Warm Up #3 ► 1. How do we know about prehistory? (be specific) ► 2. What was the Neolithic Revolution? ► 3. WHY was this revolution significant? ► 4. Explain the difference between a command economy and market economy. 5. Today we are moving on to our first river civilization. As you analyze the maps “Conquering the Fertile Crescent” on p. 40 and 41 (top of page), keep in mind WHY civilizations change. Remember yesterday we talked about warfare and expansion……… Answer the 2 map questions. Make sure you turned in your REVIEW CONTRACT. Early River Civilizations 1. 2. 3. 4. Mesopotamia Egypt India China Mesopotamia ► Mesopotamia- “land between the rivers” valley of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers ► Fertile Crescent fertile land between Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf ► Silt – deposited by rivers; helped farming The Fertile Crescent:“Crossroads of the World” -Connected Europe, Asia and Africa -Flooding was unpredictable : miserable outlook on life People Groups of Mesopotamia 1. The Sumerians ► 1st Civilization ► About 4500 BCE – current day Iraq ► Began building city-states ► Early city-states – Ur, Erech & Kish cities and surrounding countryside Religion in Sumerian city-states ► Polytheism- belief in many gods Nature was controlled by gods (floods, harvests) Thought gods were like people- ate, drank, fell in love, married, fought Made offerings to them through priests/priestesses ► Each city-state worshipped their own gods ► Ziggurat- temple on top of pyramid ziggurats Tower of Babel? Government: Theocracy – a government ruled by divine authority ► Ruler’s/government’s job maintain city walls, irrigation systems, lead army, enforce laws, collect taxes, keep records ► Kings were the gods representatives on earth Writing ► Sumerians- developed the first writing system Cuneiform – wedge shaped writing done with a stylus Used for business purposes, to record religious rites, tax records Clay tablets and clay envelopes ► Scribe- writer ► Epic of Gilgamesh- Sumerian literature about a legendary king on a journey Sumerian Technology ► First to invent the wheel ► Sails for boats ► Irrigation systems ► Plow ► 12 month calendar ► Arches, columns, ► Bricks made of sun ramps and inclined baked clay walks ► Math based on 60 ► Sewers! Second ► Buildings made of mud Minute 360 degrees ► Sumerian city states were on flat plains, easily invaded by warrior societies ceased to exist about 1750 BC -constant warfare -invaded and taken over ► Invaders: Sargon- leader of the Akkadians from the North invades and sets up the world’s first empire Warm Up # 4 “The Epic of Gilgamesh” 1. Read the excerpt on p. 38 in the text and answer the two questions (if you get stuck, look for context clues). 2. LIST at least 5 interesting things about the story: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. REVIEW: Qualifier Assignment 2. The Akkadians- First Empire ► 2330 BC- Sargon founds the first empire! ► Empire- Consists of many nations and people (easy to build, hard to maintain) ► Borrow many things from Sumeria because of cultural diffusion ► Lasts for 140 years, falls to eastern tribes 1792 BC, Hammurabi sets up empire in Babylon and gains control of Sumer & Akkad 3. Babylonians Code of Hammurabi – -“eye for an eye” very harshpunishment fit the crime: -282 laws carved in stone -on public display - laws: based on social status - first written set of LAWS Society: -patriarchal =men controlled; women had few rights -Arranged marriages -Sumerian culture/language/cuneiform- still being taught Invaded: 1600 BC Babylon fell to the Hittites -Iron stronger than bronze The Code of Hammurabi On display at: la musee de louvre, Paris, France (The Louvre Museum) ► SEE HW: Read Hammurabi’s law code and answer the questions. Indo-Europeans ► Group of people who speak a language from one mother tongue (Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Persian, Germanic Languages) Semitic languages different (Hebrew, Arabic) ► 4. Hittites- group of Indo-Europeans used iron weapons, brought them to Mesopotamia from NW (Turkey) Use of CHARIOTS for invasion ►Innovative chariots (driver, fighter, defender) destroyed c. 1200 BC by sea peoples 5. Assyrians ► Militaristic Tortured, beheaded, (skinned?) prisoners, cut them up and fed to dogs ► Deported troublesome people to outer edges of region ► Built capital at Nineveh (1st library) King Assurbanipal builds the world’s first library with 22,000 clay tablets Used iron weapons, empire by 700 BC ► Very efficient communications ► Very ruthless people, no mercy on captured peoples ► Practiced assimilation: forcing people to give up their identity and become like the conquerors Assyrians 6. The Chaldeans (a short-lived Empire): ► 612BC –people deported by Assyrians attacked and destroyed Ninevah ► Chaldeans – Babylon becomes capital again math and astronomy to use for astrology ► King Nebuchadnezzar – rebuilt Babylon Hanging Gardens for wife Fights Egyptians & Jews Captures Jerusalem Deports and enslaves Jews to Babylon ► King Solomon’s Temple destroyed ► Persians conquered Babylon from the east! 7. Phoenicians Phoenicia ► Phoenicia Lebanon ► Traders – now not fighters Major ports Controlled by several empires ► Carriers of civilization Alphabet- 22 letters LYDIA ► First to use coined money ► Barter system bad Both had to have something the other wanted Coins could be stored and saved – livestock and food could not Hebrews/ Israel Israel ► Abraham migrated from Mesopotamia (Ur) to Jordan River Valley of Palestine founder of the Jews/Israelites (2000 BC) ► 1st son- Ishmael, denied birthright, sent off ► 2nd, but favored son Isaac ► Grandson Jacob (Israel)- patriarchs ► Jacob had 12 sons, each established a tribe: “12 tribes of Israel” About 400 years later the Israelites left Palestine for Egypt because of a drought/famine. ► Egyptians enslaved the Jews -after a few hundred years the Jews gained their freedom and left under Moses (the Exodus) Israel (continued) ► Kingdom divided in half: Israel in the north Judah in the south ► By 722 BC- Israel conquered by the Assyrians and the people were assimilated ► By 586 BC- Judah conquered by Babylonians/Chaldeans and sent into exile (temple destroyed) Jewish Diaspora (scattering of Jews outside Judah) ► Eventually some Jews in exile returned to Palestine when Cyrus and Persians overthrew the Babylonians Rebuilt temple (the “second temple”) Jewish Beliefs ► ► Monotheism: Only 1 God, called YHWY YHWY is good and just and expects his people to be the same YHWY made a covenant (contract) with Abraham: God would give the people a promised land (Israel/Palestine) if they followed His commands Law: when Jews left Egypt God gave Moses the 10 Commandments Jews set apart from other peoples because of their laws (e.g. keeping ‘kosher’) ► Prophets warned Israel: when they weren’t following God, or taking care of justice, also showed them the future ► The covenant, the Law, and the prophets make up the 3 parts of the religion Judeo-Christian beliefs and traditions (Christianity builds onto Judaism) ► The first 5 books of the Jewish holy book, the Hebrew Bible accredited to Moses- the Torah Talmud- finished AD500 by Jewish scholars ► explains and interprets behaviors, other writings, and how to live daily life Kings of Israel ► 1. Saul First to unite tribes ► 2. ► 3. David – Defeated the Philistines Formed a dynasty Solomon – made Jerusalem a great capital (built temple) –height of power Lots of building meant lots of taxes One of his wives was a daughter of Pharaoh. Judaism ► Fiddler on the Roof- famous musical about a Jewish family living in Russia in the late 1800’s. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gRdfX7ut8gw Persian Empire ► Located Iran in modern Persians ► Cyrus treated conquered people with respect ► Let people continue to self govern and keep their religion mercy and multiculturalism Allowed exiled peoples to return home ► (including ► Hebrews) RELIGION- Zoroastrianism -600BC Zoroaster/ Zarathustra- founder Avesta- sacred text Monotheistic Ahura Mazda- creator god Ahriman- evil spirit Good and evil forces (dualism) Day of Judgment- rewarded or punished Persian Empire cont’d. ► Cyrus’ son and grandson (Darius) extended empire, invaded Greece divides the empire into satrapies ► Military very powerful, king’s guards called immortals b/c number of soldiers never under 10,000 ► Eventually kings cared more about intrigue and power than ruling well and empire fell ► Conquered by Alexander the Great and the GREEKS Homework- Due Wednesday THE CODE OF HAMMURABI, document analysis ► You have 2 nights to complete in the manual: p.18 & 19 (6 questions) P. 21-25 (26 questions) P. 29, ONLY#10 (1 question) Quiz: Mesopotamia and Egypt Warm Up #5 ► 1. Who created the first empire? Name the empire. ► 2. Who created the first set of laws? Give the name of the laws. ► 3. What do we call a society ruled and dominated by men? ► 4. Explain assimilation.