Warm Up
► 1.
How do we know about prehistory? (be specific)
► 2. What was the Neolithic Revolution?
► 3. WHY was this revolution significant?
► 4. Explain the difference between a command
economy and market economy.
5. Today we are moving on to our first river civilization. As you analyze the
maps “Conquering the Fertile Crescent” on p. 40 and 41 (top of page), keep
in mind WHY civilizations change. Remember yesterday we talked about
warfare and expansion………
Answer the 2 map questions.
Make sure you turned in your REVIEW CONTRACT.
Early River Civilizations
Mesopotamia- “land
between the rivers”
 valley of Tigris and Euphrates
Fertile Crescent fertile land between
Mediterranean Sea and the
Persian Gulf
Silt –
 deposited by rivers; helped
The Fertile Crescent:“Crossroads of the World”
-Connected Europe, Asia and Africa
-Flooding was unpredictable : miserable outlook on life
People Groups of Mesopotamia
1. The Sumerians
1st Civilization
About 4500 BCE – current day
Began building city-states
Early city-states – Ur, Erech &
cities and surrounding
Religion in Sumerian city-states
► Polytheism-
belief in many gods
 Nature was controlled by gods (floods, harvests)
 Thought gods were like people- ate, drank, fell in
love, married, fought
 Made offerings to them through priests/priestesses
► Each
city-state worshipped their own gods
► Ziggurat-
temple on top of pyramid
Tower of Babel?
Theocracy – a government
ruled by divine authority
Ruler’s/government’s job
maintain city walls,
irrigation systems, lead
army, enforce laws,
collect taxes, keep
Kings were the gods
representatives on earth
Sumerians- developed the first
writing system
 Cuneiform – wedge shaped
writing done with a stylus
 Used for business purposes, to
record religious rites, tax records
 Clay tablets and clay envelopes
Scribe- writer
Epic of Gilgamesh- Sumerian
literature about a legendary king
on a journey
Sumerian Technology
► First
to invent the
► Sails for boats
► Irrigation systems
► Plow
► 12 month calendar
► Arches, columns,
► Bricks made of sun
ramps and inclined
baked clay
► Math based on 60
► Sewers!
 Second
► Buildings made of mud
 Minute
 360 degrees
► Sumerian
city states were on flat plains, easily
invaded by warrior societies
 ceased to exist about 1750 BC
-constant warfare
-invaded and taken over
► Invaders:
 Sargon- leader of the Akkadians from the North
 invades and sets up the world’s first empire
Warm Up # 4
“The Epic of Gilgamesh”
1. Read the excerpt on p. 38 in the text and answer the two
questions (if you get stuck, look for context clues).
2. LIST at least 5 interesting things about the story:
REVIEW: Qualifier Assignment
2. The Akkadians- First Empire
2330 BC- Sargon founds the first
Empire- Consists of many nations
and people
 (easy to build, hard to maintain)
Borrow many things from Sumeria
because of cultural diffusion
Lasts for 140 years, falls to eastern
 1792 BC, Hammurabi sets up
empire in Babylon and gains
control of Sumer & Akkad
3. Babylonians
Code of Hammurabi –
-“eye for an eye” very harshpunishment fit the crime:
-282 laws carved in stone
-on public display
- laws: based on social status
- first written set of LAWS
-patriarchal =men controlled; women had few rights
-Arranged marriages
-Sumerian culture/language/cuneiform- still being taught
1600 BC Babylon fell to the Hittites
-Iron stronger than bronze
The Code of Hammurabi
On display at:
la musee de louvre, Paris, France
(The Louvre Museum)
SEE HW: Read Hammurabi’s law code and
answer the questions.
Group of people who speak a language from one mother tongue
(Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Persian, Germanic Languages)
 Semitic languages different (Hebrew, Arabic)
4. Hittites- group of Indo-Europeans
 used iron weapons, brought them to Mesopotamia from
NW (Turkey)
 Use of CHARIOTS for invasion
►Innovative chariots (driver, fighter, defender)
 destroyed c. 1200 BC by sea peoples
5. Assyrians
 Tortured, beheaded, (skinned?) prisoners, cut them up and fed to
Deported troublesome people to outer edges of region
Built capital at Nineveh (1st library)
 King Assurbanipal builds the world’s first library with 22,000 clay
Used iron weapons, empire by 700 BC
► Very efficient communications
► Very ruthless people, no mercy on captured peoples
 Practiced assimilation: forcing people to give up their identity and
become like the conquerors
6. The Chaldeans (a short-lived Empire):
612BC –people deported by Assyrians attacked and destroyed Ninevah
► Chaldeans –
 Babylon becomes capital again
 math and astronomy to use for astrology
King Nebuchadnezzar –
 rebuilt Babylon
 Hanging Gardens for wife
 Fights Egyptians & Jews
 Captures Jerusalem
Deports and enslaves Jews to Babylon
► King Solomon’s Temple destroyed
Persians conquered Babylon from the east!
7. Phoenicians
► Phoenicia
► Traders
– now
not fighters
 Major ports
 Controlled by several
► Carriers
of civilization
 Alphabet- 22 letters
► First to use coined
► Barter system bad
 Both had to have
something the other
 Coins could be stored
and saved – livestock
and food could not
Hebrews/ Israel
► Abraham
 migrated from Mesopotamia (Ur) to Jordan River Valley of
 founder of the Jews/Israelites (2000 BC)
► 1st
son- Ishmael, denied birthright, sent off
► 2nd, but favored son Isaac
► Grandson Jacob (Israel)- patriarchs
► Jacob had 12 sons, each established a tribe: “12 tribes of Israel”
About 400 years later the Israelites left Palestine for Egypt
because of a drought/famine.
Egyptians enslaved the Jews
-after a few hundred years the Jews gained their freedom
and left under Moses (the Exodus)
Israel (continued)
Kingdom divided in half:
 Israel in the north
 Judah in the south
By 722 BC- Israel conquered by the Assyrians and the people
were assimilated
By 586 BC- Judah conquered by Babylonians/Chaldeans and
sent into exile (temple destroyed)
 Jewish Diaspora (scattering of Jews outside Judah)
Eventually some Jews in exile returned to Palestine when Cyrus
and Persians overthrew the Babylonians
 Rebuilt temple (the “second temple”)
Jewish Beliefs
Monotheism: Only 1 God, called YHWY
 YHWY is good and just and expects his people to be the same
 YHWY made a covenant (contract) with Abraham: God would give the
people a promised land (Israel/Palestine) if they followed His commands
Law: when Jews left Egypt God gave Moses the 10 Commandments
 Jews set apart from other peoples because of their laws (e.g. keeping
Prophets warned Israel:
 when they weren’t following God, or taking care of justice, also showed them
the future
The covenant, the Law, and the prophets make up the 3 parts of the religion
 Judeo-Christian beliefs and traditions (Christianity builds onto Judaism)
The first 5 books of the Jewish holy book, the Hebrew Bible
 accredited to Moses- the Torah
 Talmud- finished AD500 by Jewish scholars
► explains and interprets behaviors, other writings, and how to live daily life
Kings of Israel
► 1.
 First to unite tribes
► 2.
► 3.
David –
 Defeated the Philistines
 Formed a dynasty
 – made Jerusalem a great
capital (built temple)
 –height of power
 Lots of building meant lots of
 One of his wives was a
daughter of Pharaoh.
Fiddler on the Roof- famous musical about a Jewish family living in
Russia in the late 1800’s.
Persian Empire
► Located
in modern
Cyrus treated conquered people with respect
► Let
people continue to self govern and keep their religion
 mercy and multiculturalism
 Allowed exiled peoples to return home
► (including
RELIGION- Zoroastrianism -600BC
 Zoroaster/ Zarathustra- founder
 Avesta- sacred text
 Monotheistic
 Ahura Mazda- creator god
 Ahriman- evil spirit
 Good and evil forces (dualism)
 Day of Judgment- rewarded or punished
Persian Empire cont’d.
Cyrus’ son and grandson
(Darius) extended empire,
invaded Greece
 divides the empire into satrapies
Military very powerful, king’s
guards called immortals b/c
number of soldiers never under
Eventually kings cared more
about intrigue and power than
ruling well and empire fell
Conquered by Alexander the
Great and the GREEKS
Homework- Due Wednesday
THE CODE OF HAMMURABI, document analysis
► You
have 2 nights to complete in the manual:
 p.18 & 19 (6 questions)
 P. 21-25 (26 questions)
 P. 29, ONLY#10 (1 question)
 Quiz: Mesopotamia and Egypt
Warm Up #5
1. Who created the first empire? Name the empire.
2. Who created the first set of laws? Give the name of the
3. What do we call a society ruled and dominated by men?
4. Explain assimilation.

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