The Legacy of Mesopotamia Chapter 2 Section 3 An Eye for an Eye, A TooTh for a TooTh……. “If a man has destroyed the eye of a man if the class of gentleman, they shall destroy his eye. If he has broken a gentleman’s bone, they shall break his bone. If he destroyed the eye of a commoner or broken a bone of a commoner, he shall pay one mina of silver. If he has destroyed the eye of a gentleman’s slave, or broken a bone of the gentleman’s slave, he shall pay half the slaves price. If a gentleman’s slave strikes the cheek of a gentleman, they shall cut off the slave’s ear.” A King to the South • King Hammurabi: – King of the city-state Babylon. – Southern Mesopotamia. – Reunited the city-states of Sumer. – Built Dams across the Euphrates River. – Gave him complete power of city-sates blow him. – Controlled all of Mesopotamia. hammurabi’s Code • Code: – Organized list of Laws. • Discovered in 1901. • 6 foot tall Pillar with 200 laws carved into it. • 1st organized recorded set of laws to be found. The Laws of Hammurabi • 282 laws organized into categories. – Trade. – Labor. – Property. – Family. • Built upon pervious Sumerian codes. • Posted all around the City • Everyone was not equal under the code of laws. • King Hammurabi was also the Judge of the city. Were They fair…. • Idea based on “eye for an eye”. • Punishment should be similar to the crime committed. • The harshness of the punishment depended on how important the victim and the lawbreaker were. • Had to be careful of your actions and job duties. • Examples: – If a surgeon performed a major operation on a citizen with a bronze lancet and has caused the death of this citizen…his hand shall be cut off.” – “If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn.” Checking For Understanding • Question: –What was Hammurabi’s code? • Answer: – Was a set of Written Laws created by the Babylonian ruler Hammurabi. – These laws set down rules for the people in his empire to follow and helped settle conflicts. Development of Writing • Ancient Scribes: – Writing 1st developed in Mesopotamia around 1300 B.C. – 1st kept records were of farm animals. – Records kept on clay tablets. – Recorded: • Sales and trade. • Tax payments. • Gifts for the Gods. • Marriages and Deaths. • Types of Scribes: – Military Scribes: • Calculated the amount of food and supplies the army would need. – Government Scribe: • Figured out number of diggers needed to build a canal. • Written orders would then be sent out to local officials to provide the supplies or workers. A Record in Clay • Tigris and Euphrates – Supplied clay from the Mountains. • Scribes would shape the wet clay, into a flat surface. • Called Tablets. • Would make their mark on it while it was wet. • After it would dry and become permanent. • Shape and size of Tablet depended on its purpose. – Larger tablets: • Used for reference purposes. • Ex: Dictionary, Atlas. – Smaller Tablets: • Size of letters, postcards. • Used for personal messages. How Writing was Invented • Before writing: Used shaped pieces of clay as tokens or symbols. • Kept track of: – Number of Animals bought and sold. – Amount of food grown. • 3100 B.C. developed into writing. • First words represented Symbols of objects. • Symbols changed into Cuneiform: – Groups of wedges and lines used to write several languages of the Fertile Crescent. Checking for Understanding • Question: –When, Where, and How did writing first develop? • Answer: – Writing was first developed in Mesopotamia around 3100 B.C. – 1st people drew symbols that represented objects. – Symbols developed into groups of wedges and lines that were called cuneiform. Taking more of a word shape.