
– 1485—a Lancaster, Henry Tudor (Henry VII), defeated the
Yorks and established a new monarchial dynasty- the
Tudor line
– Henry VII brought nobles under control with the Court of
the Star Chamber and effectively eliminated aristocratic
opposition for his successor, Henry VIII
– Henry VIII focused on eliminating the challenge of the
r. 1485 - 1509
• Defeated Richard III at Bosworth
• Used marital diplomacy to secure his throne
and unite claims of Lancaster and York.
– Elizabeth of York was the daughter of Edward IV, sister
of Edward V, niece of Richard III—lots of York ancestry!!
• Married his son Arthur to Catherine of
Aragon and his daughter Margaret to King
James IV of Scotland.
• The expedition of John Cabot claimed
Nova Scotia and Newfoundland for
r. 1509 - 1547
• Fought for territory on the continent
• Made England a naval super power.
• Had six wives.
1.Catherine of Aragon (his older brother’s wife!) from which came Mary.
2.Anne Boleyn from which came Elizabeth. Beheaded
3.Jane Seymour from which came Edward. Died during childbirth.
4.Anne of Cleves. Divorced.
5.Catherine Howard. Beheaded.
6.Catherine Parr. Outlived the king.
• Henry broke from the Roman Catholic Church over his
divorce of Catherine, among other things. He created The
Church of England in which he was the head.
• He worked closely with the House of Commons, giving
them more power than that of the Lords.
In his youth was considered to be the most
accomplished prince in Europe.
Act of Supremacy declared him the head of a new
Church of England.
Dissolution of the Monasteries began in 1536.
Built a navy to rival that of Spain.
Created a fairly positive relationship with
Was named Defender of the Faith.
Widow of Arthur, Henry’s brother
Gave birth to Mary
One still born, three miscarriages
Prince Henry dies at 52 days
Divorced following The Act of
M. 1533 executed 1536
Gave birth to Elizabeth
Had one miscarriage
Henry began seeing Jane Seymore; lady in waiting.
Charges against Anne = treason, adultery
and incest.
She was beheaded with her brother.
Good Christian people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to
die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak
anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and
send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to
me he was ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I
require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily
desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.
After being blindfolded and kneeling at the block, she repeated several times: To Jesus Christ I
commend my soul; Lord Jesus receive my soul.
M. 1536 DIED 1537
Married within 24 hours of Anne’s execution
Gave birth to Edward
Died two weeks after giving birth
Only one of Henry’s wives buried with him
M. January 1540 Divorced July 1540
Marriage was arrange by Henry’s ministers
He nicknamed her “Flanders Mare”
Divorced and given title - “King’s Sister”
• M. July 1540 Executed 1542
• He was 49 and she was 19
• Charged with adultery and incest.
M. 1543 Widowed 1547
She was married twice before - no kids
Became a very good stepmother to all of the children
Nursed the king during his last years.
Following the death of the king, she married Thomas Seymore; Edward
VI’s uncle.
r. 1547 - 1553
• Only surviving son of Henry VIII.
• Crowned at age nine.
• His uncle, Edward Seymour, was named
• The Book of Common Prayer was introduced.
• England moved toward Protestantism.
• He never truly exercised his authority as king.
• Edward died of tuberculosis at fifteen.
• He willed his throne to his cousin Lady Jane
July 1553
(executed 1554)
Claim to the throne was weak.
Female lineage, great grandfather Henry VII.
Unwillingly took the throne at age 16
Reigned for 9 days.
Arrested by Mary’s soldiers.
She, her husband Lord Dudley and
her father-in-law were kept in the Tower
of London.
All were executed in February 1554.
MARY I (Bloody Mary)
1553 - 1558
• Daughter of Catherine of Aragon. Was ten when her parents were
• VERY Catholic
• Was declared an illegitimate child by Parliament in 1533.
• 37 years old when she ascended the throne.
• Married Philip II of Spain (also VERY Catholic).
• Executed numerous Protestants
• Imprisoned her half-sister Elizabeth.
• Died at age 42.
r. 1558 - 1603
Daughter of Anne Boleyn
Ascended without contest
Protestant upbringing.
Spoke 9 languages
Catholics saw her as illegitimate
Created the Anglican Church
East India Company created.
Raleigh in the New World—competition
with Spain
• NEVER MARRIED !!! Why does this
• Last Tudor
Domestic Policy
• Council of 19 nobles served as advisors. Lord Cecil was her
closest confidant.
• Believed in social hierarchy.
• Statue of Apprentices 1563 = Work is a social and moral duty.
Subjects must live and work where they were born.
• Poor Laws of 1597 = local areas were responsible for
unemployed and homeless.
• She loved parties and court ceremonies.
• The Queen often sold land and offices for cash.
• Her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, plotted against her 3 times.
The plots included the King of Spain. Mary was eventually
executed in 1587.
Religion & Elizabeth
• settled religious differences by merging broadly
defined Protestant doctrine with traditional Catholic
ritual, later resulting in the Anglican Church
• 1559- Reintroduction of the Act of Supremacy
• 1559 Act of Uniformity – 2nd version of Book of
Common Prayer
• 1563 - 39 Articles: spells out Anglican doctrine
• Issues with zealot Catholics and Protestants (Puritans
, Presbyterians and Congregationalists.)
More religion
• radical Catholics wanted to replace Elizabeth I with
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
• Puritans – Protestants who wanted to purify the
church of any “popery”, had two grievances about
• the retention of Catholic ceremony in the Church of England
• the continuation of the Episcopal system of church governance
• Presbyterians – Puritans creation of an alternative
national church of semiautonomous congregations
governed by representative presbyteries
• more extreme Puritans, Congregationalists wanted
every congregation to be autonomous
Foreign Policy
• Continued her father’s policy of building a large navy.
• Worked at keeping the peace using a diplomatic
concept known as balance of power.
• Did not want confrontation with Spain.
More foreign policy
English treaty with France
Drake and Hawkins
Support for Netherlands and Henry of Navarre
1588 - Defeat of the Armada
– Protestant resistance everywhere is given hope and
Spain is never again a world power
• Elizabeth dies in 1603 (69 years old), the last
Tudor. James VI of Scotland (James I) takes the
throne. Unity between England and Scotland
– Why was Elizabeth so impressive to her observers?