Language in Asia
Bill Baxter
29 October 2007
Overview
• Actually, not all of Asia (mostly, South,
Southeast, and East)
• That excludes (for example) Iraq, Iran,
Asian part of Russia…
• So many languages, so little time
Map of Southern Asia
Main topics
•
•
•
•
•
Spoken language ≠ written language
Spoken language in Asia
Written language in Asia
Language and history
Europe discovers the languages of
Asia
Spoken vs. written language
• Spoken language is primary; written language
is secondary
• Everybody talks (almost); only some write. Speech
is built into our biology; writing isn’t.
• Many spoken languages have no written form.
• Writing is only ~ 5,000 years old; spoken language
is probably much older (maybe 40,000 - 80,000
years old?).
• The same language can be written with different
scripts; different languages can be written with the
same script. (Languages may look alike but sound
very different, and vice versa)
Each dot represents a (spoken)
language:
Source: http://www.ethnologue.com/, 25 October 2005
Families of (spoken) languages
• Descended from a common ancestral
language
• Ex. 1: Romance languages (47, including
French, Spanish, Italian), descended from
Latin (attested)
• Ex. 2: Germanic languages (53, including
German, Dutch, English, Swedish),
descended from “Proto-Germanic” (not
attested, but can be reconstructed from the
daughter languages)
The Indo-European family (449)
Includes
most
languages of
Europe, but
also IndoIranian.
Selected language families of Asia (1)
• Indo-Iranian branch of IE : Indic (= IndoAryan, 219) and Iranian languages (87)
• Dravidian (73): Brahui (in Pakistan); Tamil (in
India and Sri Lanka), Telugu, Kannada,
Malayalam, etc.)
• ‘Altaic’ (66): Turkic (40), Mongolian (14),
Tungusic (12; = ‘Manchu-Tungus’ = ‘TungusManchu’) in Northern Asia
• Japanese, Korean (probably related to each
other, maybe part of Altaic
(continued…)
Language families of Asia (2)
• Sino-Tibetan (403): Chinese (14), Tibetan (53),
Burmese, LOTS of minority languages
• Austronesian (1268) (‘Southern islands’):
Malay/Indonesian, LOTS of minority languages
may include Tai-Kadai (76) (Thai, Lao; and
related languages, mostly in China)
• Hmong-Mien = Miao-Yao (35): minority
languages in China and SE Asia.
• Austroasiatic (169) (‘Southern Asian’):
Vietnamese, Khmer = Cambodian, LOTS of
minority languages in SE Asia, some in India.
Indo-Iranian: Iranian branch
Languages of India (Indo-Iranian and
others)
Source: http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/map/T028684A.gif
© Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
Languages of India (Dravidian)
Source: http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/map/T028684A.gif
© Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
Languages of India (Sino-Tibetan)
Source: http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/map/T028684A.gif
© Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
The Altaic family (controversial)
Source: http://ehl.santafe.edu/maps/Altaic.gif, 25 Oct 2005
The Turkic family (part of Altaic?)
Language families of Asia (2)
• Sino-Tibetan (403): Chinese (14), Tibetan (53),
Burmese, LOTS of minority languages
• Austronesian (1268) (‘Southern islands’):
Malay/Indonesian, LOTS of minority languages
may include Tai-Kadai (76) (Thai, Lao; and
related languages, mostly in China)
• Hmong-Mien = Miao-Yao (35): minority
languages in China and SE Asia.
• Austroasiatic (169) (‘Southern Asian’):
Vietnamese, Khmer = Cambodian, LOTS of
minority languages in SE Asia, some in India.
The Sino-Tibetan family
The Austronesian family
Tai-Kadai
Source:
http://www.proel.org/mundo/tai3
.gif, 25 Oct 2005
HmongMien (= “MiaoYao”)
Source:
http://www.britannica.com/eb/to
pic?idxStructId=379726&typeId
=17, 29 Oct 2007
Language groups in China
The Austroasiatic family
How are language families identified?
• Shared items of basic vocabulary (items not
likely to be borrowed), showing regular sound
correspondences.
• Where possible, shared morphology (prefixes,
suffixes, etc., with grammatical functions)
• Members of the same family may look very
different because of the accumulation of
changes over time; and languages can be
structurally similar without belonging to the
same family.
Tagalog and Malay (~ Indonesian):
some basic vocabulary
TAGALOG
INDONESIAN
TAGALOG
INDONESIAN
1
BLOOD
dugo
darah
17
MOON
buwan
bulan
2
BONE
buto
tulang
18
NAME
ngalan
nama
3
DIE
param
mati
19
NEW
bago
baru
4
DOG
aso
anjing
20
ONE
isa
esa
5
EAR
tenga
telinga
21
SALT
asin
asin
6
EGG
itlog
telur
22
STONE
bato
batu
7
EYE
mata
mata
23
SUN
araw
matahari
8
FIRE
apoy
api
24
TAIL
buntot
ekor
9
FISH
isda
ikan
25
THIS
ito, iri
ini
10
FULL
puno
penuh
26
TONGUE
dila
lidah
11
GIVE
bigay
kasi
27
TOOTH
ngipin
gigi
12
HAND
kamay
tangan
28
TWO
dalawa
dua
13
HORN
sungay
tanduk
29
WATER
tubig
air
14
I, ME
alp
aku
30
WIND (n.)
hangin
angin
15
KNOW
alam
kenal, tahu
31
YEAR
taon
tahun
16
LOUSE
kuto
kutu
32
YOU (sg.)
ikaw
awak
Tagalog and Malay (similar words)
TAGALOG
MALAY
TAGALOG
MALAY
1
BLOOD
dugóq
darah
17
MOON
buwan
bulan
2
BONE
buto
tulang
18
NAME
ngalan
nama
3
DIE
patáy
mati
19
NEW
bago
baru
4
DOG
áso
anjing
20
ONE
isa
esa
5
EAR
taqinga
telinga
21
SALT
asin
asin
6
EGG
itlog
telur
22
STONE
bato
batu
7
EYE
mata
mata
23
SUN
araw
matahari
8
FIRE
apóy
api
24
TAIL
buntot
ekor
9
FISH
isdáq
ikan
25
THIS
ito, iri
ini
10
FULL
puno
penuh
26
TONGUE
dila
lidah
11
GIVE
bigay
kasi
27
TOOTH
ngipin
gigi
12
HAND
kamáy
tangan
28
TWO
dalawa
dua
13
HORN
sungay
tanduk
29
WATER
tubig
air
14
I, ME
ako
aku
30
WIND (n.)
hangin
angin
15
KNOW
alam [< Arabic]
kenal, tahu
31
YEAR
taqón
tahun
16
LOUSE
kuto
kutu
21
YOU (sg.)
ikaw
awak
Regular sound
correspondences
• Tagalog /t/ = Malay /t/:
1
2
3
4
5
6
EGG
DIE
EYE
HEAVY
YEAR
TO SLEEP
Tagalog
Malay
itlog
mata
bigat
bigat
taqón
tulug
telur
mata
berat
berat
léhér
tahun
Regular sound
correspondences
• Tagalog /g/ = Malay /r/:
1
2
3
4
5
6
EGG
SAND
HEAVY
NEW
NECK
TO SLEEP
Tagalog
Malay
itlog
pasig
bigat
bago
liqig
tulug
telur
pasir
berat
baru
léhér
tidur
Tone languages (Chinese &
others)
• The same consonants and vowels, pronounced
with different pitch contours or tunes, indicate
different words (not just different emotional
attitudes)
• Tone languages include
•
•
•
•
•
the various ‘dialects’ of Chinese
some (not all) other Sino-Tibetan languages
Vietnamese
Kra-Dai languages (including Thai)
Hmong-Mien languages
Tones in Mandarin Chinese
•
•
•
•
•
妈 (媽) mā ‘mother’
麻 (麻) má ‘hemp’
马 (馬) mǎ ‘horse’
骂 (駡) mà ‘scold, attack verbally’
吗 (嗎) ma (sentence-final particle indicating
a yes-no question)
(妈 is the simplified character, 媽 is the traditional
character.)
An example sentence
• 妈骂马;马骂妈吗?
媽駡馬;馬罵媽嗎?
Mā mà mǎ; mǎ mà mā ma?
‘Mother scolds the horse; does the horse
scold Mother?’
Origins of writing in eastern
Asia
• Chinese writing (begins ~13th century BCE):
spreads to Korea, Japan, Vietnam
• Alphabetic systems (ultimately traceable to the
Aramaic version of the Semitic alphabet):
• Early (Brahmi and other central Asian scripts)
• Later (Arabic alphabet adapted for Persian, Urdu,
etc.)
• New scripts influenced by older ones
• Chinese-like scripts invented from scratch
• Korean Hangeul alphabet (invented from scratch)
Stages in the development of Chinese
writing:
• Pottery markings (~ 3000 B.C.E.?)
• ‘Oracle bones’ (13th-11th c. B.C.E.)
• Inscriptions on bronze vessels (13th-3d c.
B.C.E.)
• Brush and ink on bamboo or silk (rag paper
invented ~ 105 C.E.); printing
• Script reform (Japan after 1945; China from
1950s): ‘simplified’ characters (fewer variant
characters, fewer strokes in each character)
• Computer fonts and encodings
Oracle bones
(turtle plastron)
Máo gōng dǐng 毛公鼎, ca. 900 BCE
(Taipei, Former Palace Museum)
Shāng 商 dynasty bronze inscription, ~1100 BCE
作父丁寶尊彝
‘
made [for] Father
Dīng [this] precious
treasured vessel’
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
A Chinese typewriter (1970’s)
Asahi Shimbun on the World Series
(today)
Rソックスが4ム3で勝利 3年ぶり7度
目の世界王者2007年10月29日13時
11分 米大リーグのワールドシリーズ
(4戦先勝制)第4戦、レッドソックス(
ア・リーグ)対ロッキーズ(ナ・リーグ)
戦が28日(日本時間29日)、コロラド
州のデンバーであり、松坂と岡島が所
属するレッドソックスが、ロッキーズに
4ム3で4連勝し、3年ぶり7度目のワ
ールドチャンピオンに輝いた。
松井 稼頭央
MATSUI Kazuō
Chosun Ilbo on the World Series
(2005)
[weol.deu.si.ri.jeu] si.ka.go hwa.i.teu sak.seu, ...
Descargar

Language in Asia - U-M Personal World Wide Web Server