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Invaded by Germanic Angles, Saxons & Jutes
in 400s
886 – Anglo-Saxon kingdoms united
◦ Formed “Angleland” = England
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Last of Anglo-Saxon kings (Albert) died
leaving no heir = battle over throne
William, Duke of Normandy, wanted throne and
claimed to be closest male relative
◦ Anglos chose Harold (because Will was French)
◦ 1066 = Battle of Hastings – William defeated Harold
 Became known as William the Conqueror
◦ Brought French Influence
 French = Language of Nobility
 English = Language of the Commoners
 Domesday Book = Survey of taxable wealth (land)
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Henry I = William’s Son
◦ Created National Treasury
◦ Gave royal courts greater authority

Established Common Law
◦ Used traveling judges to apply law equally
throughout the land (Grand/Petit Jury)

Wanted to try clergy in royal courts

Ended Henry’s prominence as king
◦ Led to conflict with Thomas Becket – Archbishop of
Canterbury
◦ TB murdered by kings knights
◦ Henry had to apologize to church

Eleanor of Aquitaine (H II’s wife)
◦ Controlled SW France
◦ Adviser to her sons Richard I (Lionhearted) & John

Magna Carta = Great charter
◦ 1215
◦ John was forced to sign
◦ Limited royal power
 Prevented king from collecting taxes without the consent
of the Great Council
 Established Trial by Jury
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Henry III = John’s son
Added knights and burgesses to Great
Council (Why?)
1295 – Edward I (H III’s son) Created Model
Parliament
1400 – Parliament divided
◦ House of Lords = Nobles & Clergy
◦ House of Burgesses = Knights & Burgesses
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Rulers/kings were weak because of power of
pope
Conflicts developed between kings & popes
Read about it on page 333
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1000-1100 – Growth of towns/trade leads to the appearance of
a new middle class called Burghers
◦ Burghers = merchants & craftsmen
1100s – Workers from guilds control wages & prices in each craft
◦ Burghers win right to govern towns-exempt from feudal
obligations
1213-1295 – England – Magna Carta guarantees political rights
◦ Burghers & knights serve in the model Parliament
◦ Later the two groups divide into separate assembly called House of Commons

1302 – France – middle class (commoners) become known as
Third Estate
◦ Their participation in Estates-General increases power of king over nobles

1300s – 100 yrs war – use of long bows & cannons reduce
military effectiveness of knights
◦ Local lords lose power to monarchy

1400s – After HYW Eng & Fr monarchs repeatedly call upon
middle class in Parl. & EG to help them rule
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Rise of European Monarchies