Local Lexical Elements in Jakarta Indonesian
Uri Tadmor
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Origin of Betawi Malay
Two theories:
• Malay dialect: Direct continuation of Proto Malayic
(Nothofer, Collins, Adelaar)
• Creole: Developed locally from a form of Bazaar
Malay (Prentice, Grijns, Ikranagara)
History of the Betawi ethnic group
• Kelapa Sunda/Jayakarta (before 1619): Mostly
Sundanese population with Javanese royalty and
aristocracy
• Batavia (17th c.): No Sundanese and Javanese
allowed to reside in city. Largest ethnic groups:
Balinese, Chinese
• 18th c. (to present): Large influx of Sundanese
and Javanese (and smaller numbers of others,
including Malays)
Hypothesis on the formation of the Betawi
ethnic group
• 17th c.: Inter-marriage between Chinese men and
Balinese women
• 18th-19th c.: Admixture of mostly Sundanese and
Javanese; conversion to Islam; emergence of
new ethnic group
Hypothesis on the formation of
Betawi Malay
• 17th-18th c.: Pidgin/Bazaar Malay (cf.
Woordenboek 1780)
• 18th-19th c.: Creolization (cf. Shuchardt 1891)
• 19th-20th c.: Decreolization (influence of
Javanese, Sundanese, Standard Malay)
Evidence for origin:
• Culture: Food, dress, music, etc.
• Language: Mostly lexicon
Kinship terms among ethnic Betawi
• Father: babé < Arabic
• Mother: nyaq < Mandarin
or...
• babé < babah ‘term of address for a Chinese man’
• nyaq < nyonya ‘term of address for the wife of a
Chinese man’
• Grandfather: engkong < Hokkien ang-kong
‘grandfather’
• Grandmother: nénék < Balinese nénék (Classical
Malay nini)
• Parent’s older sibling: encang
• Parent’s younger sibling: encing
(Both Chinese, precise source words unindetified)
• Older brother: abang (dialect borrowing—
source?)
• Older sister: empoq (< *[m]pu + final glottalization
and vowel lowering; direct source?)
• Younger sibling: adéq (Malay)
Kinship terms currently used by ethnic
Chinese in Jakarta
• Father: papa (< Dutch)
• Mother: mama (< Dutch)
• Grandfather: akong (< Hokkien)
• Grandmother: maq (< Hokkien)
Parents’ siblings:
• Many different terms (oo, ii, kuku, etc.), but
crucially not encang and encing
Siblings:
• Older brother: koko (< Hokkien)
• Older sister: cici (< Hokkien)
• Younger sibling: adik (< Malay)
Prototypical pronouns: Ethnic Betawi
1st person
Singular
Plural
gué
kité
2nd person
3rd person
lu
diyé
-
Prototypical pronouns: Ethnic Chinese
1st person
Singular
gua
2nd person
3rd person
lu
diya
Plural
kita /
kita orang
lu orang
diya orang
Prototypical pronouns:
Jakarta Indonesian
.
Singular
Plural
1st person
aku
kita
2nd person
kamu
kalian
3rd person
dia
meréka
Prototypical possessive constructions
• Ethnic Betawi:
• Jakarta Chinese:
• Jakarta Indonesian:
rumah Budi
Budi punya rumah
rumahnya Budi
Pragmatic particles
•
•
•
•
•
Traditional Malay: lah, pun, pula (rarely used)
Malay-derived: nih, tuh, kan, yuk
Javanese: koq, ah, sih
Sundanese: mah
Balinese: dong
The Loanword Typology Project
A collaborative project coordinated by the
Department of Linguistics, Max Planck Institute for
Evolutionary Anthropology. In this project, we
study lexical borrowing patterns in about 40
languages from around the world. Each language
is the responsibility of a single author, an expert in
the language and its history. For each language,
lexical data is collected based on a list of 1460
meanings.
The Loanword Typology Project
The results of the projects will be published in two
volumes, one with general findings, the other with
case studies; the consolidated database will be
included in an electronic form. The aim is to
provide a systematic basis for claims about
borrowability and borrowing patterns, as well as
about grammatical, social, and cultural conditions
for borrowing. The lexical meanings include all
those on the list of the Intercontinental Dictionary
Series, another MPI EVA project.
Balinese (4)
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•
•
•
bianglala
menénténg
lindung
samping
the rainbow
to carry in hand
the freshwater eel
the side
Javanese (33)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
caplak
jénggot
ketombé
usus
cérét
jagung
singkong
jamur
kapan
the flea
the beard
the dandruff
the intestines or guts
the kettle
the maize/corn
the cassava/manioc
the mushroom
when?
•
•
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•
•
•
•
•
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•
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•
•
•
•
paron
timbal
merintih
mengerti
Kapan
warga(negara)
kali
rembulan
wanita
bocah
bapak mertua
ibu mertua
leluhur
bréwok
kerongkongan
kéték
the anvil
the lead
to groan
to understand
when?
the citizen
the river or stream
the moon
the woman
the child(1)
the father-in-law
the mother-in-law
the ancestors
the beard
the throat
the armpit
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
blangkon
payudara
terpelését
gagasan
konyol
menyulut
enggak/nggak
lonté
ani-ani
the headband or headdress
the breast
to slide or slip
the idea
stupid
to light
no
the prostitute
the sickle (actually k.o. small
reaping knife)
• Sundanese (3)
• monyét
• kelapa
• situ
the monkey
the coconut
the lake (man-made)
• Balinese/Javanese (10)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
cerobong (asap)
jongkok
gembok
kuping
merica
terwélu
kerudung
cangklong
penanggalan
langsing
jambut
the chimney
to crouch
the padlock
the ear
the pepper
the rabbit
the veil
the pipe
the calendar
thin
the pubic hair
• Javanese/Sundanese (58)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
bayi
sapi
banténg
kodok
kadal
jambut
capék
panci
séndok
sarapan
adonan
kentang
pacul
membabat
panén
the baby
the cattle
the ox
the frog
the lizard
the pubic hair
tired
the pot
the spoon
the breakfast
the dough
the potato
the spade
to mow
the harvest
•
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•
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•
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•
•
•
jeruk
menggebrak
menétés
menyemprot
pojok
énténg
gampang
mencegah
bénténg
rayap
mertua
pesisir
(ayam) jago
kalong
(burung) bétét
tawon
kéong
buntut
the citrus fruit
to pound
to drip
to splash
the corner
light(1)
easy
to prevent
the fortress
the termites
the parents-in-law
the shore
the cock/rooster
the bat
the parrot
the bee
the snail
the tail
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•
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•
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•
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berjogét
menggéndong
merangkul
kembang gula
kontol
pilek
panci (goréng)
gubuk
gréndél
obor
separo
kecut
kagét
pintar
goblok
bégo
gara-gara
to dance
to carry
to embrace
the candy/sweets
the penis
the cold
the pan
the hut
the latch or door-bolt
the lamp or torch
the half
sour
surprised or astonished
clever
stupid
stupid
because
•
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•
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•
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prajurit
soto
paceklik
memencét
ngobrol
mengguyur
romo
gapura
the soldier
the soup
the famine
to press
to speak or talk
to splash
the priest
the door or gate
• Balinese/Javanese/Sundanese (29)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
paman
bibi
duda
bébék
jempol
pusar
arit
the uncle
the aunt
the widower
the duck
the thumb
the navel
the sickle or scythe
•
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•
mengocok
pajak
garis
mirip
soré
sepi
empuk
désa
tanpa
bunglon
keponakan
iga
mengungsi
mengoméli
menuding
taméng
céléng
to shake
the tax
the line
similar
the afternoon
quiet
soft
the village
without
the chameleon
the sibling’s child
the rib
to flee
to scold
to accuse
the shield
the boar
•
•
•
•
•
Sabuk
témbok
kembang
wangi
ngomong
the belt
the wall
the flower
fragrant
to speak or talk
• Old Javanese (11)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
bapa/bapak
ibu
meréka
warna
belajar
mengajar
pasti
ratu
jawawut
merusak
mengantar(kan)
the father
the mother
they
the colour/color
to learn
to teach
certain
the queen
the millet or sorghum
to damage
to bring
• Minangkabau (4)
•
•
•
•
kalian
kumuh
dangkal
gadis
you (plural)
dirty
shallow (older form)
the girl (older form)
• Madurese (1)
• celurit/clurit
the sickle or scythe
• Toba Batak (1)
• marga
the clan
• Unidentified sources (5)
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•
•
•
•
binatang
the animal
pusut
the awl
nokén
the netbag
[me]ngendus
to sniff
pesakitan
the captive or prisoner
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