From Human Beginnings to New Nations Chapter 19 East Africa 1. Olduvai Gorge – often referred to as the “cradle of humanity”. It is one of the most important prehistoric sites in the world because of the large number of prehistoric remains found in the region. ◦ ◦ First artifacts date to about 2 million years ago, and fossil remains of humans have been found from as long as 2.5 million years ago. Located in the eastern Serengeti Plains in northern Tanzania. Right – the height of the Aksum empire in the 6th century. Below – Aksum obelisk, the most famous structure remaining that marks an emperor’s tombstone. First African empire to use their own coins. 2. Aksum Empire – The capital city of the empire was Aksum, which is now located in northern Ethiopia. Traded with Egypt & Eastern Roman Empire. Today it is a country village, but at one point in time…it was a bustling metropolis. East African Trade A.D. 1000 Traders on routes between the eastern Mediterranean region & Asia began passing through the Persian Gulf rather than the Red Sea. Empire lost power, but regain it around the 7th century. Monsoon wind used as trade routes. Colonization of Africa Why? To obtain resources When? 19th century, because of industrialized nations. Who? 14 European Nations met in the Berlin Conference in 1884-1885 to see how they would divide Africa. How? By just telling other nations of their claims & showing they could control the area. Berlin Conference – Meeting of the European nations in 1884-1885 to divide Africa amongst themselves. Ironically, no African rulers were invited to attend. By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free from European control. 3. European colonialization – major conflicts arose throughout Africa due to the divisions made without regard to ethnic or linguistic separations. Below - Emperor Menelik II Ethiopia – Emperor Menelik II skillfully defended his country from Italian invaders with assistance from weapons received from Russia and France. Liberia – originally designed to be a colony for freed slaves. It was the first decolonized state in Africa when it became independent in 1847. Above – Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1st President of Liberia) Conflict in East Africa 1970 most of East Africa regained its independence from Europe. 4. Internal disputes & civil wars became a problem; an example is Rwanda in the 1990s. Colonialism did not prepared East Africa nations for independence. Ethnic boundaries created by Europeans forced cultural divisions. Conflicts are numerous, but one of the most wellknown is the battle between the Hutu and the Tutsi tribes of Burundi in which 300,000400,000 people died in the period from 19932005. Farming in East Africa 1. 70% Rural & relied on cash crops such as coffee, tea & sugar grown for direct sale. Bring in so much revenue that it reduces land that could be used for farmland (personal). Times are slowly changing, as Africa tries to urbanize. Addis Ababa has increased its population by more than 1 million people in the past 15 years. Problems with its resources & infrastructure. Right – Addis Ababa Sheraton East African Tourism 2. Kenya – Masai Mara, famous for its immense population of wild game and the annual wildebeest migration in July and August. Also, the Nairobi National Park holds numerous lions, leopards, buffalo, rhino and elephants. But problems because of farming. Ngorongoro Crater is the largest unbroken, unflooded volcanic caldera, which is 102 square miles. The original estimated height of the volcano is 15,000-19,000 feet. Tanzania – Serengeti National Park, which contains the Serengeti Plains. Also, home of the world famous Ngorongoro Crater. East African Cultures 3. Maasai – found in Kenya and Tanzania, number approximately 900,000 people. Nomadic people that are primarily farmers and herders. Monotheistic tribe Left - Adumu dance to impress the “ladies”… They grease their clothes with cow fat to protect from sun & rain. Kikuyu, largest ethnic group in Kenya, 6.6 million & religious group in North Africa Luo – found in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania…number approximately 3.5 million people. Mainly farmers, fishermen, and urban workers…most are Christians. Customs include traditional polygamy, and payment for marriage for the bride (payment of money to the mother, donation of cattle to the father) Right – Raila Odinga, opposition leader defeated in December 27th election Below – traditional Luo village Luhya – found in Kenya and Uganda…number approximately 5 million people. Traditionally, agriculturalists, fishermen and traders…primarily growing cassava (#3 largest source of carbohydrates in the world) Mainly Muslim or Animistic beliefs, although there are some Christians. Men are the ultimate authority. First born sons from the first wife would be the next heir to the family. Daughters are simply viewed as other men’s future wives. 4. Health Care in Africa is very poor, with most people not having access to basic needs. Africa spends three times more on repaying debts to rich Western countries and institutions than it does on providing health facilities and drugs for its sick and poor population. Everyday, about 6,000 children lose one of their parents to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) worldwide. About 90% of those are in Africa. • AIDS has become a pandemic (an uncontrollable outbreak of a disease affecting a large population over a wide geographic area) in Africa. • Countries are trying to fight back by educating their people. UNAIDS (the UN program that studies the world’s AIDS epidimic) has worked with numerous countries in Africa to take preventive actions. AIDS Africa is clearly having problems with this deadly disease… North Africa Carthage – Legendary city founded sometime around 800 BC. It is located in northern Tunisia on a small peninsula in the Gulf of Tunis. Carthage became a large and rich city in ancient times until it was destroyed in 146 BC during the Third Punic War (Phoenicians vs. Romans). Rome rebuilt Carthage and it was one of their major cities until the Muslim Conquests destroyed it again in 698 AD. Cairo – largest city in Africa, built on the Nile River. Egypt – Home of the famous pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx, as well as the Valley of the Kings. Mahgreb – People of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Practice Islam, mainly speak Arabic Tourism and oil are the staple of their economies Tunis, Tunisia Algiers, Algeria People of North Africa Casablanca, Morocco 1. Sahara – desert people found in Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Sudan Many types of Nomadic peoples, such as the Berber (@ 36 million), Tuareg (@ 1.2 million), and the Beja (@ 1.2 million). Mainly Arabic speaking, and practice Islam Tuareg 2. Nile Valley Civilization – live along the Nile River and use its vast resource for farming. Generally speak Arabic, and most practice Sunni Islam. It allow for the movement of ideas, as well as the trade that helped spread those ideas. Islam 3. Islam remains the major cultural & religious in North Africa. Muslim invaders swept Egypt. Darfur Region of western Sudan – conflict that has been raging since 2003. Ethnic and tribal based fight ongoing between the two sides. The military and militia groups of Sudan vs. the rebels Estimates fall between 200,000 and 400,000 killed and 2.5 million refugees. Refugee camp in Chad Omar al-Bashir, president of Sudan…considered to be one of the worst dictators in the world. National flag of Libya, which is the only national flag in the world with only one color and no design. Green is the traditional color of Islam. Libya – 90% of Libya is desert, leader is Muammar al-Gaddafi. 4. Third highest per capita income in Africa, mainly due to its oil supply. Population density is about 8.5 per square mile. Has replace cash crops. Education in Libya is free for all citizens. Highest literacy rate in North Africa, with 82% being able to read and write. U.S. bombed Libya in 1986 due to links to terrorism and Libya’s involvement with the death of two U.S. servicemen and the injury of 50 others in Germany. Culture 1. Marketplaces, where bartering and haggling are a way of life, are a common feature of life in North Africa. 2. Algerian rai is a kind of fast-music once sung by poor urban children and later used by protest. Changing Times Household are usually center around the males, they work in offices & farms; few women held jobs and they would eat & pray separately. 3. Polygamy has been abolished in Tunisia, as well as penalties for spousal abuse has increased. Either spouse can now seek divorce, and Tunisia no longer permits preteen girls to be in arranged marriages. Equal pay for equal jobs. Women hold 7% of Tunisia’s parliamentary seats, and manage 9% of businesses in Tunis. West Africa Section 3 1. Ghana Empire – 1st of many empires to rise in West Africa. Traded with the Arabs, the Middle East, and Europe. Supplies of salt, gold and ivory were traded for manufactured goods. Rose to power in approximately 750 AD, and lasted until it was captured in 1076. It was believed at its height of power in the mid 11th century, the Ghana empire had a military numbering nearly 200,000 soldiers. Ghana, Mali, & Songhai Empire because of trade route & location. Sierra Leone 3. Worst economic conditions in West Africa; has not highways, has had years of political instability; has a literacy rate of just 31% Infrastructure is poor. Ashanti Crafts 1. They are know for their work in weaving colorful asasia—kente cloth. Masks & stools. It contains woven geometric figures. Only royalty are allow to wear them. Ashanti stool symbolizes the unity between ancestral spirits & living family members. Stateless Societies West Africa has many different cultures and people ◦ 2. Stateless society – relies on family lineages Work through cooperation and compromise No centralized authority ◦ Stateless societies disappeared after colonization Music 3. Blend traditional African music with American forms of jazz, blues and reggae; includes a variety of drums and other instruments. They used this to attract an international audience. Popular instrument used by West African people, called the Djembe drum Central Africa Section 4 Countries of Central Africa 1. Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon & Sao Tome & Principe. Bantu Migration & Colonial Exploitation Bantu Migrations – The Bantu consists of over 400 ethnic groups in Sub-Saharan Africa. 2. The Bantu people share a common culture and language. “Bantu” means “people” in many Bantu languages. The importance is due to the long series of migrations that was a diffusion of language and knowledge out and into neighboring populations. Slaves, Colonialism & Effects Europeans wanted slaves for their plantations in the Americas. 3. Traded guns to African merchants for slaves. African rulers took part in the slave trade. 4. Colonialism began with King Leopold’s interest in & exploitation of the Congo. 5. Borders left by colonial empires pitted groups of Africans against each other; new governments faced problems, including inexperience and corruption. Before colonization, tribal chief or elders would consult with other leaders within the village to make decisions that affected only the village; called a stateless society. Now more centralized government. King Leopold II – King of Belgium who took interest in the Congo after he explored there in the 1870’s. He used forced labor to extract rubber, ivory, and palm oil. This resulted in the death of millions of Congolese. Estimated deaths range from 2-15 million. Leopold’s rubber gatherers were sometimes tortured, maimed, or slaughtered to get what he desired. Economically, Central Africa has many challenges…mainly due to European colonialism. 6. Europeans stripped the land of its natural resources, but did not put the proper infrastructure in place. Similarly to the rest of Africa, Central African countries rely too heavily on the export of raw materials. Political unrest has caused many problems in the region as well. Postcolonial leaders desire for power and riches left the countries in disarray. 7. Mobutu Sese Seko – leader of the DRC from 1967-1997, caused massive problems and economic chaos. He began taking kickbacks from the profit of businesses, which in turn caused the country’s economy and education system to decline. Mobutu Sese Seko Mobutu was overthrown by Laurent-Désiré Kabila. Kabila was supported by Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. When Mobutu issued an order to force Tutsis to leave the country, a rebellion erupted. The three countries, combined with anti-Mobutu rebels defeated his armies. Kabila became president the same day of his surrender, and the country was renamed from Zaire to the Democratic Republic of Congo. Laurent-Désiré Kabila Kabila turned out to be no better, with his regime considered to be full of authoritarianism, corruption, and human rights abuses. Kabila was assassinated in 2001. 135 people were tried for his murder, of which 25 were sentenced to death, 64 were jailed with sentences ranging from six months to life…and 45 were set free. Kabila’s son, Joseph Kabila Kanambe, was made president ten days later. In November 2006, Joseph Kabila became the first Congolese president to be democratically elected. Joseph Kabila Kanambe Angola – Civil War lasted for 27 years, in which over 500,000 people lost their lives…finally coming to an end in 2002 with the death of Jonas Savimbi (opposition leader) Today, Angola has changed drastically to become the 2nd fastest growing economy in Africa, and one of the fastest in the world. In 2004, Chinese banks extended Angola a $2 billion line of credit to begin rebuilding their infrastructure. The vast supply of oil in Angola has their economy growing at a rapid pace of over 15% per year the last three years. Luanda, Angola 1. For a period; Western influences were banned in art; artists now focusing on issues of political instability, urban life, social justice & crime 2. Fang sculptures – famous carvings by the Fang people of Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. The wooden masks have facial features and are known to have influenced Picasso in his later work due to their captivating look. 3. Education in Central Africa is poor due to a shortage of trained teachers, high dropout rates, and a shortage of secondary schools There are also over 700 languages spoken due to the Bantu migrations Making a single language of instruction fit a multilingual population. 4. varies; attend school at different ages; some are improving education, creating new universities; classes in vocational, agricultural & teacher training. Equatorial Guinea and Gabon will co-host the 2012 African Nations Cup (soccer) Gabon has a military of about 5,000 people, and interestingly abolished the death penalty in 2007. Central African Republic is one of the poorest countries in the world and one of the ten poorest countries in Africa. There are over 80 ethnic groups in C.A.R., and their livestock population is constantly threatened by the tsetse fly. The U.N. ranks Chad as the 5th poorest country in the world, with 80% of the people living below the poverty line. Southern Africa Section 5 Southern Africa The ruins from which Zimbabwe took its name is one of the greatest historical and cultural attractions of Africa. 1. 1200s-1400s;The Great Zimbabwe, which are the largest ruins in Africa, cover almost 1,800 acres. Capital of great gold trading. Its tallest point, which is sometimes called the Great Enclosure, has walls as high as 36 feet extending 820 feet…making it the largest ancient structure south of the Sahara. 2. In the mid-1400s, a gold-trading empire to the north of where Great Zimbabwe had been. Victoria Falls – has a width of 1 mile, and a height of 360 feet…forming the largest sheet of falling water in the world. Flows through the Zambezi River, and is found between Zambia and Zimbabwe. 3. The English and Dutch clashed with the Zulu and with each other for control of the area. British won and formed the Union of South Africa. 4. Policy of complete separation of the races instituted by the minority government of South Africa, which ensured grave economic inequality as well as social inequality. 5. The legacy of apartheid is two economies—one an upper middleclass income centered in the cities, the other poverty-stricken and rural. 6. Botswana has experienced long-term economic growth, but its economy is also two-tiered, with about 20 percent of the people benefiting from its mineral and especially diamond wealth and the other 80% working as farmers and facing economic problems as land for farming disappears. Nelson Mandela – former President of South Africa, famous for spending 27 years in prison for being an anti-apartheid activist. Apartheid – legal separation of races in South Africa that existed from 1948 to 1994. South Africa was run by the white minority (about 9% of the population virtually until Mandela won the first democratically elected presidency. Mandela became a symbol for freedom and equality. Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. 1. include the Gule Wamkulu dance by the Chewa people, the vimbuza dance by the Tumbka people, the benji dances of the Yao people, and the Hira Gasy festival in Madagascar 2. Modern city with skyscrapers and spacious suburbs as well as black townships and shantytowns. 3. range of cocupations from lawyers and doctors to unskilled workers; range of homes from tree-line suburbs to shantytown; range of cultures, including traditional Zulu. Namibia – one of the highest AIDS rates in Africa Botswana – highest AIDS rate in Africa with 39% of adults infected. Windhoek, Namibia Gaborone, Botswana Botswana was the filming location for the 1980 movie The Gods Must Be Crazy HIV cases are so high that other diseases run rampant in South Africa… Cholera – Inadequate sanitation and lack of clean water, can lead to death within 18 hours if in its most severe form Malaria – commonly associated with poverty, and kills between 1-3 million people per year. Tuberculosis – common infectious disease that attacks the lungs, found mostly in developing countries.