Lesson 1 – Civilization in Sumer
92-Advances in Farming
- Sumer, in the southern part of Mesopotamia,
depended on agriculture.
-Developed innovations for large-scale farming
-Sumerians built dikes, or dams to control river
-The built canals to bring water to the fields in dry
-They had a division of labor so everyone could
help share a big job.
92 – Innovations - New ways of doing things.
93 – Division of Labor – The sharing of a
large job so that each worker does only
part of it.
93 – Surplus – The amount of a product that
is left needs have been met.
94-Government in Sumer
- In each city-state one person, the en, ruled as king.
- The Sumerians had a monarchy (governing
system ruled by a king or queen)
- The en held absolute authority, complete control.
- They created the worlds first known bureaucracy (a
governing group made up of non-elected officials).
94 – Monarchy – A governing system ruled by
a king or a queen.
94 – Absolute Authority – complete control
95 – Bureaucracy – a governing group made
up of nonelected officials.
What form of government did the Sumerians
95 – Writing and Other Innovations
- __________became the world’s first __________
- They used ____________________ on wet clay
- Eventually came to use __________, wedge-shaped
writing. Used for __________ or __________
- One innovations of the writing is being able to
__________, they were then able to have the
____________________ (iku=acre).
- Another innovation was developing a __________
divided into 12 months (28 day cycle)
- They also built the first __________, first to mix copper
and tin to make __________ and __________, also
invented the ____________________ to help them form
bowls, vases and jars from clay.
95 – Pictographs – picture writing.
95 – Cuneiform – wedge-shaped writing.
What innovations did the Sumerians develop for measure?
96 – Divisions in Society
- People belonged to different ____________________
- Highest (or ruling) Class made up of the
__________, _________________________,
__________ and __________. Also included their
- Next was the __________– less important government
officials, craft workers, farming supervisors, merchants,
doctors, carpenters, potters or bricklayers.
- The lowest was the ____________ – made up of
___________ and __________(most slaves were
prisoners of war)
- Slaves were not always slaves for life…those who owed
debt could gain their freedom when the ____________.
96 – Social Classes – grouping people of the
same level of importance in their society.
96 – Merchant – a person who buys and sells
or trades goods.
What were Sumer’s Social Classes?
Lesson 1 Review
• Complete number 3 – 5
• Complete this chart with what you have
learned about innovations in Sumer:
Sumerian Innovations
Lesson 2 – Conquests & Empire Building
98-Sargon the Great
-Early empires were built by conquest.
- Sargon conquered the Sumerians and built the world’s first empire.
- He then ordered that every boundary pillar and city wall be brought
- The lands united by Sargon became known as the Akkadian Empire.
- He developed a standing army (an army with paid, full-time
- He is remembered because his empire lasted more than 200 years
after his death.
98 – Conquer – take over
99 – Empire – consists of the vast lands and
varied people that come under the control
of a single government
99 – Standing Army – an army with paid, fulltime soldiers
100-The Rise of Babylon
- Leaders in the Sumerian city-state of UR rebelled
against Akkadian rule and brought an end to it.
- Eventually, the Amorites gained control of southern
and central Mesopotamia.
- The Amorite empire was named for its capital city
Babylon. Called now, the Babylonian Empire.
- Kings created a system of taxation…officials traveled
to collect tax among the empire.
100 – Taxation – where people are made to
pay for the running of their government.
Who were the Amorites?
101 – The Code of Hammurabi
- Most important innovation was the centralized
government-the national government maintains
- Hammurabi created a set of laws for the Babylonian
empire known as the Code of Hammurabi.
- Hammurabi based his code laws on older collections
of Sumerian and Akkadian laws.
-The Code consisted of 282 laws that dealt with
almost every part of daily life.
- Code was carved into stone and placed in public
101 – Centralized Government – national
government maintains power.
101 – Code – a set of laws written down in a
clear and orderly way.
101 – Principle – important belief.
What is the principle of an eye for an eye?
102 – The Hittites and the Kassites
- The Kassites were among the people who conquered
Mesopotamia after the Babylonian Empire collapsed.
- Then the Hittites came and attacked Babylon.
-The Chariots that the Hittites used made it possible for
them to move quickly and with force…which made it easy
to capture Babylon.
- After the Hittites left with everything they wanted, the
Kassites were finally able to conquer Babylon.
- Rule lasted for more than 500 years.
- By adopting the laws, religion and literature of the
conquered peoples, they continued the long heritage of
Babylonian civilization.
103 – Chariots – carts drawn by horses and
used to carry soldiers in battle.
What event allowed the Kassites to conquer
Lesson 2 Review
numbers 1 -6
Lesson 3 – Later Empires
106 – The Assyrian Empire
-The Assur people learned warfare from their neighbors, the Hittites.
-Their Army was a fearsome army due to the innovations they used
from the Hittites.
-The army was organized by assigning specialized jobs to the soldiers.
-Skilled chariot drivers carried archers
-Cavalry fought on horseback.
-There were also foot soldiers
-By early 700s B.C. , Assyrian army was largest and most destructive
standing army ever seen. Because of this, they attacked and
destroyed Babylon.
-Assyrians ruled the largest empire in the world at that time.
What did the Assyrians learn from the Hittites?
106 – Warfare – Skill in war
108 – Assyrian Achievements
-Built the worlds first system of paved roads.
-Developed the first postal system.
-Built large monuments carved with scenes of life in the
Assyrian Empire.
-First to make locks that opened with keys
-First to use magnifying glass.
-Some people they were the first to have pluming and
flush toilets along with running water to their city.
-One of the first libraries
-Divided lands into territories and local leaders governed
these territories and reported back to the king.
What innovations helped to unite the people of the
Assyrian Empire?
108 – Decree – An official order or a decision
made by a ruler.
109 – Territory – A large division of a country.
109 – Glorious Nineveh
-King Sennacherib made Nineveh the capital of the
Assyrian Empire.
-The capital of Nineveh became a beautiful city with wide
boulevards, large squares, parks, and gardens.
-The kings palace was covered with stone reliefs.
-They built temples for their many gods.
-At it’s largest, Nineveh was enclosed by a wall that
stretched 7.5 m miles around the city.
-In time, the city was destroyed and the mighty Assyrian
Empire fell to the people of Medes.
How did Nineveh change after becoming the Assyrian
109 – Reliefs – Wall carvings that stand out
from the surface of the building.
109 – Scribe – A person who wrote things for
110 – The New Babylonian Empire
-Free of the Assyrians, Babylon became the center of
civilization once again.
-The rebuilt city of Babylon became the empire’s capital.
-Nebuchadnezzar was one of the empire’s best-known
kings that ruled for 44 years. He is remembered for his
building projects (palace, temples & a ziggurat monument
later known as the Tower of Babel, and what is now
known as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon).
-A short time after Nebuchdnezzar died, Nabonidus
gained control of the New Babylonian Empire.
-Eventually, Nabonidus was forced to surrender his land
to Persia.
By what two names do people today know
Nebuchadnezzar’s Empire?
Lesson 3 Review
• Complete numbers 1-4
• HW - Complete the Performance –
Draw a Building Plan (your building
should be appropriate for the period
in history and include innovations
that were used at that time…no
modern day technology.
Waterfront living
Dry & Hot
Fertile Soil along river banks
Eastern Shore of the
Mediterranean Sea to the
Persian Gulf
Rich food growing areas
between rivers
Created worlds first
Worlds 1st civilization (city-state)
For good fertile soil between
rivers...good for crops
The wheel
Potter’s Wheel
12 month calendar based on Lunar cycles
Tigris River
Major Sea
Writing system
Euphrates River

Mesopotamia - Turner USD 202