Test Bank
Unit 1
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2. The Catholic Council of Trent
(1545-1563) had as its primary
A. compromise with protestants to reunite
B. a political compromise with the protestant
princes of central Europe
C. reform within the Catholic church and
reaffirmation of Catholic doctrine
D.the firm reestablishment of conciliar
power over the papacy
E. creation of a balance of [power between
the papacy and the heads of the great
Catholic states
3. A major difference between
Calvinism and Lutheranism relates
A. clerical marriages
B. the place of women in society
C. emphasis on predestination
D. infant baptism
E. monasticism
7. Martin Luther’s response to the
German Peasants’ War of 15241525 demonstrated his:
A. ignorance of the economic plight of
B. emphasis on the social aspect of Christ’s
C. refusal to comment on the social or
political issues
D. belief in the necessity of unified German
E.support of the prevailing social and political
8. Salvation by faith alone, the ministry
of all believers, and the authority of
the Bible are principles basic to:
A. The Christian humanism of Erasmus
B. the church of England
C. Catholicism after the council of
D. Lutheranism in the early sixteenth
E. the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order)
11.The Response of the Roman
Catholic Church to the Protestant
Reformation included all of the
following EXCEPT:
A. The abolition of the Index of Prohibited
B. The establishment of the Society of
Jesus (the Jesuit Order)
C. The convening of the council of Trent
D. The founding of women’s orders active in
education and care of the sick
E. An increase in the number of parish
13. “It was an important confederation of
commercial towns in northern Germany with its
own laws, diplomats, and flag. Its member ship of
merchants earned large profits shipping fish,
timber, and other resources to areas to the west
and to the south, Prosperity declined, however,
when trade routes shifted from the Baltic to the
Atlantic after 1500.”
A. Confederation of the Rhine
B. Hanseatic League
C. Merchants of the Staple
D. Holy Roman Empire
E. Schmalkaldic League
14. The teachings of which of the
following had the greatest impact
on the reformation on the
Reformation of Scotland?
A. Ignatious of Loyola
B. John Calvin
C. Martin Luther
D. Desiderius Eramus
E. Ulrich Zwingli
15. Martin Luther initially criticized
the Roman Catholic church on the
grounds that it:
A. Supported priests as religious
B. sponsored translations of the Bible
into vernacular languages
C. reduced the number of sacraments
D. used indulgences as a fund-raising
E. formed close associations with
secular rulers
16. “In conformity, therefore, to the clear
doctrine of the Scripture, we assert, that by
an eternal and immutable counsel, God has
once for all determined , both whom he would
admit to salvation, and whom he would
condemn to destruction.” The idea
expressed in the passage above is most
closely associated with the theological views
A. Erasmus
B. Pope Leo X
C. Thomas More
D. John Calvin
E. Ignatius Loyola
17. Which of the following is true
of the German Peasants’ Revolt of
A. The revolt led to the emancipation of the
German serf.
B. The revolt was organized by Martin Luther
to break papal power in the German states.
C. The peasants were supported by French
armies during the revolt.
D. The revolt was the first in Europe in which
economic egalitarianism was a major
rallying point.
E. The revolt resulted from a combination of
new religious ideas and peasant demands.
19. Major Protestant and Roman
Catholic leaders of the sixteenth
century condemned the
Anabaptists because Anabaptists:
A. rejected the Bible as the source of
religious truth
B. favored government enforcement of
C. advocated a complete separation of church
and state
D. restored the privileges of the clergy
E. tried to reconcile Protestant and Catholic
20. Martin Luther believed that
the most important role for a
Christian woman was to:
A. minister to the sick and poor
B. preach the word of God in church on
C. become a wife and mother
D. lead a life devoted primarily to
prayer and contemplation
E. teach reading and writing in a
religious school
21. John Calvin established
the center of his reformed
church in:
A. Lyon
B. London
C. Wittenberg
D. Geneva
E. Basel
22. The primary purpose of the
Peace of Augsburg (1555) was to:
A. end the wars between the Hapsburgs and
the Valois
B. end the civil war between the Lutherans
and Roman Catholics in the German states
C. end the Thirty Years’ War
D. create better trade relations among
German princes
E. facilitate diplomatic relations between the
holy Roman Empire and the Ottoman Turks
25. The Protestant Reformation
helped change the social roles of
sixteenth-century women by:
A. making marriage a sacrament
B. reemphasizing the adoration of the
Virgin Mary
C. reducing access to religious orders
D. emphasizing the social equality of
men and women
E. denying the right to divorce
26. A central feature of the
Catholic Reformation was the:
A. Roman Catholic church’s inability to
correct abuses
B. establishment of new religious orders such
as the Jesuits
C. transfer of authority from Rome to the
D. rejection of Baroque art
E. toleration of Protestants in Roman
Catholic countries
35. The “Prince of Humanists,” his
works diminished the importance
of the clergy and undermined the
Catholic Church:
A. Francois Rabelais
B. Aldus Manutius
C. William Harvey
D. Desiderius Erasmus
46.Both the Protestant Revolution
and the Renaissance:
A.Advocated religious toleration
B.Turned to the past , of either Biblical
or classical times, to revitalize the
C. Viewed human nature as inherently
corrupt and in need of God’s mercy.
D. Argued that truth lay within each
individual and therefore could not be
dictated by church or state.
47. All of the following are major
aspects of Luther’s theology
A.Rejection of all sacraments expect
baptism and communion.
B.Substitution of German for Latin in
church services.
C. Permission for ministers to marry.
D.Acceptance of the doctrine of
48.A tenet of Calvinism not
found in other major
A. justification by faith in the truth of
the Bible
B. the possibility of salvation through
regular church attendance
C. the preordained damnation of most
D. purification of the flesh by
49.The Council of Trent
(1545-1563) did which of
the following?
A. it defined catholic beliefs and
corrected abuses
B. it reduced the number of sacraments
to three
C. it granted religious toleration to the
Huguenots in France
D. it accepted the doctrine of the
priesthood of all believers
50. The most powerful and
forceful of the emperors of
the Holy Roman Empire and a
contemporary of Martin
Luther was:
A.Charles V
B. Henry VIII
C. Francis I
D. Maximillan I
51. The Catholic CounterReformation:
A. Aimed to absorb many of the Protestant teachings
within the hierarchical structure
B. Combined papal authority and missionary activity
in a vigorous defense of roman catholic doctrine
and reform of certain practices
C. Failed because it was instituted by the papacy
with little popular support
D. threatened to freeze Roman Catholicism in its
superstition-ridden form by refusing to
acknowledge any weaknesses in Catholic practices
52. All of the following were
causes of the Protestant
Revolution EXCEPT:
A. a growing conflict between the ambitions
of the newly emerging middle-class and the
ascetic ideals of early Christianity
B. the growth of a national conscience in
northern Europe and the rise of despotic
C. and increasing number of abuses that were
developing in the church
D. an increasing respect for the papacy and
the theology of Saint Thomas Aquinas
53. All of the following tended to
sap the power and influences of
the newly-emerging middle class
during the early sixteenth century
A. The breakdown of feudal society
B. The growth and development of the
dynastic state
C. The decline in faith and belief in God
among the masses of European people
D. The emergence of new ideas and a new
appreciation of man’s role on the universe
54. The general council that
responds to the challenge of the
Protestant revolutionaries was
Diet of Worms
Council of Munster
Institute of Christian Religion
Council of Trent
55. Upon which of the following would
Luther and Erasmus have agreed?
A. Good works were necessary for
B. Veneration of relics was not an
essential part of salvation
C. Rules for achieving salvation were to
be found primarily in the works of
the church fathers
D. Seven sacraments were needed for
68. The leaders of the
Catholic church:
A. Ignored the Renaissance
B. Attempted to crush the secularism
of the renaissance
C. Readily adopted the Renaissance
D. Used Renaissance ideals to promote
moral reform
90. In the early sixteenth century,
critics of the church attacked all
of the following EXCEPT:
Religious doctrine
Clerical immorality
The ignorance of the parish clergy
The problems of pluralism and
91. The Brethren of the
Common Life represent:
A. The extent of Protestant
conversions in Italy
B. The power and appeal of John
Calvin’s message
C. An example of Pre-reformation
popular piety
D. A typical response of the papacy of
the Reformation
92. Martin Luther wrote his letter
entitled “Ninety-five Theses” to
Archbishop Albert in response to:
A. Luther’s personal struggle with the
question of salvation
B. The election of Charles V
C. The draining of Germany’s wealth by
the papacy
D. A new campaign to sell indulgences
93. According to Luther,
Comes from good works and faith
Can be earned
Comes from God’s free gift of grace
Is predestined
94. In his “Ninety-five Theses,”
Luther criticized the selling of
indulgences for all of the following
reasons EXCEPT that it:
A. Failed to release any souls from
B. Undermined the sacrament of
C. Competed with preaching the Gospel
D. Downplayed the importance of
95. In his On Christian Liberty,
Luther used the term freedom to
Freedom from poverty
Political liberty
Freedom from the Roman Church
Freedom from any type of servile
96. The Reformation affected
women in all of the following ways
A. By exalting marriage
B. The husband and wife were to be in
equal partners in marriage
C. That women assumed control of the
domestic religious arena
D. That women played a greater role in
organizing public charity
97. Luther believed that
women should:
Manage the household economy
Be equal in all things
Rule the household
Pursue careers outside the home
98. Luther’s idea about Roman
exploitation of Germany
A. Appealed to political aspirations of
German princes
B. Were met with dismay by the ruling
C. Led to administrative reform in the
D. Found an audience only among the
99. Charles V believed it was
his duty to:
A. Enable his subjects to lead their life
in peace and prosperity
B. Destroy Protestantism
C. Maintain both the political and
religious unity of Europe
D. Reform the Catholic Church
100. John Knox was
influential in the
Reformation in:
101. As a result of the peace of
Augsburg, the people of Germany:
A. Remained Catholics
B. Were able to practice the religion
of their choice
C. Converted to Lutheranism
D. Became either Lutheran or Catholic
depending on the preference of
their prince
102. The majority of the German
princes who adopted Lutheranism
did so
For economic and political reasons
For religious reasons
To appease their subjects
Only with great reluctance
103. The Protestant
Reformation in Germany
A. Weakened the power of secular
B. Contributed to its continued
C. Destroyed Habsburg influence in
the empire
D. Helped pave the way for a unified
104. In its relationship to
secular power, Lutheranism
can best be described as:
105. Calvin’s reform
movement was
A. Suppressed by the civil authorities
in Geneva
B. Restricted to Switzerland and
C. Thoroughly integrated into the civil
government of Geneva
D. Rejected any role in the secular
government of Geneva
106.Ulrich Zwingli attacked
all of the following
A. Indulgences
B. Monasticism and the Mass
C. Cooperation between religious and
civil authorities
D. Clerical celibacy
107. Central to Calvin’s
theology is the principle of:
Free will
Christian liberty
Justification by faith and good
108. According to Calvin, the
elect were:
A. The leaders of the Genevan
B. The intellectual leaders of the
C. Those individuals chosen for
D. All Protestants
109. The Genevan Consistory
A. Regulated the behavior of Genevans
in a manner consistent with other
European cities
B. Severely regulated the conduct of
C. Routinely harbored religious
dissenters from around Europe
D. Attempted to suppress Calvinism
110. The decision to burn Michael
Servetus at the stake indicates
A. Calvin’s hatred of Roman Catholicism
B. The religious intolerance of the
Catholic Inquisition
C. Luther’s rejection of the Protestant
D. Calvin’s harsh view of religious
111. The other Europeans
oppressed the Anabaptists
for all of the following
reasons EXCEPT their:
Practice of adult baptism
Religious tolerance
Belief in the separation of church
and state
112. Calvinism became the driving
force in international
Protestantism because
A. It preached predestination
B. Luther was embroiled in the conflict
with the papacy
C. Of the social and economic
application of Calvin’s ideas
D. Of Calvin’s linguistic and legal skills
113. The dissolution of the
English monasteries
A. Resulted form Henry VIII’s desire
to confiscate their wealth
B. Resulted in more equitable
distribution of land
C. Deeply disturbed the English upper
D. Was the result of rebellious
activities of the monks
114. Recent research on the English
church before Henry VIII’s break
with Rome indicates that:
A. A vast gap existed between the
clergy and the English people
B. The church was in a very healthy
C. Conditions in England mirrored those
on those on the Continent
D. Clerical abuse and ignorance was
worse in England than on the
115. The Reformation in
England was primarily the
result of:
A. Dynastic and romantic concerns of
Henry VIII
B. The missionary activities of the
C. The terrible conditions then
existing in the English churches
D. Efforts by Luther and his followers
116. The Pope refused to annul
Henry VIII’s first marriage for all
of the following reasons EXCEPT
A. He was distracted by the Lutheran Revolt
and the Habsburg-Valios wars
B. He would have had to concede that the
previous Pope had erred, adding fuel to
Luther’s fire
C. Henry’s wife was the Aunt of Charles V,
who had just captured Rome
D. Henry’s Case for annulment had no
justifiable basis in Cannon Law
117. The Catholic
Reformation sought to
A. Reform the liturgy of the Catholic
B. Restored the Conciliar Movement
C. Initiate institutional reform
D. Stimulate a new spiritualism
118. In religious affairs,
Elizabeth I of England
followed a policy that
A. Supported the efforts of the
B. Emphasized personal and public
religious conformity
C. Was a middle course between
Catholic and Protestant extremes
D. Favored Catholics over Protestants
119. In the wars that
accompanied the Protestant
Reformation in Germany, the
German princes were
supported by
The Habsburg dynasty
The Ottoman Turks
Charles V
120. In the sixteenth century,
French foreign policy was based on
A. Defense of Burgundy and acquisition
of the Low Countries
B. Territorial expansion of the French
C. Continuation of political
fragmentation of Germany
D. Desire to crush the Protestant
121. The overriding goal of
the Catholic religious orders
established in the sixteenth
century was
Institutional reform
Reconciliation with Protestantism
To combat heresy and Protestantism
To uplift the spiritual condition of
both clergy and laity
122. The Index was
A. A list of official doctrines of the
Catholic church
B. A list of individuals condemned by
the Roman Inquisition
C. The Cardinals who directed the
Roman Inquisition
D. A catalog of forbidden reading

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