From Human Beginnings to
New Nations
Chapter 19
East Africa
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1. Olduvai Gorge – often referred to as the “cradle of humanity”. It
is one of the most important prehistoric sites in the world because
of the large number of prehistoric remains found in the region.
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First artifacts date to about 2 million years ago, and fossil remains of
humans have been found from as long as 2.5 million years ago.
Located in the eastern Serengeti Plains in northern Tanzania.
Right – the height of the Aksum empire in the
6th century.
Below – Aksum obelisk, the most famous
structure remaining that marks an
emperor’s tombstone.
First African empire to
use their own coins.
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2. Aksum Empire – The capital city
of the empire was Aksum, which
is now located in northern
Ethiopia. Traded with Egypt &
Eastern Roman Empire. Today it is
a country village, but at one point
in time…it was a bustling
metropolis.
East African Trade A.D. 1000
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Traders on routes
between the eastern
Mediterranean region
& Asia began passing
through the Persian
Gulf rather than the
Red Sea.
Empire lost power, but
regain it around the 7th
century.
Monsoon wind used as
trade routes.
Colonization of Africa
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Why?
To obtain resources
When?
19th century, because of industrialized nations.
Who?
14 European Nations met in the Berlin
Conference in 1884-1885 to see how they would
divide Africa.
How?
By just telling other nations of their claims &
showing they could control the area.

Berlin Conference –
Meeting of the
European nations in
1884-1885 to divide
Africa amongst
themselves.
Ironically, no African
rulers were invited
to attend. By 1914,
only Liberia and
Ethiopia remained
free from European
control.

3. European
colonialization –
major conflicts
arose throughout
Africa due to the
divisions made
without regard to
ethnic or linguistic
separations.
Below - Emperor Menelik II
Ethiopia – Emperor Menelik II
skillfully defended his country from
Italian invaders with assistance from
weapons received from Russia and
France.
 Liberia – originally designed to be a
colony for freed slaves. It was the
first decolonized state in Africa when
it became independent in 1847.

Above – Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1st
President of Liberia)
Conflict in East Africa
1970 most of East Africa regained its
independence from Europe.
 4. Internal disputes & civil wars became a
problem; an example is Rwanda in the
1990s.
 Colonialism did not prepared East Africa
nations for independence.
 Ethnic boundaries created by Europeans
forced cultural divisions.
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Conflicts are
numerous, but
one of the
most wellknown is the
battle
between the
Hutu and the
Tutsi tribes of
Burundi in
which
300,000400,000
people died in
the period
from 19932005.
Farming in East Africa
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1. 70% Rural & relied on cash crops such as coffee, tea & sugar grown
for direct sale.
Bring in so much revenue that it reduces land that could be used for
farmland (personal).
Times are slowly changing, as Africa tries to urbanize. Addis Ababa has
increased its population by more than 1 million people in the past 15
years.
Problems with its resources & infrastructure.
Right – Addis Ababa Sheraton
East African Tourism

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2. Kenya – Masai Mara, famous for its immense
population of wild game and the annual wildebeest
migration in July and August. Also, the Nairobi
National Park holds numerous lions, leopards, buffalo,
rhino and elephants.
But problems because of farming.
Ngorongoro Crater is the largest
unbroken, unflooded volcanic caldera,
which is 102 square miles. The original
estimated height of the volcano is
15,000-19,000 feet.
Tanzania – Serengeti National
Park, which contains the
Serengeti Plains. Also, home of
the world famous Ngorongoro
Crater.
East African Cultures
3. Maasai – found in Kenya and
Tanzania, number approximately
900,000 people.
 Nomadic people that are primarily
farmers and herders.
 Monotheistic tribe
Left - Adumu dance to impress the “ladies”…

They grease their clothes with cow fat to
protect from sun & rain.
Kikuyu, largest ethnic group in Kenya, 6.6
million & religious group in North Africa
Luo – found in Kenya,
Uganda and
Tanzania…number
approximately 3.5 million
people.
 Mainly farmers, fishermen,
and urban workers…most
are Christians.
 Customs include traditional
polygamy, and payment for
marriage for the bride
(payment of money to the
mother, donation of cattle to
the father)

Right – Raila Odinga,
opposition leader
defeated in December
27th election
Below – traditional
Luo village
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Luhya – found in
Kenya and
Uganda…number
approximately 5
million people.
Traditionally,
agriculturalists,
fishermen and
traders…primarily
growing cassava (#3
largest source of
carbohydrates in the
world)
Mainly Muslim or
Animistic beliefs,
although there are
some Christians.
Men are the ultimate
authority. First born
sons from the first
wife would be the
next heir to the family.
Daughters are simply
viewed as other men’s
future wives.
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4. Health Care in Africa is very poor, with most
people not having access to basic needs.
Africa spends three times more on repaying debts
to rich Western countries and institutions than it
does on providing health facilities and drugs for its
sick and poor population.
Everyday, about 6,000 children lose one of their
parents to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndrome) worldwide. About 90% of those are in
Africa.
• AIDS has become a pandemic (an
uncontrollable outbreak of a disease
affecting a large population over a wide
geographic area) in Africa.
• Countries are trying to fight back by
educating their people. UNAIDS (the
UN program that studies the world’s
AIDS epidimic) has worked with
numerous countries in Africa to take
preventive actions.
AIDS

Africa is clearly having problems with this
deadly disease…
North Africa
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Carthage – Legendary city founded sometime
around 800 BC. It is located in northern
Tunisia on a small peninsula in the Gulf of
Tunis.
Carthage became a large and rich city in
ancient times until it was destroyed in 146 BC
during the Third Punic War (Phoenicians vs.
Romans).
 Rome rebuilt Carthage and
it was one of their major
cities until the Muslim
Conquests destroyed it
again in 698 AD.
Cairo – largest city in Africa,
built on the Nile River.

Egypt – Home of the famous
pyramids of Giza and the Great
Sphinx, as well as the Valley of
the Kings.
Mahgreb – People of
Algeria, Morocco, and
Tunisia.
 Practice Islam, mainly
speak Arabic
 Tourism and oil are the
staple of their economies

Tunis, Tunisia
Algiers, Algeria
People of North
Africa
Casablanca, Morocco
1. Sahara – desert people found in Libya, Algeria,
Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Sudan
 Many types of Nomadic peoples, such as the Berber
(@ 36 million), Tuareg (@ 1.2 million), and the Beja
(@ 1.2 million).
 Mainly Arabic speaking, and practice Islam
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Tuareg
2. Nile Valley Civilization – live along the
Nile River and use its vast resource for
farming.
 Generally speak Arabic, and most practice
Sunni Islam.
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It allow for the movement of
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ideas, as well as the trade that
helped spread those ideas.
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Islam
3. Islam remains the major cultural &
religious in North Africa.
 Muslim invaders swept Egypt.
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Darfur Region of western Sudan – conflict
that has been raging since 2003.
 Ethnic and tribal based fight ongoing between
the two sides. The military and militia groups
of Sudan vs. the rebels
 Estimates fall between 200,000 and 400,000
killed and 2.5 million refugees.

Refugee camp
in Chad
Omar al-Bashir, president of
Sudan…considered to be one of
the worst dictators in the world.
National flag of Libya, which is the only national flag
in the world with only one color and no design. Green
is the traditional color of Islam.
Libya – 90% of Libya is desert, leader is
Muammar al-Gaddafi.
 4. Third highest per capita income in Africa,
mainly due to its oil supply. Population density
is about 8.5 per square mile. Has replace cash
crops.
 Education in Libya is free for all citizens.
Highest literacy rate in North Africa, with 82%
being able to read and write.
 U.S. bombed Libya in 1986 due to links to
terrorism and Libya’s involvement with the
death of two U.S. servicemen and the injury of
50 others in Germany.
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Culture
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1. Marketplaces, where bartering and haggling are a way of life, are a
common feature of life in North Africa.
2. Algerian rai is a kind of fast-music once sung by poor urban
children and later used by protest.
Changing Times
Household are usually center around the males,
they work in offices & farms; few women held
jobs and they would eat & pray separately.
 3. Polygamy has been abolished in Tunisia, as well
as penalties for spousal abuse has increased.
 Either spouse can now seek divorce, and Tunisia
no longer permits preteen girls to be in
arranged marriages.
 Equal pay for equal jobs. Women hold 7% of
Tunisia’s parliamentary seats, and manage 9% of
businesses in Tunis.
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West Africa
Section 3
1. Ghana Empire – 1st of many empires to rise in West
Africa.
 Traded with the Arabs, the Middle East, and Europe.
 Supplies of salt, gold and ivory were traded for
manufactured goods.
 Rose to power in approximately 750 AD, and lasted until it
was captured in 1076.
 It was believed at its height of power in the mid 11th
century, the Ghana empire had a military numbering
nearly 200,000 soldiers.
 Ghana, Mali, & Songhai Empire because
 of trade route & location.
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Sierra Leone
3. Worst economic
conditions in West
Africa; has not
highways, has had
years of political
instability; has a
literacy rate of just
31%
 Infrastructure is
poor.
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Ashanti Crafts
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1. They are know for
their work in weaving
colorful asasia—kente
cloth. Masks & stools.
It contains woven
geometric figures.
Only royalty are allow to
wear them.
Ashanti stool symbolizes
the unity between
ancestral spirits & living
family members.
Stateless Societies

West Africa has many different cultures
and people
◦ 2. Stateless society – relies on family lineages
 Work through cooperation and compromise
 No centralized authority
◦ Stateless societies disappeared after
colonization
Music
3. Blend traditional
African music with
American forms of
jazz, blues and reggae;
includes a variety of
drums and other
instruments.
 They used this to
attract an
international
audience.
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
Popular instrument
used by West African
people, called the
Djembe drum
Central Africa
Section 4
Countries of Central Africa

1. Cameroon,
Central African
Republic,
Democratic
Republic of the
Congo, Republic of
the Congo,
Equatorial Guinea,
Gabon & Sao
Tome & Principe.
Bantu Migration & Colonial
Exploitation
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Bantu Migrations – The Bantu consists of
over 400 ethnic groups in Sub-Saharan
Africa.
2. The Bantu people share a common
culture and language. “Bantu” means
“people” in many Bantu languages.
The importance is due to the long series
of migrations that was a diffusion of
language and knowledge out and into
neighboring populations.
Slaves, Colonialism & Effects
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Europeans wanted slaves for their plantations in the Americas.
3. Traded guns to African merchants for slaves.
African rulers took part in the slave trade.
4. Colonialism began with King Leopold’s interest in & exploitation
of the Congo.
5. Borders left by colonial empires pitted groups of Africans against
each other; new governments faced problems, including
inexperience and corruption.
Before colonization, tribal chief or elders would consult with other
leaders within the village to make decisions that affected only the
village; called a stateless society. Now more centralized
government.
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King Leopold II – King of Belgium who took
interest in the Congo after he explored there
in the 1870’s.
He used forced labor to extract rubber, ivory,
and palm oil. This resulted in the death of
millions of Congolese. Estimated deaths range
from 2-15 million.
Leopold’s rubber gatherers were sometimes
tortured, maimed, or slaughtered to get what
he desired.
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Economically, Central Africa has many
challenges…mainly due to European colonialism.
6. Europeans stripped the land of its natural resources,
but did not put the proper infrastructure in place.
Similarly to the rest of Africa, Central African countries
rely too heavily on the export of raw materials.
Political unrest has caused many problems in the region
as well. Postcolonial leaders desire for power and
riches left the countries in disarray.
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7. Mobutu Sese Seko – leader of the DRC from
1967-1997, caused massive problems and economic
chaos.
He began taking kickbacks from the profit of
businesses, which in turn caused the country’s
economy and education system to decline.
Mobutu Sese Seko
Mobutu was overthrown by Laurent-Désiré Kabila.
Kabila was supported by Uganda, Rwanda and
Burundi.
When Mobutu issued an order to force Tutsis to
leave the country, a rebellion erupted. The three
countries, combined with anti-Mobutu rebels
defeated his armies.
Kabila became president the same day of his
surrender, and the country was renamed from
Zaire to the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Laurent-Désiré Kabila
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Kabila turned out to be no better, with his
regime considered to be full of
authoritarianism, corruption, and human
rights abuses.
Kabila was assassinated in 2001. 135
people were tried for his murder, of which
25 were sentenced to death, 64 were jailed
with sentences ranging from six months to
life…and 45 were set free.
Kabila’s son, Joseph Kabila Kanambe, was
made president ten days later.
In November 2006, Joseph Kabila became
the first Congolese president to be
democratically elected.
Joseph Kabila Kanambe
Angola – Civil War lasted for 27 years, in which
over 500,000 people lost their lives…finally
coming to an end in 2002 with the death of
Jonas Savimbi (opposition leader)
 Today, Angola has changed drastically to become
the 2nd fastest growing economy in Africa, and
one of the fastest in the world.
 In 2004, Chinese banks extended Angola a $2
billion line of credit to begin rebuilding their
infrastructure.
 The vast supply of oil in Angola has their
economy growing at a rapid pace of over 15%
per year the last three years.
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Luanda, Angola
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1. For a period; Western influences
were banned in art; artists now
focusing on issues of political
instability, urban life, social justice &
crime
2. Fang sculptures – famous carvings
by the Fang people of Gabon,
Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea.
The wooden masks have facial
features and are known to have
influenced Picasso in his later work
due to their captivating look.
3. Education in Central Africa is poor due to a
shortage of trained teachers, high dropout rates,
and a shortage of secondary schools
 There are also over 700 languages spoken due
to the Bantu migrations
 Making a single language of instruction fit a
multilingual population.
 4. varies; attend school at different ages; some
are improving education, creating new
universities; classes in vocational, agricultural &
teacher training.
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Equatorial Guinea and Gabon will co-host the 2012
African Nations Cup (soccer)
Gabon has a military of about 5,000 people, and
interestingly abolished the death penalty in 2007.
Central African Republic is one of the poorest countries
in the world and one of the ten poorest countries in
Africa.
There are over 80 ethnic groups in C.A.R., and their
livestock population is constantly threatened by the
tsetse fly.
The U.N. ranks Chad as the 5th poorest country in the
world, with 80% of the people living below the poverty
line.
Southern Africa
Section 5
Southern Africa

The ruins from which Zimbabwe took
its name is one of the greatest
historical and cultural attractions of
Africa.

1. 1200s-1400s;The Great Zimbabwe,
which are the largest ruins in Africa,
cover almost 1,800 acres. Capital of
great gold trading.

Its tallest point, which is sometimes
called the Great Enclosure, has walls as
high as 36 feet extending 820
feet…making it the largest ancient
structure south of the Sahara.
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2. In the mid-1400s, a gold-trading
empire to the north of where Great
Zimbabwe had been.
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Victoria Falls – has a
width of 1 mile, and a
height of 360
feet…forming the
largest sheet of
falling water in the
world.
Flows through the
Zambezi River, and is
found between
Zambia and
Zimbabwe.
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3. The English and Dutch clashed with the Zulu and with each other
for control of the area. British won and formed the Union of South
Africa.
4. Policy of complete separation of the races instituted by the
minority government of South Africa, which ensured grave
economic inequality as well as social inequality.
5. The legacy of apartheid is two economies—one an upper middleclass income centered in the cities, the other poverty-stricken and
rural.
6. Botswana has experienced long-term economic growth, but its
economy is also two-tiered, with about 20 percent of the people
benefiting from its mineral and especially diamond wealth and the
other 80% working as farmers and facing economic problems as
land for farming disappears.
Nelson Mandela – former President of South Africa, famous
for spending 27 years in prison for being an anti-apartheid
activist.
 Apartheid – legal separation of races in South Africa that
existed from 1948 to 1994.
 South Africa was run by the white minority (about 9% of the
population virtually until Mandela won the first democratically
elected presidency.
 Mandela became a symbol for freedom and equality.
 Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
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1. include the Gule Wamkulu dance by the Chewa
people, the vimbuza dance by the Tumbka people, the
benji dances of the Yao people, and the Hira Gasy
festival in Madagascar
2. Modern city with skyscrapers and spacious suburbs as
well as black townships and shantytowns.
3. range of cocupations from lawyers and doctors to
unskilled workers; range of homes from tree-line
suburbs to shantytown; range of cultures, including
traditional Zulu.
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Namibia – one of the
highest AIDS rates in
Africa
Botswana – highest AIDS
rate in Africa with 39%
of adults infected.
Windhoek, Namibia
Gaborone, Botswana
Botswana was the
filming location for the
1980 movie The Gods
Must Be Crazy
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HIV cases are so high that other diseases run rampant in
South Africa…
Cholera – Inadequate sanitation and lack of clean water, can
lead to death within 18 hours if in its most severe form
Malaria – commonly associated with poverty, and kills
between 1-3 million people per year.
Tuberculosis – common infectious disease that attacks the
lungs, found mostly in developing countries.
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From Human Beginnings to New Nations