Canadian Confederation
French Indian War
Britain takes over
French speaking areas
of Canada
 Creates Canadian
 Include French
Speaking Quebec and
Rebellions of 1837
Upper Canada
Lower Canada
William Lyon Mackenzie
The Reformers
Vs. Family Compact
Louis Joseph Papineau
The Patriots
Vs. Chateau Clique
Protesting against the Oligarchies control
Desired a Responsible Government
 Governor did not have to listen to the elected Assembly
Wanted less Church control of land
Assembly had to approve taxes or no collection would occur
All Rebellions are eventually controlled by British military
Lord Durham
sent by Parliament the Canada's in 1838
to investigate the causes of the rebellions
and to find a solution
 Fearful of losing more colonies (USA)
White Board
What was one recommendation of
Durham Report 1839 Findings
Lord Durham referred to French as inferior to
the English and "as a people with no history
and no literature".
 It was a war based on race, not on principles.
In his opinion, Canada was a land of two
hostile groups: the French and the English.
 Unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the
French a minority
 Assimilate or anglicize the French majority in
Lower Canada
 Grant Responsible Government
British Issue Act of Union 1840
The act United Upper Canada and Lower
Canada into the Province of Canada.
 It gave the united colony one legislative
assembly with 42 elected members from
Canada West, formerly Upper Canada, and
42 elected members from Canada East,
formerly Lower Canada
 combined the debts
 made English the only official language
in the assembly.
White Board
What group of people were hurt by this
General Causes of Confederation
Changing British Attitudes:
By the 1860s Britain had redirected its
focus regarding the Empire.
While still committed to imperial
greatness, the emphasis shifted from
military strength to trade and profit.
General Causes of Confederation
The U.S. Civil War:
Britain claimed neutrality during the
American Civil War (1861-1865)
Reality: demonstrated implicit sympathy
for the Southern Confederacy.
RESULT: angry U.S. government
concerned Canadian political leaders.
What was the treaty of reciprocity?
General Causes of Confederation
Trade Issues:
Britain ended their policy of providing the
colonies with protective tariffs.
- GB wanted to increase trade around the world
Treaty of Reciprocity would be canceled
between US and GB Tension over Civil War
- An Independent Canada could create better trade
deals with US
General Causes of Confederation
The Railway:
The emergence of railways bridged the gap
across Canada’s massive geography. Railways
brought a sense of inter-connectedness and
carried the possibilities of Confederation to the
The Charlottetown Conference
1864, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and
PEI were contemplating the possibility of
Maritime Union.
This interest sparked the Charlottetown
Representatives concluded that the idea of
a British North America union warranted
The Charlottetown Conference
proposed the foundations for a new
– preservation of ties with Great Britain
– residual jurisdiction left to a central authority
– Bicameral or unicameral federal legislature
 Based on province or on population
– responsible government at the federal and
provincial levels
– appointment of a governor general by the
British Crown.
White Board
What major meeting in US history can this
be compared to and why?
Conflict with Martime Provinces
Prince Edward Island, , Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
and Newfoundland
 Maritime Provinces pressed for as much equality
as possible in the senate (smaller populations)
 PEI- opposed representation by population in
Fed Parliament
The Quebec Conference 1864
delegates met with representatives
Develop plans for Unification.
Created the 72 Resolutions Basis of
confederation- Basis of how Canada would
be run
Compromises at Quebec
Bi Cameral parliament- House of
Commons(population) & Senate(equal
representation per province
 Split Canada's
- Canada West-Ontario
- Canada East-Quebec
- Preservation of French Speaking Canada
- Approved by the Catholic Church
White Board
Chose one of the compromises and what
province it would help most.
Problems of Confederation
PEI and Newfoundland did not join
 Many feared heavier taxes to support a
Fed Gov
 Smaller provinces feared being politically
dominated by larger ones
The London Conference
1866, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and
New Brunswick had all passed union
produced the text of the British North
America Act,
designation of ‘dominion of Britain.’
The British North America Act
Bill passed through the House of Lords
and the House of Commons and received
the Royal Assent on March 29, 1867.
Canada official became a unified nation on
July 1, 1867.
Signed by Queen Victoria
Key points BNA
Fed system of government balance of
powers between national Gov and
Provincial legislature
 Fed Gov Bicameral House of Commons &
 Provinces had single legislative house
 Canada would have 2 official languages
 Canada would have a Prime Minister
 Goal to Build a transcontinental RR
 Still be connected to the British Crown
How is this similar to our government and
how is it diferent.
Order of Confederation
The Canadian provinces and territories
joined Confederation in the following
 Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick -1867, Manitoba, Northwest
Territories - 1870, British Columbia –
1871, P.E.I. – 1873, Yukon – 1898,
Alberta, Saskatchewan – 1905,
Newfoundland – 1949, Nunavut – 1999.

A Brief Overview of Canadian Confederation