chapter 17, pg.469-500
BY:Kaylynn Wilson
World history
Dr.Linebarger 1st block
Lets embark on a journey
back in time, where events
of the Renaissance and
reformation we will find. Put
on your thinking caps, sit
back and unwind, today an
abound amount of
knowledge well dwell
through your mind
Information center
GPS objective; during my oral and visual
presentation we will be discussing various
events that have occurred during the time
era of 1300 and 1600 ( The European
Renaissance and reformation). I will state
the important facts of the Renaissance
and what took place during that time, I
will also include what was the cause of the
reformation, what happen during
reformation, who had the biggest
influence on the reformation and how or
did if ended.
Italy: Birthplace of the
The Renaissance was a period in Italy that caused an explosion of
creativity in art, writing, and thought that lasted approximately from
1300 to 1600
Renaissance mean rebirth, and in this context it refers to a revival of
art and learning
Men and women hoped o bring back the ways of the classical
Greece and Rome
The contribution made during this period led to innovative style of
arts and literature
The Renaissance spread from northern Italy to the rest of Europe
Three advantages included thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class,
and classical Greek and Rome heritage.
About the city
• Overseas trade, spurred by the crusades, had led to the growth of the large
city states in Northern Italy
• Had many sizeable towns
• North Europe was the urban part and the rest of Europe was rural
• Ideal breeding ground for an intellectual revolution
• In the 1300’s the bubonic plague struck cities, killing up to 60% of the
Life as a merchant
• Merchants dominated politics
• Didn’t inherit social rank
• Believed they deserved power and wealth because of their individual
• Florence was a republican state
• Florence came under the rule of one powerful banking family, the
• The Medici family had branch offices throughout Italy and in major
cities of Europe,( one of the wealthiest families of Europe,
Renaissance time)
Scholars, classical, and worldly
Renaissance scholars looked down on the art and literature of the middle
 As scholars studied manuscripts they became more influenced by classical
 The study of classical texts led to humanism, an intellectual movement that
focused on human potential and achievements. Basically it was a theory
saying that you had to study in Greek and Latin to better yourself.
 Instead of trying to make classical texts agree with Christian teachings as
medieval scholars had, humanist studied them to understand ancient Greek
 Humanist influenced artists and architects to carry out classical traditions
 They also popularized the study of history, literature, and philosophy
 People demonstrated their piety by wearing rough clothing and eating plain
 Humanist suggested that a person might enjoy life without offending God
( Petrarch was one of the earliest and most influential humanist, some called
him the father of renaissance, he was also a great poet, he wrote in both in
Italian and in Latin)
wealthy people enjoyed material luxuries, good music, and fine food
Many were devoted Catholics
The basic spirit of Renaissance society was secular, worldly rather than spiritual and
concerned with the here and now
Many church leaders were secular, some lived in beautiful mansions, threw lavish
banquets, and wore expensive clothes
Leaders became patrons of the arts by financially supporting artist
Merchants and wealthy families also were patrons of the arts aswell
Renaissance men and women
 Renaissance writers introduced the idea that all educated people were expected to
create art. A man who excelled in many fields was praised as a “ universal man”,
later ages called such people “ Renaissance men”. Baldassare Castiglione wrote a
book called The Courtier that taught how to become such a person. The book stated
that a young man should be charming, witty, and well educated in the classics. He
also should dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. In addition, he should be a
skilled rider, wrestler, and swords man.
 According to the book upper class women also should know the classics and be
charming. But yet they were not expected to seek fame, however they were expected
to inspire art but rarely to create it. Upper-class Renaissance women were better
than medieval women. How ever, most Renaissance women had little influence in
 Renaissance painters used the technique of perspective, which shows three
dimensions on a flat surface. Renaissance writers produced works that reflected their
time, but they also used techniques that writers rely in today. many writers began to
write in vernacular, which was Dante’s native language, Italian. Renaissance writers
wrote either for self-expression or to portray the individuality of their subjects.
Renaissance men and women
 Renaissance men
Baldassare Castiglione
Leonardo Da Vinci
Michelangelo Buonarioti
Raphael Sanizo
 Renaissance
Isabella d’Este
Sofonisba Anguissola
Artemisia Gentileschi
Victoria Colonna
The Northern Renaissance
By 1450 the population of Northern Europe, which had declined due to
the bubonic plague, was beginning to grow again
Urban merchants became wealthy
Hundred year’s war between France and England ended in 1453
Flanders was rich from long-distance trade and the cloth industry
Wealth increased, patronage of artists increased as well
Unified under strong monarchs
Renaissance ideal of humanist inspired some Northern humanist to
develop plans for social reform based on Judeo-Christian values.
Artistic ideas, German and Flemish
as war in 1494 dragged, on many Italian artists and writers left f or safer life in Northern
They brought with them the styles and techniques of the Italian Renaissance
Most famous person to do such was German artists, Albrecht Durer
The popularity or Durer’s work helped to spread Renaissance styles
Durer emphasis upon realism influenced the work of another German artist Hans Holbein
The first great Flemish Renaissance painters was Jan Van Eyck
He developed oil-based paint
Flemish painting reached its peak after 1550 with the work of Pieter Bruegel the elder
He was skillful in portraying large numbers of people
During this chapter many
reforms were started, many
people separated and
departed, what was the
cause, was the reform that
started them all. How did it
began and when did it end?
Lets find out my friends.
Northern writers try to
reform society
• Italian humanist were very interested in
reviving classical languages and classical
texts. The northern humanist were
criticized for the failure of the Christian
church to inspire people to live a Christian
life. The criticism produced a new
movement know as Christian humanism.
The focus of Christian humanism was the
reform of society. The humanists
promoted the education of women and
founded schools attended by both boys
and girls.
Christian humanists
Desiderius Erasmus of
Thomas More of England
Wrote his most famous work “ The
Praised Folly”
The booked poked fun at greedy
merchants, heart sick, lovers, quarrel
some scholars and pompous priests.
Believed in a Christianity of the heart,
not one of ceremonies or rulers
Believed everyone should study the
Tried to show a better model of society
In 1516, he wrote the book “ Utopia”
Utopia means no place
The book is about an imaginary land
where greed, corruption, and war have
been weeded out.
As well as utopians having little use of
His work was translated in French,
German, English, Spanish, and Italian
Women’s reform
The women’s reform was about
women speaking out against the ideal
that only males should be sent to
Christine de Pizan was one of the first
highly educated women to earn a
living as a writer
She was one of the first Europeans to
question treatment between male and
The Elizabethan Age
• When the renaissance spread to Europe it became known as
the Elizabethan age
Queen Elizabeth ruled from 1558 to 1603
She was well educated and spoke, French, Italian, Latin, and
She did a lot to support the development of English art and
The most famous writer of the Elizabethan age was William
He wrote plays, poetry, and was a performer
His work displays a masterful command of the English
language and a deep understanding of human beings
Plays include: Macbeth, Hamlet, Othello, Rome and Juliet, King
Lear, A Midsummer Night’s Dream and The Taming of The
That’s my printing press
• Around 1440 Johann Gutenberg, a craftsman from Mainz, Germany
developed a printing press that incorporated a number of technologies in
a new way. The process made it possible to produce books quickly and
cheaply. Gutenberg printed a complete bible, the Gutenberg bible in about
1455. It was the first full sized book printed with movable type. Printing
Press enabled a printer to produce hundreds of copies of a single work.
The legacy of the renaissance
The European Renaissance was a period of great artistic and social
Art drew on techniques and styles of classical Greece and Rome
Printing changed society by making more information available and
Paintings and sculptures portrayed individuals and nature in more
realistic and lifelike ways
Christian humanists attempts to reform society changed views about
how life should be lived
Writers began to use vernacular languages to express their ideas
Published accounts of new discoveries, maps, and charts, led to
further discoveries
The arts praised individual achievement
Luther leads the reformation
Reformation means change.
1500 church weakened
Printing press spreads secular ideas
Rulers began to challenge power of
• Segregation between the Roman catholic
church and French orthodox church
Who is Martin Luther?
 Martin Luther was a man who questioned the
way that the catholic church did things. He
was a monk and a teacher. Martin Luther only
wanted to be a good Christian, not to lead a
religious reformation. He was the “ main man”
in what is called the religious reformation.
Corruption in the church
 Indulgence was a pardon, it released a
sinner from performing the penalty that
priest imposed for sin.
 Popes were not only popes but they
were also pimps.
 Made up their own words to the bible
Lutheran’s response to the
Luther didn’t agree with the indulgences that Johann Tetzel created, so he took
action. Luther's action became the reformation, a movement from religious reform. It
led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope’s authority.
Luther soon went beyond criticizing indulgences, he wanted full reform of the church.
Luther’s teachings
• People could win salvation only by faith in God’s
Gift or forgiveness. The church taught that faith
and “ Good works” were need for salvation
• All church teachings should be clearly based on
the words of the bible. Both the pope and Church
traditions were false authorities
• All people with faith were equal. Therefore,
people did not need priests to interpret the bible
for them
The response to Luther
Luther's ideas spread rapidly
They saw that Luther’s idea was a
way to change
Many people had been unhappy
with the church for political and
economic reasons
Suggested that Christians drive the
pope out by force
Luther translated the new testament
of the bible
church officials viewed Luther as a
rebellious monk
Saw him as a threat
Pope Leo issued a decree
threatening Luther with
excommunication unless he took
back his word ( Luther didn’t take
back a word )
Leo Excommunicated Luther, he
was an outlaw and heretic
No one in the empire was allowed
to give Luther food or shelter
All books were burned
The emperor was ignored and
wishes weren’t granted
After opposition, Germany at war
Luther returned to Wittenberg in 1522. he discovered many of his
practices and ideas were being put into affect. instead of continuing to
seek reform Luther and the followers became a separate religion called
Lutherans. Many northern German Princes supported Lutheranism.
Some princes genuinely shared Luther’s beliefs, others liked Luther’s
ideas for selfish reasons. They saw his teachings as a good excuse to
seize church property and to assert their independence from Charles V.
princes who stayed loyal to the popes agreed to join forces against
Luther’s ideas. These protesting princes came to be known as
protestants, the term protestant was applied to Christians who belonged
to non catholic churches. Still determined that his subjects remain
catholic, Charles v. went to war against the protestant princes. Even
though he defeated them in 1547 he failed to force them back into the
catholic church. Charles ordered all German princes, both protestant and
catholic, to assemble in the city of Augsburg. There the princes agreed
that each ruler would decide the religion of his state. This famous
religious settlement was known as the Peace of Augsburg.
Henry wants a son
Henry became king of England in 1509, he was a devoted
catholic. He disagreed with Luther’s ideas. In consideration of
Henry's support the pope gave him the title “ defender of
faith”. Political needs tested his religious loyalty. Henry asked
the pope to annul, or set aside his marriage so that he could
marry a younger women and have a son to claim the throne
when he died, the pope denied. Henry called a parliament to
pass a set of laws that ended the pope’s power in England,
known as the reformation parliament. The council agreed
with the parliament, Henry became head of England's church.
Unwanted daughter restores
• After Henry’s in 1547, each of his three children ruled
England in turn. This of course created conflict such as
religious turmoil. Henry’s son almost in ill health , Edward
reigned for just six years. Mary daughter of Catherine of
Aragon, took the throne in 1553. She was a catholic who
returned the English church to the rule of the pope. Her
efforts met with considerable resistance, and she had many
protestants executed. When Mary died in 1558, Elizabeth,
Anne Boleyn’s daughter, inherited the throne. She was
determined to return her kingdom to Protestantism. In
1559, parliament followed Elizabeth's wishes and set up the
church of England, or Anglican church, with Elizabeth as its
head. By taking this moderate approach, Elizabeth brought
a level of religious peace to England.
The reformation continues
When Martin Luther posted his 95 theses in 1517,
john Calvin had been only eight years of age
Calvin grew up to have as much influence in the
spread of Protestantism as Luther did
Calvin believed that god has known since the
beginning of time who will be saved, the doctrine
is called predestination
The religion based on Calvin’s teachings is called
Calvin spread’s his ideas
Calvin lead reformation in Switzerland
Calvin believed that the ideal government
was a theocracy, a government
controlled by religious leaders
In 1541 protestants in Geneva,
Switzerland asked Calvin to lead their
Calvin and his follower’s ran the city with
strict rules: no one was allowed to play
card games, or bright coloring, everyone
attended religious classes
Authorities would excommunicate,
imprison, or banish those who broke
such rules
Any one who preached different
doctrines might be burned at stake
The city was a model city of highly moral
Scottish preacher John Knox started to
take on Calvin's example of a model city
an ran their city the same, John Knox
named his followers Presbyterians
The catholic reformation
The counter reformation was also known as the Catholic reformation, (
helping Catholics to remain loyal was a movement within the catholic
church to reform its self ). Jesuits was a religious order for the pope’s
followers called the society of Jesus. Their role was to find schools
throughout Europe, convert non Christians to Catholicism, and to stop
the spread of Protestantism. From 1545 to 1563 at the Council of Trent,
catholic bishops and cardinals came together to agree of several
doctrines: 1. the church’s interpretation of the bible was final, any
Christian who substituted his or her own was a heretic, 2. Christians
needed fait and good works for salvation, they weren’t saved by faith
alone, as Luther argued, 3. the bible and church traditions were
equally powerful authorities for guiding Christian life, 4. indulgences
were valid expressions of faith, but the false selling of indulgences
was banned.
The legacy of reformation
Reformation had an enduring impact
Through its social, religious, and political effects, the reformation
set the stage for modern world
It ended Christian unity in Europe and left it culturally divided
Protestant churches flourished and new denominations
Church’s moral and political authority declined, individual
monarchs and states gained power
Development of modern nations-states