Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Differences Between Now and
Then
• Local control of politics; central institutions
were weak
• Hierarchical Nature of Society
• Tradition and Religion
• Great danger from disease, poor hygiene,
famine, natural disaster, war, violence
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Religion: Powerful Force
• Belief in the devil, hell, and a punishing
God were powerful forces
• Thinkers of the Renaissance and
Reformation would challenge some of these
beliefs
• Religion guided people ex- Elizabeth I
(Film)
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Medieval versus Renaissance
Worldview
Medieval View
• Idea of a Divine Plan
• Importance and Hierarchy
• Dualism: Spirit vs. Matter
• Allegory
• Providence
• Teleology
Renaissance
• Overriding concept:
Humanism
• Importance of philology
• Importance, return and
restoration of classical
texts, arts, literature and
drama from Greek and
Roman Period
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Protestant Reformation Defined:
Reformation, was a spiritual/religious revolution that aimed
to correct the “problems” of the Catholic Church and
sparked a century and a half of religious civil war. It
resulted in the establishment of the Protestant branches of
Christianity- e.g. Lutheranism, Calvinism etc
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Causes of Protestant Reformation
• Anti-Clericalism
• An appetite for spiritual experience
• Reliance of church interpretation ended
with return to original sources
• Martin Luther's 95 Theses
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Martin Luther
• Faith alone will bring
salvation
• 1517, he published his
95 Theses, arguing
against the sale of
indulgences
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
In your own words, explain what
each statement means:
• Vain is the hope of salvation through letters of
pardon, even if a commissary-nay, the Pope
himself- were to pledge his own soul for them
• Again, why does not the Pope, whose riches are at
this day more ample than those of the wealthiest
of the wealthy; build the one Basilica of St. Peter
with his own money, rather than with that of poor
believers?
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Counter Reformation
• Actions taken by Catholic Church to
counteract the impact of Protestant
Reformation
• Includes: Council of Trent, Roman
Inquisition, Index of Prohibited Books,
creation of religious orders
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Council of Trent (1546- 1563)
• All medieval church law was valid and
important
• Latin would remain official language
• Re-emphasized the importance of “good
works” and “faith”
• No new definition of sacraments
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Other Actions taken by
Catholic Church
• Roman Inquisition- a tribunal designed to
find heretics and bring them to justice
• Roman Index of Prohibited Books- a
process of reviewing and censoring books
• The founding of Religious Orders devoted
to teaching, propaganda, and social
services, e.g.- Jesuits
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
When the Dust Settles:
Catholicism vs. Protestantism
• Scripture interpreted by wisdom
• Good Works and Faith
• 7 Sacraments
• Stick with Latin
• Clergy must be celibate and
chaste
• Purgatory is real
• Honour Saints
• Scripture as you read it
• Faith Alone
• 2 Sacraments- Eucharist,
Baptism
• Language of the people
• Clergy could marry
• Go to Heaven or Hell
• Criticized Honouring Saints
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Niccolo Machiavelli
• One of the most
Significant Political
Thinkers of
Renaissance
• Wrote, The Prince
(1532)- How a Prince
can hold and maintain
power
• Defense of Despotism
(rule by tyranny)
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Machiavelli’s Ideas
• Rejected the restrictions of honour and
religion
• Rulers should only be concerned with
power and should only be bound by rules
that make him/her successful
• Rulers must be skilled in the art of war
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Machiavelli’s Ideas
Continued
•
•
•
•
Men are evil
It is better to be stingy then liberal
It is better to be feared then loved
Keep your word only when it is too your
advantage
• Known for the saying “ the end justifies the
means”
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
Works Cited
• Encarta Reference Library
• Legacy: The West and the World by
Newman
Renaissance and Reformation
1450-1600
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Renaissance and Reformation - Markville Secondary School