Sumerian Geography Mesopotamia is the name used for the area watered by the Euphrates and it’s tributaries. Mesopotamia is now in modern day Iraq and Syria. The name Mesopotamia name was appropriate because ancient Mesopotamia was located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. http://www.sron.nl/~jheise/akkadian/meso potamia.html The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region containing the most moist and fertile land of the western Asia area. It is along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers heading towards the Persian Gulf. Around 5,000 B.C. the first cities were built in the southern part of this long crescent valley by the Sumerians. http://www.nlcs.k12.in.us/oljrhi/brown/mes opotamia/meso.htm Military The Big City Wall defended Sumerian cities. They will engage in warfare between cities around them. They had men that carried battle-axes, daggers and spears around regularly. Regular infantry also used copper helmets, felt cloaks and leather silts. The Sumerian invented the chariot. The chariot was used to harness onagers. http://home.comcast.net/~syl vanarrow/sumeria.htm Agriculture What they grew: oChick peas oLentils oMillet oWheat oTurnips oDate oOnions oGarlic Agriculture Facts on Sumerian agriculture: They Raised goats, pigs, sheet and cattle. •They used donkeys as there main transport animal. •Sumerian agriculture depended on irrigation. •The canals often required repairs removal of silt. Specialization of labor: The Sumerian labor resembled the social class system. At the top most were the ruling elites. This group comprised of the king who was always brought into power by people votes. In the group were also nobles, family members of the rulers. http://www.kidspast.com/worldhistory/0026-specialization-of-labor.php Political Rulers: Hammurabi: The ruler of Babylon. Came up with the code of laws throughout his domains. Hammurabi had to rebuild Babylon. After the decline of Sargons empire, the Sumerian city-states began to decline. After that, it was all in Hammurabi’s hands to fix. He founded his empire centered in Babylon. He had also established written laws that describes violations and there punishments. He is known as Babylon’s highest achiever. When he died, his position was taken over. http://www.thenagain.info/WebChron/MiddleEast /Hammurabi.html Religion and Faith The Sumerians consider the universe, heaven and earth. The term universe, (an-ki) translates to heaven and earth. The Sumerians worshipped a god named An as their primary god. The word "an" in Sumerian means "sky". The God of Judaism obeyed the call of God to depart northern Mesopotamia and travel to Canaan. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001462.html Religion and Faith The Nether world: The “hell”; world below is considered the nether world. The dead go to the Nether world. Entering the Nether world you have to follow the following rules: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Make no noise No weapons No clean clothes You may not behave normal to your family No sandals Must duse himself with “good” oil. The Sumerian women were not allowed to go to school but they still had rights. they could buy and sell slaves, own their own property, and run their own business’s. Women were allowed to control the affairs of their homes when their husbands were away but the men were still the head of the household. http://library.thinkquest.org/J002807/Time%20and%20Time%20Again/Time%20 and%20Time%20Again/mesosumer.html Cuneiform is the writing the Sumerians used. It is one of the first writing system that man has ever used. It was a picture writing system using symbols. It lasted from about the 4th century B.E.C. to about the 1st centaury A.D. The writing would always seem to influence other styles of writing for about 3,000 years. Over the years, the language would change several times http://www.ancientscripts.com/sumerian.ht ml The Epic of Gilgamesh. Ancient Sumerians wrote down a story that is considered, The Epic of Gilgamesh. It is the oldest recorded story in the world. It tells about the adventures of a king of Uruk. King Gilgamesh may actually have existed. His name is on the list of Sumerian kings because the Sumerians had once wrote it down. http://mesopotamia.mrdonn.org/cuneiform .html The Sumerian people had many technological advances. Some include glue, swords, armor, boots and harpoons. The Sumerians had three different types of boats. Skin boats that were made out of animal hides, sail boats, which featured Bitumen waterproofing, and wooden oared ships, sometimes pulled up river by animal and people. http://home.comcast.net/~sylvanarrow/sumeria.htm The city of Sumer was the 1st civilization to practice intense agriculture and techniques. It has three levels: 1. Higher levels are for the government officials, priests and soldiers. 2. The middle level is for merchants, teachers, laborers, farmers and craft makers. 3. The bottom level is for slaves http://i-cias.com/e.o/sumer.htm Ziggurat Massive stepped pyramid 210 by 150 feet in size. It is made out of solid care of mud-brick covered by a thick brick to protect from elements. The ziggurat is part of a temple complex that used to serve as an administration center for the city. There is a kitchen that was used to prepare food for the God’s. At night, it was occupied by one person that was chosen by the priest. http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/ziggurats/h ome_set.html Caste System: The caste system is part of the Sumerian society. It is made up of three classes; amelu, mushkinu and slaves. The amelu were the top of the caste system where the government, priest’s, and professional soldiers were found. The mushkinu were the middle class where you could find the shopkeepers, farmers, merchants and laborers. Slaves were the lowest in the caste system. Slaves would be considered slaves because of multiple reasons, such as prisoners, debt, or they could be born into slavery. http://www.sarissa.org/sumer/sumer_s.php General info: The social structure of the Sumerians was different from the other societies. The Sumerian communities were city states organized around a temple and ruled by a priesthood. Most of the people from the community were considered to be the servant slaves of the God from the temple. Hammurabi codes: Hammurabi codes was a form of laws that helped unify the diverse groups within the entire empire. Hammurabi had the code engraved in stone and copies were placed all around the empire. There were 282 laws dealing with everything that was effecting the community. They had different punishments for the rich, the poor and men and women. What two country countries were part of Mesopotamia? Where is the most fertile land in western Asia located? What kind of helmets did the Sumerian infantry wear? What are three kinds of plants that the Sumerians grew? Who was the Hammurabi? Who was the Sumerian’s main God? What was one right that Sumerian women had? What was the name of the Sumerian writing system? How many types of boats did the Sumerians have? How many classes were in the Sumerian caste system?