Designed by Myzina Marina Form: 10”A” Center of Education №1428 Сontents: Introduction Theoretical part: • Geography and state system • History • Climate • Economy • Language • Education • Religion • Museums and Libraries Practical part: • Questions for the discussion • Conclusion Geography and state system Canada is a country occupying most of the continent of North America extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. It is the largest country after Russia and the largest country in the Western Hemisphere . It is the worlds second largest country by total area,and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest. Canada has ten provinces and three territories, Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. History Native people had lived in what is now Canada for thousands of years before the first Europeans arrived. They are known as the First Nations and the Inuit people. First europeans arrived when the Vikings settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows around AD 1000. Canada's Atlantic coast would next be explored by John Cabot in 1497 for England and Jacques Cartier in 1534 for France. French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608. Parts of Canada were settled by France, and parts by England and Scotland. The French usually had permission from the native people to live in their country. On July 1, 1867, Canada became an independent country. It included the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Climate Many people from other parts of the world think of Canada as a very cold and snowy place. And Most Canadians live in the southern parts, where the weather is much milder. Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary depending on the location. Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills. In non-coastal regions, snow can cover the ground almost six months of the year (more in the north). Coastal British Columbia is an exception and enjoys a temperate climate with a mild and rainy winter. Economy Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations, with a high per-capita income, and is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the G8. It is one of the world's top 10 trading nations. Canada is a mixed market. Since the early 1990s, the Canadian economy has been growing rapidly with low unemployment and large government surpluses on the federal level. Today this contry closely resembles the U.S. in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy. Canada is one of the world's most important suppliers of agricultural products, with the Canadian Prairies one of the most important suppliers of wheat, canola and other grains. Canada is the world's largest producer of zinc and uranium and a world leader in many other natural resources such as gold, nickel, aluminium, and lead. Language Canada's two official languages are English and French. English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions. The public has the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French, and official language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories. English and French are the mother tongues of 59.7% and 23.2% of the population respectively. Some significant non-official first languages include Chinese (853,745 first-language speakers), Italian (469,485), German (438,080), and Punjabi (271,220). Although 85% of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec. Education The educational system in Canada is derived from the British and American traditions and the French tradition, the latter particularly in the province of Quebec. English or French is the language of instruction, and some schools provide instruction in both official languages. In Quebec, the French-Canadian tradition is followed by the Roman Catholic schools. The province also maintains Protestant schools, however, which are widely attended. Although Canada does not have a central ministry of education, the federal government provides schools for children of Native Americans on reserves, inmates of federal penitentiaries, and the children of military personnel. Religion The largest religious community in Canada is Roman Catholic. Nearly half of Canadians who are Roman Catholic live in Quebec. Of the Protestant denominations in Canada the largest is the United Church of Canada, followed by the Anglican Church of Canada. Other important Protestant groups are the Baptist, Presbyterian, Lutheran, and Pentecostal. Nearly 2 percent of the population are Eastern Orthodox, and Muslim and Jewish adherents each number about 1 percent. Immigration in recent years has brought a substantial number of Buddhists, Hindus, and Sikhs to the country. Nearly 13 percent of Canadians claim no religion. Cathedral of St.John. Museums and Libraries Of Canada's more than 2100 museums, archives, and historic sites, the most important are in the National Capital Region. These include, in Hull, Quebec, the Canadian Museum of Civilization, which celebrates Canada's multicultural heritage; and, in Ottawa, the Canadian Museum of Nature, the National Museum of Science and Technology, and the National Gallery of Canada. The latter exhibits European art, a growing collection of Asian art, and a large body of work by Canadians. The National Museum Policy (1972) has encouraged and supported the growth of regional museums. The National Library of Canada, in Ottawa, issues the national bibliography and maintains union catalogs of the collections of more than 300 other libraries. It’s holding, including a comprehensive collection of Canadian newspapers, exceed 14.5 million items. Provinces and cities have their own libraries. The Royal Ontario Museum. Practical part. Questions for discussion 1.How many official languages are there in Canada? 2.Who were the first Europeans who arrieved at Canada? 3.What country does Canada closely resemble? 4.From what traditions is the Canadian system of Education derived? 5.What is the largest religion community? Conclusion We were delighted to write on the subject in which we have a great interest. We did our best to talk about important matters in a clear and simple way. Sources of information: http://youreng.narod.ru/canada.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada Thank you for your attention!