Comparative Education (Educational Philosophy)
UK, France, Germany, USA, Canada and Japan
School (学校)and Education(教育)
• School comes from schola (Latin) and schole
(Greek), which means a place to foster curiosity
and interest among children and nature them.
• Education comes from the Latin word educo.
• Educo means to draw out, lead out, march out, to
• 学校(がっこう)place where children are to study
• 教育(きょういく) teaching and fostering
• By comparing educational systems and philosophy
• we can see the entity of education more clearly.
Table 1: International Ranking of PISA Scores in 2003
OECD PISA (2003) Knowledge and Skills for Life 2
International Ranking of PISA Scores
Problem Solving
Hong Kong*
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea
Hong Kong*
The Netherlands
South Korea
New Zealand
New Zealand
Hong Kong*
Music day: Group Harmony and Strength
A family-based Grade Group in School Education
The Gakunen family has a great significance in daily
educational activities in all schools in Japan.
Teachers are taking care of school children every morning in Japan
給食 School Lunch Feeding Programs at
Elementary Schools
Family- oriented group harmony& competition
Athletic Meet in Japanese schools
Nakane (1984) states that an organizational structure based on the vertical principle
appears more pronouncedly in well-established, large institutions with a higher
degree of prestige. This vertical integration supported by group harmony and
solidarity is the source of the stability of the organization, which seems the strength
and harmony of the Japanese people.
Extra-curricular activities after school
Junior high (Age 13-15), Senior High (Age16-18)
The Preamble of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the
Union in the Constitution of the European Union (2004)
• The peoples of Europe, in creating an ever closer
union among them, are resolved to share a
peaceful future based on common values.
• universal values of human dignity, freedom,
equality and solidarity:
• The Union contributes to the preservation and to
the development of these common values while
respecting the diversity of the cultures and
traditions of the people of Europe
European Citizenship Education
• The kernel of citizenship in the European Union
lies in sharing and ensuring the common values of
human rights and obligations, freedom, equality,
autonomy and solidarity as peace-loving citizens
within the framework of liberal democracy in
diverse societies. The European citizenships
declare that the Union respects the diversity of the
cultures and traditions as well as each national and
cultural identity.
The European educational initiatives:
• * The European Exchange Program for Young
Workers * Erasmus is the established project
for encouraging exchange and mobility
among EU member states for students in the
university sector.
• * Comett is a project intended to improve
technical training, especially in the new
technologies, by placing students and young
Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union
• In the European Union education is the
responsibility of Member States; European Union
institutions play a supporting role. According to Art.
149 of the Treaty of Amsterdam, the Community
“shall contribute to the development of quality
education by encouraging cooperation between
Member States,” through actions such as
promoting the mobility of citizens, designing joint
study programs, establishing networks, exchanging
information or teaching languages of the European
Union. The Treaty also contains a commitment to
promote life-long learning for all citizens of the
Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union
• The EU also funds educational, vocational and citizenship-building
programs which encourage EU citizens to take advantage of
opportunities which the EU offers its citizens to live, study and work
in other countries. The best known of these is the Erasmus program,
under which more than 2,000,000 students have taken part in interuniversity exchange and mobility over the last 20 years. Since 2000,
conscious of the importance of Education and Training for their
economic and social objectives, EU Member States have begun
working together to achieve a set of 13 specific goals in the field of
Education. This is referred to as the Education and Training 2010
program. By sharing examples of good policy practice, by taking part
in Peer Learning activities, by setting benchmarks and by tracking
progress against key indicators, the 27 Member States aim to respond
coherently to common challenges, whilst retaining their individual
sovereignty in the field of Education policy. The European Union is
also a partner in various inter-governmental projects, including the
Bologna Process whose purpose is to create a European higher
education area by harmonizing academic degree structures and
standards as well as academic quality assurance standards
throughout EU Member States and in other European countries.
Education system in UK
UK: 11-year compulsory education
Primary School (Age 5-11) (22800 schools) State school
Comprehensive School (Age 11-16) (3450 schools) State school
Grammar School (Age 11-18) (232 schools) College-bound State school
In education in the United Kingdom , a grammar school is a
secondary school attended by pupils aged 11 to 18 to which entry is
controlled by means of an academically selective process consisting,
largely or exclusively, of a written examination . After leaving a
grammar school, as with any other secondary school, a student may
go into further education at a college or university.
• Public School (Age 13-18) (2409 schools ) (Elite oriented private school )
• (Fostering fair play spirit, mission and leadership through boarding life)
A public school, in common British usage, is a school which is usually prestigious
and historic, which charges fees, does not arbitrarily restrict admissions, and is
financed by bodies other than the state, commonly as a private charitable trust.
Often but not always they are boarding schools. Confusingly to a non-native English
speaker a public school is actually a private school! In British usage, a governmentrun school (which would be called a 'public school' in other areas, such as the
United States ) is called a state school. (Fair play, Boarding, mission and leadership)
Education in UK
Educational systems are different in England, Scotland,
Wales and Northern Ireland.
Topic study started from Oxfordshire and it influenced
Integrated Studies in public schools in Japan.
GCEA (General Certificate of Education Advanced Level)
Education Reform Act in 1988 to activate national
curriculum and national assessment
Disordered class in cities (economic disparity, broken
family, dense population, multicultural
confrontation, bullying, material consideration)
The challenge of Principal Sharon In 2000
Education in France
Education in France
• Children learn 26 hours a week and go to school 157 days
• (Japan: 200 days, Germany: 185-220 days)
• School does not monopolies education but France support
10 year compulsory education from 6 to 16.
• The three principles of French public Education
• 1) Acquisition of basic liberal education and culture
• 2) Participation in social and vocational activities
• 3) Families and local communities support basic academic
achievement and citizenship
• Excellent ecole maternelle
• ecole primaire and college
• Baccalaureat (qualification for higher education)
Basic Structure of the Education System
The Federal Republic of Germany
Education in Germany
Pflicht (Education is Parents’ right, duty and love
for their children)
Die elterliche Pflicht und die elterliche Liebe
Hauptschule (from 5th grade to 9th grade)
Realschule ( technical school for 6 years)
Gymnasium (College-bound school from 5th grade
to 13th grade, form 10 years old to 18 years old)
Education in Canada
Learn Canada 2020
The vision of Learn Canada 2020 is Quality Lifelong Learning Opportunities for All
Learn Canada 2020 recognizes the direct link between a well-educated population and
(1) a vibrant knowledge-based economy in the 21st Century,
(2) a socially progressive, sustainable society, and
(3) enhanced personal growth opportunities for all Canadians.
Early Childhood Learning and Development
All children should have access to high quality early childhood education that ensures they
arrive at school ready to learn.
Elementary to High School Systems
All children in our elementary to high school systems deserve teaching and learning
opportunities that are inclusive and that provide them with world-class skills in literacy,
numeracy, and science.
Postsecondary Education
Canada must increase the number of students pursuing postsecondary education by
increasing the quality and accessibility of postsecondary education.
Adult Learning and Skills Development
Canada must develop an accessible, diversified, and integrated system of adult learning and
skills development that delivers training when Canadians need it.
Education in Canada
• IN CANADA, education is the responsibility of each province and
territory. The Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) is an
intergovernmental body founded in 1967 by ministers of education to
serve as
• a forum to discuss policy issues
• a mechanism through which to undertake activities, projects, and
initiatives in areas of mutual interest
• a means by which to consult and cooperate with national education
organizations and the federal government
• an instrument to represent the education interests of the provinces
and territories internationally
• All 13 provinces and territories are members. CMEC provides
leadership in education at the pan-Canadian and international levels
and contributes to the fulfillment of the constitutional responsibility
for education conferred on provinces and territories.
Council of Ministers of Education, Canada
Education System in Canada
• The Canadian education system encompasses both publicly funded
and private schools, from kindergarten through to preuniversity. Education is a provincial responsibility under the
Canadian constitution, which means there are significant
differences between the education systems of the different
provinces. However, standards across the country are uniformly
high. In Canada there are 10 provinces and three territories, each
with their own way of organizing education. Education is regulated
by each separate provincial government through the individual
ministries of education. The ministries of education oversee
smaller bodies called boards of education or district school boards
(such as the Toronto District School Board), which oversee the
individual schools.

Comparative Education UK, France Germany and Japan