Canadian Confederation French Indian War Britain takes over French speaking areas of Canada Creates Canadian Colonies Include French Speaking Quebec and Montreal Rebellions of 1837 Upper Canada Lower Canada William Lyon Mackenzie The Reformers Vs. Family Compact Louis Joseph Papineau The Patriots Vs. Chateau Clique Protesting against the Oligarchies control Desired a Responsible Government Governor did not have to listen to the elected Assembly Wanted less Church control of land Assembly had to approve taxes or no collection would occur All Rebellions are eventually controlled by British military Lord Durham sent by Parliament the Canada's in 1838 to investigate the causes of the rebellions and to find a solution Fearful of losing more colonies (USA) White Board What was one recommendation of Durham? Durham Report 1839 Findings Lord Durham referred to French as inferior to the English and "as a people with no history and no literature". It was a war based on race, not on principles. In his opinion, Canada was a land of two hostile groups: the French and the English. Unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the French a minority Assimilate or anglicize the French majority in Lower Canada Grant Responsible Government British Issue Act of Union 1840 The act United Upper Canada and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. It gave the united colony one legislative assembly with 42 elected members from Canada West, formerly Upper Canada, and 42 elected members from Canada East, formerly Lower Canada combined the debts made English the only official language in the assembly. White Board What group of people were hurt by this action? General Causes of Confederation Changing British Attitudes: - - By the 1860s Britain had redirected its focus regarding the Empire. While still committed to imperial greatness, the emphasis shifted from military strength to trade and profit. General Causes of Confederation The U.S. Civil War: - Britain claimed neutrality during the American Civil War (1861-1865) Reality: demonstrated implicit sympathy for the Southern Confederacy. RESULT: angry U.S. government concerned Canadian political leaders. Discuss What was the treaty of reciprocity? General Causes of Confederation Trade Issues: - Britain ended their policy of providing the colonies with protective tariffs. - GB wanted to increase trade around the world - Treaty of Reciprocity would be canceled between US and GB Tension over Civil War - An Independent Canada could create better trade deals with US General Causes of Confederation The Railway: - The emergence of railways bridged the gap across Canada’s massive geography. Railways brought a sense of inter-connectedness and carried the possibilities of Confederation to the forefront. The Charlottetown Conference 1864, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and PEI were contemplating the possibility of Maritime Union. This interest sparked the Charlottetown Conference. Representatives concluded that the idea of a British North America union warranted discussion. The Charlottetown Conference proposed the foundations for a new country – preservation of ties with Great Britain – residual jurisdiction left to a central authority – Bicameral or unicameral federal legislature Based on province or on population – responsible government at the federal and provincial levels – appointment of a governor general by the British Crown. White Board What major meeting in US history can this be compared to and why? Conflict with Martime Provinces Prince Edward Island, , Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Newfoundland Maritime Provinces pressed for as much equality as possible in the senate (smaller populations) PEI- opposed representation by population in Fed Parliament The Quebec Conference 1864 • • delegates met with representatives Develop plans for Unification. Created the 72 Resolutions Basis of confederation- Basis of how Canada would be run Compromises at Quebec Bi Cameral parliament- House of Commons(population) & Senate(equal representation per province Split Canada's - Canada West-Ontario - Canada East-Quebec - Preservation of French Speaking Canada - Approved by the Catholic Church White Board Chose one of the compromises and what province it would help most. Problems of Confederation PEI and Newfoundland did not join confederation Many feared heavier taxes to support a Fed Gov Smaller provinces feared being politically dominated by larger ones The London Conference • • • 1866, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick had all passed union resolutions. produced the text of the British North America Act, designation of ‘dominion of Britain.’ The British North America Act • • • Bill passed through the House of Lords and the House of Commons and received the Royal Assent on March 29, 1867. Canada official became a unified nation on July 1, 1867. Signed by Queen Victoria Key points BNA Fed system of government balance of powers between national Gov and Provincial legislature Fed Gov Bicameral House of Commons & Senate Provinces had single legislative house Canada would have 2 official languages Canada would have a Prime Minister Goal to Build a transcontinental RR Still be connected to the British Crown Discuss How is this similar to our government and how is it diferent. Order of Confederation The Canadian provinces and territories joined Confederation in the following order. Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick -1867, Manitoba, Northwest Territories - 1870, British Columbia – 1871, P.E.I. – 1873, Yukon – 1898, Alberta, Saskatchewan – 1905, Newfoundland – 1949, Nunavut – 1999.