Mesopotamia
Lesson 1 – Civilization in Sumer
92-Advances in Farming
- Sumer, in the southern part of Mesopotamia,
depended on agriculture.
-Developed innovations for large-scale farming
-Sumerians built dikes, or dams to control river
flooding
-The built canals to bring water to the fields in dry
season.
-They had a division of labor so everyone could
help share a big job.
92 – Innovations - New ways of doing things.
93 – Division of Labor – The sharing of a
large job so that each worker does only
part of it.
93 – Surplus – The amount of a product that
is left needs have been met.
94-Government in Sumer
- In each city-state one person, the en, ruled as king.
- The Sumerians had a monarchy (governing
system ruled by a king or queen)
- The en held absolute authority, complete control.
- They created the worlds first known bureaucracy (a
governing group made up of non-elected officials).
94 – Monarchy – A governing system ruled by
a king or a queen.
94 – Absolute Authority – complete control
95 – Bureaucracy – a governing group made
up of nonelected officials.
What form of government did the Sumerians
have?
95 – Writing and Other Innovations
- __________became the world’s first __________
- They used ____________________ on wet clay
- Eventually came to use __________, wedge-shaped
writing. Used for __________ or __________
- One innovations of the writing is being able to
__________, they were then able to have the
____________________ (iku=acre).
- Another innovation was developing a __________
divided into 12 months (28 day cycle)
- They also built the first __________, first to mix copper
and tin to make __________ and __________, also
invented the ____________________ to help them form
bowls, vases and jars from clay.
95 – Pictographs – picture writing.
95 – Cuneiform – wedge-shaped writing.
What innovations did the Sumerians develop for measure?
96 – Divisions in Society
- People belonged to different ____________________
- Highest (or ruling) Class made up of the
__________, _________________________,
__________ and __________. Also included their
families.
- Next was the __________– less important government
officials, craft workers, farming supervisors, merchants,
doctors, carpenters, potters or bricklayers.
- The lowest was the ____________ – made up of
___________ and __________(most slaves were
prisoners of war)
- Slaves were not always slaves for life…those who owed
debt could gain their freedom when the ____________.
96 – Social Classes – grouping people of the
same level of importance in their society.
96 – Merchant – a person who buys and sells
or trades goods.
What were Sumer’s Social Classes?
Lesson 1 Review
• Complete number 3 – 5
• Complete this chart with what you have
learned about innovations in Sumer:
Sumerian Innovations
Farming
Government
Other
Lesson 2 – Conquests & Empire Building
98-Sargon the Great
-Early empires were built by conquest.
- Sargon conquered the Sumerians and built the world’s first empire.
- He then ordered that every boundary pillar and city wall be brought
down.
- The lands united by Sargon became known as the Akkadian Empire.
- He developed a standing army (an army with paid, full-time
soldiers).
- He is remembered because his empire lasted more than 200 years
after his death.
98 – Conquer – take over
99 – Empire – consists of the vast lands and
varied people that come under the control
of a single government
99 – Standing Army – an army with paid, fulltime soldiers
100-The Rise of Babylon
- Leaders in the Sumerian city-state of UR rebelled
against Akkadian rule and brought an end to it.
- Eventually, the Amorites gained control of southern
and central Mesopotamia.
- The Amorite empire was named for its capital city
Babylon. Called now, the Babylonian Empire.
- Kings created a system of taxation…officials traveled
to collect tax among the empire.
100 – Taxation – where people are made to
pay for the running of their government.
Who were the Amorites?
101 – The Code of Hammurabi
- Most important innovation was the centralized
government-the national government maintains
power.
- Hammurabi created a set of laws for the Babylonian
empire known as the Code of Hammurabi.
- Hammurabi based his code laws on older collections
of Sumerian and Akkadian laws.
-The Code consisted of 282 laws that dealt with
almost every part of daily life.
- Code was carved into stone and placed in public
location.
101 – Centralized Government – national
government maintains power.
101 – Code – a set of laws written down in a
clear and orderly way.
101 – Principle – important belief.
What is the principle of an eye for an eye?
102 – The Hittites and the Kassites
- The Kassites were among the people who conquered
Mesopotamia after the Babylonian Empire collapsed.
- Then the Hittites came and attacked Babylon.
-The Chariots that the Hittites used made it possible for
them to move quickly and with force…which made it easy
to capture Babylon.
- After the Hittites left with everything they wanted, the
Kassites were finally able to conquer Babylon.
- Rule lasted for more than 500 years.
- By adopting the laws, religion and literature of the
conquered peoples, they continued the long heritage of
Babylonian civilization.
103 – Chariots – carts drawn by horses and
used to carry soldiers in battle.
What event allowed the Kassites to conquer
Babylonon?
Lesson 2 Review
•Complete
numbers 1 -6
Lesson 3 – Later Empires
106 – The Assyrian Empire
-The Assur people learned warfare from their neighbors, the Hittites.
-Their Army was a fearsome army due to the innovations they used
from the Hittites.
-The army was organized by assigning specialized jobs to the soldiers.
-Skilled chariot drivers carried archers
-Cavalry fought on horseback.
-There were also foot soldiers
-By early 700s B.C. , Assyrian army was largest and most destructive
standing army ever seen. Because of this, they attacked and
destroyed Babylon.
-Assyrians ruled the largest empire in the world at that time.
What did the Assyrians learn from the Hittites?
106 – Warfare – Skill in war
108 – Assyrian Achievements
-Built the worlds first system of paved roads.
-Developed the first postal system.
-Built large monuments carved with scenes of life in the
Assyrian Empire.
-First to make locks that opened with keys
-First to use magnifying glass.
-Some people they were the first to have pluming and
flush toilets along with running water to their city.
-One of the first libraries
-Divided lands into territories and local leaders governed
these territories and reported back to the king.
What innovations helped to unite the people of the
Assyrian Empire?
108 – Decree – An official order or a decision
made by a ruler.
109 – Territory – A large division of a country.
109 – Glorious Nineveh
-King Sennacherib made Nineveh the capital of the
Assyrian Empire.
-The capital of Nineveh became a beautiful city with wide
boulevards, large squares, parks, and gardens.
-The kings palace was covered with stone reliefs.
-They built temples for their many gods.
-At it’s largest, Nineveh was enclosed by a wall that
stretched 7.5 m miles around the city.
-In time, the city was destroyed and the mighty Assyrian
Empire fell to the people of Medes.
How did Nineveh change after becoming the Assyrian
Capital?
109 – Reliefs – Wall carvings that stand out
from the surface of the building.
109 – Scribe – A person who wrote things for
others.
110 – The New Babylonian Empire
-Free of the Assyrians, Babylon became the center of
civilization once again.
-The rebuilt city of Babylon became the empire’s capital.
-Nebuchadnezzar was one of the empire’s best-known
kings that ruled for 44 years. He is remembered for his
building projects (palace, temples & a ziggurat monument
later known as the Tower of Babel, and what is now
known as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon).
-A short time after Nebuchdnezzar died, Nabonidus
gained control of the New Babylonian Empire.
-Eventually, Nabonidus was forced to surrender his land
to Persia.
By what two names do people today know
Nebuchadnezzar’s Empire?
Lesson 3 Review
• Complete numbers 1-4
• HW - Complete the Performance –
Draw a Building Plan (your building
should be appropriate for the period
in history and include innovations
that were used at that time…no
modern day technology.
Waterfront living
Climate
Location
Dry & Hot
Fertile Soil along river banks
Landscape
Eastern Shore of the
Mediterranean Sea to the
Persian Gulf
Rich food growing areas
between rivers
Created worlds first
beauracracy
Mesopotamia
Resources
Government
Monarchy
Worlds 1st civilization (city-state)
Accomplishments
Sailboats
For good fertile soil between
rivers...good for crops
The wheel
Plow
Potter’s Wheel
Origin
Achievements/
12 month calendar based on Lunar cycles
Tigris River
Major Sea
Writing system
Euphrates River
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Mesopotamia - Turner USD 202