UNIT 4
REASON
REBELLION
REFORM
CHAPTER 13
REFORMING THE CHURCH
IN THE EARLY 16 CENTURY, SOME BISHOPS
LIVED MORE LIKE NOBILITY THAN
HUMBLE SERVANTS OF GOD.
MARTIN LUTHER 1517
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FROM WITTENBERG, GERMANY
AN AUGUSTINE MONK
SCRIPTURE PROFESSOR
A LONG TIME ADVOCATE FOR REFORM IN
THE CHURCH
HE POSTED 95 THESES, OR POINTS FOR
DEBATE ON THE DOOR OF THE CASTLE
CHURCH
HE WAS HOPING FOR A THEOLOGICAL
DEBATE THAT WOULD RESULT IN CLEAR
STATEMENTS OF BELIEF FOR THE CHURCH
MAIN POINTS OF CONFLICT
1.
PARDONS & INDULGENCES: IN EXCHANGE
FOR FINANCIAL DONATIONS (FUNDS WERE
BEING RAISED FOR ST. PETER’S BASILLICA)
THE CHURCH WAS GRANTING REMOVAL OF
PUNISHMENT FOR SIN IN PURGATORY
PURGATORY-A PLACE OF FINAL PURIFICATION
FROM SIN AFTER DEATH
POINT #2
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LUTHER ALSO TAUGHT THAT
SCRIPTURE ALONE IS THE AUTHORITY
IN CHRISTIANITY
POINT #3
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LUTHER BELIEVED THAT PEOPLE ARE
SAVED BY FAITH ALONE
COUNCIL OF TRENT
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THE CHURCH FATHERS AGREED THAT
PARDON FOR SIN COULD ONLY COME
FROM THE SACRAMENT OF
RECONCILIATION
THE AUTHORITY IN CHRISTIANITY IS
CHURCH TRADITION ALONG WITH
SCRIPTURE . THEY ARE BOTH TRUE
SOURCES OF GOD’S REVELATION.
LUTHER & FOLLOWERS LEAVE THE CHUCH,
CAUSING A SCHISM, OR DIVISION IN THE
BODY OF CHRIST
LUTHER DENIED THE LIVING
TRADITION OF THE CHURCH
 LUTHER DENIED THE DEVINE
AUTHORITY OF THE POPE
 LUTHER ACCEPTED ONLY THREE OF
THE SACRAMENTS
BAPTISM HOLY EUCHARIST &
RECONCILIATION (NOT ALL LUTHERNS
AGREE ON THIS ONE)
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LUTHER IS
EXCOMMUNICATED
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POPE LEO X EXCOMMUNICATES LUTHER
AND HIS FOLLOWERS IN 1521.
LUTHER WENT ON TO MARRY AND
CONTINUED TO ACT LIKE A PRIEST IN THE
NEW CHURCH OF HIS FOLLOWERS.
REFORMERS WHO PROTESTED AGAINST THE
CATHOLIC CHURCH BECAME KNOWN AS
PROTESTANTS
THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION WAS A
MOVEMENT TO REFORM CHURCH DOCTRINE
& PRACTICES.
THOMAS MOORE
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BRILLANT SCHOLAR
“UTOPIA” WROTE A BOOK ABOUT A PERFECT
SOCIETY
LORD CHANCELLOR TO HENRY VIII
ASLO WROTE ASSERTIO SEPTEM SACRAMENTORUM
ADVERSUS MARTIN LUTHERUM WHICH UPHOLDS
THE DOCTRINE OF THE 7 SACRAMENTS.
HIS LAST WORDS:” the King’s good servant, but God’s first”
BEFORE HE WAS BEHEADED
PATRON SAINT OF LAWYERS. FEAST DAY IS JUNE
22ND
HENRY THE VIII
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WAS CALLED DEFENDER OF THE FAITH BY POPE
LEO X.
WHEN HENRY WANTS THE POPE TO NULLIFY HIS
MARRIAGE TO QUEEN CATHERINE THE POPE
REFUSES AND HENRY DECLARES HIMSELF THE
HEAD OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND.
BISHOPS LOYAL TO HENRY GIVE HIM THE DIVORCE
HE NEEDS.
ALL OF HENRY’S SUBJECTS HAD TO TAKE AN OATH
ADMITTING HENRY HAS THE POWER OVER THE
CHURCH IN ENGLAND.
MOORE REFUSED AND HE WAS TRIED FOR TREASON
AND BEHEADED. HIS LOVE OF GOD WAS GREATER
THAN HIS LOYALTY TO HIS KING.
THE BLACK DEATH
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MANY PRIESTS DIED AFTER BEING
EXPOSED TO THE BUBONIC PLAGUE AT
PEOPLE’S DEATH BED.
NEW CANDIDATES WERE ORDAINED
QUICKLY WITHOUT A GREAT DEAL OF
EDUCATION
AS A RESULT, MANY PRIEST WERE
POORLY TRAINED TO TEACH THE
FAITH
PROBLEMS FACED BY THE
CATHOLIC CHURCH
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PLAGUE
PERSECUTIONS
SCHISM BETWEEN CHURCHES OF THE
EAST AND WEST
PROTESTANT REFORMATIONS
CHURCH IS STILL STRONG
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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IS CONTINUALLY GUIDED
AND RENEWED BY THE HOLY SPIRIT
THE CHURCH REMAINS STRONG
THE CHURCH WAS ESTABLISHED BY CHRIST TO
CONTINUE HIS MISSION
THE CHURCH IS KNOWN AS THE BRIDE OF CHRIST
ONLY THE CHURCH HAS THE FULL MEANS OF
SALVATION.
WE BELIEVED THAT SALVATION IS ACHIEVED
THROUGH GRACE
WE CONTINUE TO PRAY FOR “ONE, HOLY,
CATHOLIC, AND APOSTOLIC CHURCH” AND FOR THE
SALVATION OF ALL PEOPLE.
SAINT TERESA OF AVILA
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BECAME A CARMELITE NUN IN1537
SHE WANTED TO FOLLOW GOD PERFECTLY
SHE HAD TO MAKE CHANGES TO HER MONASTERY
SHE BELIEVED NUNS SHOULD LIVE A SIMPLE LIFE OF POVERTY
& HUMILITY.
SHE FACED HOSTILITY TO HER REFORMS
SHE FELT JESUS SHOULD BE THE CENTER OF THEIR LIVES
SHE SPREAD HER MESSAGE TO OTHER CARMILITE
MONASTERIES THROUGHOUT SPAIN
SHE WAS THE FIRST WOMAN NAMED A DOCTOR OF THE
CHURCH. THIS TITLE RECOGNIZES THE INFLUENCE THAT HER
LIFE AND WRITINGS HAD IN MONASTIC LIFE AND THE
SPIRITUALITY OF THE CHURCH.
FEAST DAY IS OCTOBER 15TH.
JOHN OF THE CROSS
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FOLLOWED TERESA’S EXAMPLE IN APPLYING HER
REFORMS TO THE MEN’S RELIGIOUS ORDERS.
LIKE TERESA HE WAS DEDICATED TO PRAYER,
COMMITMENT TO RELIGIOUS LIFE, DEDICATION TO
HELPING THE POOR, AND A DEEP LOVE FOR JESUS.
HE WROTE BEAUTIFUL POEMS PRAISING GOD.
HE HAD A DEEP PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH
GOD
HIS FEAST DAY IS DECEMBER 14TH
CHAPTER 14
RECONCILIATION CELEBRATES THE
FACT THAT GOD IS MERCIFUL AND
ALWAYS WELCOMES US BACK.
GOD LOVES US UNCONDITIONALLY!
FORGIVENESS &
RECONCILIATION
“CHRIST TAUGHT THAT THERE SHOULD
BE NO LIMIT ON FORGIVENESS AND
THAT ALL PEOPLE DESERVE THE
CHANCE TO ASK FOR AND BE
GRANTED FORGIVENESS”
RECONCILIATION IN THE
EARY CHURCH
THE SACRAMNET OF RECONCILIATION WAS
GIVEN AS A SECOND CHANCE AT
REPENTANCE FOR CHRISTIANS WHO HAD
COMMITTED GRAVE SINS AFTER BAPTISM
AT BAPTISM, PEOPLE PROMISED TO TURN
AWAY FROM EVIL AND THEIR SINS WERE
FORGIVEN. IF THEY BROKE THIS PROMISE
THE CHURCH GAVE THEM ANOTHER
CHANCE. THYE WOULD BE WELCOMED BACK
IN THE CHURCH IF THEY DID PENANCE AND
SHOWED A SINCERE CHANGE OF HEART.
EARLY RECONCILIATION WAS
SEEN AS A “SECOND BAPTISM”
JESUS INSTITUTED THE
SACRAMENT OF
RECONCILIATION
“WHOSE SINS YOU FORGIVE ARE
FORGIVEN THEM, AND WHOSE SINS
YOU RETAIN ARE RETAINED”
JOHN 20:23
AS CHRISTIANITY GREW
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MONKS WHO PREACHED THE GOSPEL IN
THE PAGAN MISSION LANDS OF NORTHERN
EUROPE BEGAN THE PRACTICE OF REGULAR
CONFESSION AND ABSOLUTION.
CHRISTIANS HAD TO PERFORM HARSH
PENANCES IN PUBLIC.
GRADUALLY LONG PRAYERS & WORKS OF
CHARITY BECAME THE STANDARD
PENANCE.
“PENITENTIARIES”
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THESE BOOKS WERE WRITTEN TO
HELP MONKS GIVE PENANCES THAT
FIT THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE SINS
CONFESSED.
PEOPLE BEGAN TO SEE PENANCES AS
PUNISHMENTS NOT AS CONDITIONS
FOR RETURNING TO THE CHRISTIAN
COMMUNITY
THE COUNTER-REFORMATION
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IN 1551 THE COUNCIL OF TRENT, THE
CHURCH FORMALLY TAUGHT THAT
THE ORDINARY WAY TO OBTAIN
FORGIVENESS FOR MORTAL SIN IS TO
CONFESS & RECEIVE ABSOLUTION
WITHIN THE SACRAMENT OF
RECONCILIATION AND THAT PEOPLE
WERE STRONGLY ENCOURAGED TO
CONFESS VENIAL SINS, AS WELL.
THE COUNTER-REFORMATION
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REFORMERS DID NOT ACCEPT THAT
CONFESSION & ABSOLUTION WAS
NECESSARY FOR FORGIVENESS.
THYE PROMOTED THE IDEA THAT
EACH PERSON SHOULD BE
RECONCILED WITH GOD IN A PRIVATE
WAY.
POPE PIUS X (1835-1914)
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TAUGHT THAT CATHOLICS SHOULD
RECEIVE MORE FREQUENTLY
WANTED CATHOLICS TO VIEW THE
SACRAMENT OF RECONCILIATION AS A
WAY TO GROW CLOSER TO GOD AND
THE ENTIRE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY.
THE RITE MAY HAVE
CHANGED THROUGH THE
YEARS BUT
GOD’S LOVE AND MERCY HAS NOT
CHANGED. GOD ALWAYS FINDS A WAY
TO FORGIVE HIS PEOPLE WHO CRY
OUT TO HIM WITH REPENTANT
HEARTS.
JESUS WANTS TO FORGIVE OUR SINS, BUT
HE ALSO EXPECTS A TRUE CHANGE IN
OUR LIVES AND HEARTS,
COUNTER-REFORMATION
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THE CHURCH DID TRY TO MAKE
REFORMS AND DEFEND ITSELF FROM
THE ATTACKS OF PROTESTANTS
THE CHURCH WANTED TO BRING BACK
THOSE WHO HAD SPOKE OUT AGAINST
IT
IGNATIUS LOYOLA
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1491-1556
FOUNDED THE JESUITS, OR SOCIETY OF JESUS.
A RELIGIOUS ORDER WHOSE DEEP SPIRITUALITY
WAS THE BASIS FOR THEIR WORK AND PRAYER
THEY WERE CHRIST-CENTERED
THEY WERE TEACHERS, PREACHERS & MISSIONARIES
THEY WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR BRINGING CENTRAL
EUROPE BACK TO CATHOLISM
THE CLERGY WERE RESPECTED AND TRUSTED
AGAIN DUE TO THE JESUITS
TOOK THE GOSPEL TO INDIA( FRANCIS XAVIER-15061552) & CHINA. THOUSANDS WERE BAPTIZED!
FRANCIS XAVIER
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MISSIONARY TO INDIA, CHINA & JAPAN
HE LIVED AMONG THE PEOPLE
HE LEARNED THE LOCAL LANGUAGES
AIDED THOSE IN POVERTY OR
SLAVERY
PREACHED TO SIMPLE NEEDS &
UNDERSTANDINGS OF THE PEOPLE
HE WAS FAITHFUL TO CHURCH
DOCTRINE AND FAITH TRADITION
COUNTER-REFORMATION
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JESUITS BROUGHT CHRISTIANS BACK
TO THE CHURCH
HELPED REFORM THE CLERGY
RENEWED THE CHURCH’S MISSIONARY
ACTIVITY IN THE WORLD
BISHOP BARTOLOME
DE LAS CASAS
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1474-1566
WENT TO THE NEW WORLD
OBJECTED TO THE TREATMENT OF NATIVE
AMERICANS
HE SAW SOME OF THE EFFECTS OF
COLONIZATION AN OFFENSE AGAINST GOD
HE PERSAUDED THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT
TO MAKE LAWS TO HELP END THE
SUFFERING OF NATIVE AMERICANS UNDER
SPANISH CONTROL
SACRAMENT OF
RECONCILIATION
CHRIST REUNITES THE FAITHFUL WITH
GOD AND THE CHURCH, BY
FORGIVING OUR SINS.
WE ARE RESTORED TO THE STATE OF
GOD’S GRACE!
SORROW
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PERFECT SORROW- IF SORROW FOR SIN
EXISTS BECAUSE A PERSON LOVES
GOD.
IMPERFECT SORROW-IF SORROW EXISTS
BECAUSE A PERSON FEARS
PUNISHMENT
SIN
PAGE 377
VENIAL SINS
MORAL SINS
ALL SIN AFFECTS THE COMMUNITY AND
HAS AN IMPACT ON THE WHOLE
WORLD
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UNIT 3 - Our Lady of the Snows School