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Theatre http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/gallery_images/0506/0000/0058/Illustration_of_the_interior_of_The_Globe_Theatre_mid.j pg Anglo-Saxon Era • Also known as the Dark Ages • "Bloody conflicts, ignorance, violence, and barbarism" • Literature and English language were developed o Little humor and a lot of reality in writings ("The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Time Periods") http://gallery.nen.gov.uk/gallery_images/0808/0000/1294/img_08 96_mid.jpg Fate • Anglo-Saxons - pagan, not Christian • Wyrd - Anglo-Saxon word for fate • Heroes were worshiped • Fate is prevalent in Beowulf o Grendel scene http://www.wildriverreview.com/4/images/art-sd_fate.jpg ("The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Time Periods") Beowulf • Greatest English epic of all time • Idolizes Beowulf, heroism, courage, and strength • Recited by professional poets Scops • Author - Unknown, also known as "Anonymous, the Beowulf Poet" • 3 Prominent Elements of Beowulf - courage, drama, and heroism http://www.allbestwallpapers.com/wallpaper/movie/image/beowulf.jpg (“The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Medieval Era • Overview o Origin of the term medi (middle) + æv (age) o Between Classical Age and Renaissance • Feudal System o Description o Hierarchy o Effects on society • Important People o King Arthur May not have existed Lived late 5th or early 6th century ("Middle") Medieval Era King Louis IX 1215 - 1270 Crusader o Thomas Aquinas 1227 - 1274 Italian monk Compiled religious beliefs of Middle Ages Influence on modern theology o Marco Polo 1254 - 1324 Italian explorer Accounts of his travels o ("Middle") Medieval Era Joan of Arc 1412 - 1431 Visions Hundred Years War o Vlad Dracula IV 1431 - 1476 Other names Cruelty 40,000 impalements o Important Events Collapse of Roman Empire, 476 C.E. o ("Middle") http://blogs.babycenter.com/ momformation/files/2009/03/ count_chocula.jpg Medieval Era o o Black Death About the name Cause Rodents Fleas Impact Killed 1/3 of Europe Crusades 1096-1270 Purpose Control of Jerusalem Impact Lasting religious tensions ("Middle") Medieval Era Hundred Years War William the Conqueror French vs. English Augmented by plague and famine o War of the Roses 1455-1487 Civil War House of Lancaster v. House of York o ("Hundred") Medieval Era • Chivalry o Ideals o Knighthood Origins Training Page Squire Knight Knighting ceremony ("Knighthood") http://sultanofsnow.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/monty-python-blackknight-with-one-arm-off-794357.jpg The Renaissance • What does "rebirth" mean? o Means recovery and rediscovery (Pioch) Attention from ideas of God to ideas of man Rebirth spiritually and practically o Broad cultural achievement spanning 3 centuries o Huge financial growth ("Renaissance.") o Formerly, relationship between ruler and subjects was like so: Nobles provided king with protection King gave nobles land in return In the Renaissance, the Feudalism system slowly disintegrated o High devotion to royalty • What caused this change? o Humanism The Tudors King Henry VII • Catholic Reign: 1485 – 1509 • Reign ended War of Roses • Married off elder son, Arthur to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain o Truce with Spain http://tudorhistory.org/henry7/ (Lee) King Henry VIII • Catholic and Anglican Reign: 1509 – 1547 • Married six times o Anne Boleyn: 2nd wife, mother of Elizabeth I • Formed Church of England o Pope Clement VII refused divorces o Anti-Catholic feelings throughout England (Lee) http://tudorhistory.org/henry8/ King Edward VI and Jane Grey • Edward's Protestant Reign: 1547 – 1553 o Ruled from ages 10-16 • Earl of Warwick overthrew Edward Seymour, his mentor • Warwick supported Protestant daughter-in-law, Jane Gray, to succeed Edward VI o She lasted 9 days; Mary was stronger http://tudorhistory.org/edward/ (Lee) http://www.tudorhistory.org/monarchs/ Queen Mary I • Catholic Reign: 1553 – 1558 • Nicknamed "Bloody Mary" for violent beheadings of Protestants • Catholic who married Philip from Spain o Upset Protestants o 1557: war with France (Lee) http://tudorhistory.org/mary/ Queen Elizabeth I • Protestant Reign: 1558 – 1603 • Protestant, excommunicated by Pope Pius V • Kind ruler o “Last British monarch to command obedience from the people” • Advised by William Cecil, “secretary of state” o Reformed English economy o Persuaded Elizabeth to issue Mary Queen of Scots’ death warrant o Unsuccessfully urged Elizabeth to marry (Lee) http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/EnglandHistory/QueenElizabethCoronation.jpg Elizabethan Court • Gentry (high-class) could access court; bourgeois (middleclass) could not • Femine leadership commanded propriety and dignity • Disfavor toward marriage • Common activities: dancing, feasts, plays, and games (Rowse) Italian Renaissance (1420 - 1600) • Arts/paintings more focused in Italian Renaissance • Separated into three eras: Early, High, and Late • Emphasized humanism • More life-like than Middle Ages (Pioch) http://images.nationmaster.com/ images/motw/europe/italy_pol96.jpg Early Renaissance (1420 - 1495) • Favored ancient art • Depicted nature and human character/behavior in art • Rational inquiry thought to be most significant o Sought to find correct way to draw • Example: Andrea Mategna's (1431-1506) "Madonna with Sleeping Child" o Ancient/realism (Pioch) http://www.artrenewal.org/artwork/785/7 85/15480/madonna_with_sleeping_childlarge.jpg High Renaissance (1495 - 1520) • Emphasized unity o Balance of intuition, past rationality, and technicality • Not stable since people would end up choosing a favored element • Leonardo Da Vinci (14521519) epitomized Renaissance humanist ideal • Theory: Leonardo drew himself in female version (other theories) (Pioch) http://scrapetv.com/News/News%20Pages/Business/i mages-4/mona-lisa.jpg Late Renaissance • Mannerism was emphasized o Aesthetic movement expressing high elegance and grace o Distinctive, emotional • Marked by individual arts • Michelangelo's (14751564) late works expresses this era's theme (Pioch) http://www.renaissancespell.com/Images/MichelangeloPaintings/MIchelangelo-Paintings-Last.jpg Dancing • Elegant form of exercise • Social skill of nobles • Two types o Simple- Known by anyone o Complex- Required dancing lessons. Performed to audiences • Bulky clothing limited upper body movement • Footwork was significant • Men wore tight upper body lacing while women wore corsets • Brought rise to dance music for instruments such as the viol, lute, and pipe. Some were improvised. • Dance Music http://www.vanderbilt.edu/Blair/Courses/MU SL242/f98/partners.gif The Stuarts King James (I of England) (VI of Scotland) • Protestant Reign: 1603 - 1625 • Relationship with Parliament deteriorated over royal finances and James's ego o Parliament sat in 1604 1611, 1614, 1621, and 1624 o James rejected Parliament's attempts to advance itself • Avoided persecuting witches to appear intellectual http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/james/jamesbio.htm (Trueman) King Charles I • Anglican Reign: 1625 - 1646 • Son of James I, ruled in place of deceased elder brother • Preferred grand ritualistic church services that contrasted the austere interests of public • Introduced new prayer book o Disapproved by Puritan and Protestant population • Eleven Years Tyranny (1629 1640): kicked out corrupt Parliament http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/charles1.htm (Trueman) Causes for the English Civil War • Presbyterian Scots rebel against Charles's Anglican practices • Parliament denies Charles funds, diminishes his power • Charles begins war with his military ("The English Renaissance") The English Civil War Royalists: "Catholics, Anglicans, and nobility" o Led by King Charles I • 1645: Puritans defeat Royalists o 1646: James I surrenders ("The English Renaissance") Parliament's supporters: "Puritans, small landowners, and middle class" o Led by General Oliver Cromwell Puritan Rule • Parliament created commonwealth led by Cromwell • Enforcement of high morality o No theaters o Strict Sabbath • Ended in 1660 as Charles II returned ("The English Renaissance") http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143822/Oliver-Cromwell Humanism (Philosophy, Religion, Education) Overview • Humanism was the main driving force of the period ("English Humanists", "Rise of Humanism") • Humanist - someone who teaches, promotes, or studies classical literature, history, spirituality and the spiritual value of the beauty in art and nature, the power of human reason, philosophy, and morality. ("English Humanists", Rise of Humanism", "Humanism") • Purpose of Humanism is to improve the quality of life in one's country or society and work toward a more utopian end. ("English Humanists") Philosophy • Bacon led the philosophical (and scientific) movement of the English Renaissance ("Francis Bacon", "English Renaissance") • Sir Thomas More was the figure head and leader of English Humanism. ("English Humanists", "Rise of Humanism") • Other humanists/philosophers o Thomas Hobbes o John Locke o Sir Isaac Newton o John Colet o Sir Thomas Elyot o Sir Thomas Hoby ("English Humanists") Education • An emphasis of the Humanist movement was to provide education, because intelligence/knowledge/wisdo m was highly valued. • Children of well-to-do families would receive tutors and education in Greek and Latin literature and language, as well as in other languages. • Sir Thomas More and John Colet both founded schools ("English Humanists") Religion • Morality and moral correctness were also very important to the English Humanists, most likely because of all of the happenings of the Reformation. • Devotional works - works influenced by the Bible or other sources that involve Christian beliefs and can be seen as some sort of praise o Milton's Paradise Lost o Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress Reformation • Before, everyone is Roman Catholic ("English Renaissance") • Began 31 October 1517, when Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the church door ("English Renaissance", "Renaissance - Printing and Thinking") o Opposed the selling of indulgences • Sparked the Protestant Reformation o Many new sects of Christianity result Scientific Developments Medicine • Naturalists used healing herbs based on astrological features • Herbal medicines prevailed to heal general aches and bleeding • Common ingredients: strawberry leaves, knot grass, plantain, and ginger roots • Henry VIII sought to modernize with Royal College of Physicians and five Royal Hospitals • College separated educated physicians from lowly surgeons (blood-letters) • Doctors were ineffectual; old wives did most healing (Rowse) http://img30.imageshack.us/f/herbalmedicine.jpg/ Plague • Lack of hygiene and inoculation • Poorly organized government • Phamplet circulated, promoting remedies o Smoking out rooms o Burning frankinsense, juniper, dried rosemary, or bay-leaves o Chewing angelica root o "Sorrel steeped with vinegar" o "Ale infused with rue, wormwood, and scabiosa" • Poor hygiene nullified remedies (Lee) http://em411.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/bruegheldeath.jpg Geography • More appealing to the common man than astronomy o Discovery of the "New World" • Various navigation tools: maps, charts, astrolabe • Henry VIII employed German and Italian shipmakers • Cartography improved during 16th century for exploration http://i19.photobucket.com/albums/b189/sieglers/globe2.jpg Map Comparison 1493 http://ancientworldmaps.blogspot.com/search/label/15th%20ce ntury 1594 http://ancientworldmaps.blogspot.com/search/label/16th%20cen tury Notable Scientists Robert Recorde • Wrote of mathematics in English, not Latin o Introduced "=", "+", and "-" to English culture (Rowse) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/BigPictures/Recorde_2.jpeg Nicolai Copernicus (1473 - 1543) • Proposed heliocentric model for solar system (Knox) o Ancient Greeks proposed heliocentrism (Rowse 223) • Earned income as a priest (Knox) • Never published for fear of excommunication (Knox) http://2.bp.blogspot.com/geocentric.gif Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642) • Created personal telescope after reading about Dutch model o Originally built for commerce, the telescope became an astronomic tool • Observed moon’s geography and Jupiter’s o Proved Copernicus’ Theory by observing Venus’s phases • Published his findings openly with blatant personality o Roman Inquisition forced him to recant his teachings (Knox) http://www.chrismadden.co.uk/moon/galileo-telescope-church.gif Johann Kepler (1571 - 1630) • Viewed "Great Comet of 1577" and 1580 Lunar Eclipse ("Johann Kepler") o Synthesized Copernicus, Galileo, and Brahe to calculate elliptical orbits (Knox) • Provided accurate predictions for when planetary appearances ("Johann Kepler") • First scientific law granted to a person since Greeks (Knox) o Reflects prosperous scientific attitudes of the times (Knox) • Modern Connection "The Great Comet of 1577" http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?comet_1577 Sir Isaac Newton (1643 - 1727) http://www.icr.org/article/newton/ • Published The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in 1687 ("Issac Newton") o Proposed Three Laws of Motion, utilizing Kepler's Laws ("Isaac Newton") • Invented calculus, developed optics, wrote theology (Knox) Newton's Quote http://www.icr.org/article/newton/ "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done." - Sir Issac Newton ("Issac Newton") Class Structure • Merchant class evolved (Trueman) o Nobility, Churchmen, and Peasantry • Small middle class ("Renaissance.") o Merchants, bankers, and tradesmen Education and entertainment was emphasized • Honor code eventually abolished ("The Renaissance & Scientific Discoveries.") o Power of nobles devolved • Women in society o Increased respect and individuality Due to Elizabeth's push for women's rights Also due to prostitution partially (yikes!) o Increased freedom King James Bible • Bishop's Bible and Geneva Bible not edited during Elizabeth's reign • King James VI of Scotland called for Hampton Court Conference in January of 1604; decided to finally translate Bible • Men chosen to translate: o 10 for Genesis-2 Kings; 7 for Romans-Jude; 8 for 1 ChroniclesEcclesiastes; 7 for Isaiah-Malachi; 8 for the Gospels, Acts, and Revelation; 7 for the Apocrypha (hidden/extra) • Fifteen rules followed by translators • Most important versions: o 1762, revised by Thomas Paris at Cambridge o 1769, revised by Benjamin Blayney at Oxford • Acknowledged Bible of the English-speaking nations (Vance) Literature: Sonnets • Sonnets were the dominant form of poetry o Two types of sonnets Italian Sonnet Shakesperian Sonnet ("The English Renaissance") http://hudsonshakespeare.org/images/Shake%20images/sonnet%20header.jpg Edmund Spenser (1552-1599) • Wrote The Faerie Queen, Daphnaida, and Astrophell. o Compilations of poetry • Attended Cambridge University • Proponent of pacifying Ireland o Sonnets were his legacy (Jokinnan) http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/s/spenser/edmund/portrait.j pg Sonnet 75- Edmund Spenser One day I wrote her name upon the strand, But came the waves and washed it away: Again I wrote it with a steady hand, But came the tide, and made my pains his prey, Vain man, said she, that doest in vain assay A mortal thing so to immortalize For I myself shall like to this decay, And eek my name to be wiped out likewise Not so (quoth I), let baser things devise To die in dust, but you shall live by fame: My verse your virtues rare shall eternize, And in the heavens write your glourious name. When whenas Death shall all the world subdue, Out love shall live, and later life renew. (Spenser 481) Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) • Wrote pastoral poetry and plays o "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love" • Very little known about his life (Jokinnan) http://www.luminarium.org/renlit/marlowe.htm The Passionate Shepherd to His LoveChristopher Marlowe Come live with me and be my love, And we will all the pleasures prove That valleys, groves, hills and fields, Woods, or steepy mountain yields. And we will sit upon rocks, Seeing the shepherds feed their flocks, By shallow rivers to whose falls Melodious birds sing madrigals And I will make thee beds of roses And a thousand fragrant poises, A cap of flowers, and a kirtle Embroidered all with leaves of myrtle; (Marlowe 502) A gown made of the finest wool Which from our pretty lambs we pull; Fair lined slippers for the cold, With buckles of the purest gold A belt of straw and ivy buds, With coral clasps and amber studs; And if these pleasures may thee move, Come live with me, and be my love. The shepherd's swains shall dance and sing For thy delight every May morning: If these delights thy mind may move, Then live with me and be my love. Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542) • Wrote odes, songs, satires and epigrams. o Most of his poems were never published • Imprisoned many times during his life http://www.luminarium.org/renlit/wyatt.htm (Jokinnan) "Whoso List to Hunt"- Sir Thomas Wyatt "Whoso list to hunt, I know where is an hind, But as for me, helas, I may no more. The vain travail hath wearied me so sore, Yet may I by no means my wearied mind Draw from the deer, but as she fleeth afore Fainting I follow. I leave off therefore, Sithens in a net I seek to hold the wind. Who list her hunt, I put him out of doubt, As well as I may spend his time in vain. And graven with diamonds in letters plain There is written, her fair neck round about: Noli me tangere, for Caesar's I am, And wild to hold, though I seem tame." (http://www.nellgavin.com/ThomasWyatt/) Sir Philip Sydney (1554-1586) • Most famous works include Arcadia, Astrophel and Stella o Also wrote psalms and essays • Killed when he was shot in the thigh during a skirmish with the Spanish https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/rwb/www/teaching/engl209/pics/philip-sidney.jpg (Jokinnan) "Sonnet 31"- Sir Philip Sydney "With how sad steps, O Moon, thou climb'st the skies! How silently, and with how wan a face! What, may it be that even in heavenly place That busy archer his sharp arrows tries? Sure, if that long with love-acquainted eyes Can judge of love, thou feel'st a lover's case; I read it in thy looks; thy languisht grace To me that feel the like, thy state descries. Then, even of fellowship, O Moon, tell me Is constant love deemed there but want of wit? Are beauties there as proud as here they be? Do they above love to be loves, and yet Those lovers scorn whom that love doth possess? Do they virtue there, ungratefulness?" (http://www.luminarium.org/renlit/stella31.htm) William Shakespeare • Born on April 23, 1564 • Father: John Shakespeare (merchant class) • Mother: Mary Arden (yeoman/slightly higher class than John Shakespeare). • Wrote comedies ("William Shakespeare") http://rohrbachlibrary.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/willia m-shakespeare2.jpg William Shakespeare (cont'd) • Attended the King’s New School (grammar); • Was taught in Latin on these topics: rhetoric, logic, and ethics and works by classical authors such as Cicero and Virgil • No evidence of attending a university. • In 1582 , Shakespeare married Ann Hathaway of Stratford" o Joined Lord Chamberlain’s Men in 1594 Averaged dozen acts in Court o 1599, Shakespeare financed Globe Theatre his group o By 1610, retired to Stratford after being an amazing dramatist and having a large fortune o Completed will on March 25 1616, died April 23 Buried in chancel of Trinity church in Stratford with epitaph: "Good frend for Jesus sake forbeare, / to digg the dust encloased heare: / Bleste be the man that spares thes stones, / and curst be he that moves my bones." ("William Shakespeare") "Sonnet 18" - William Shakespeare Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou growest: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this and this gives life to thee. (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/18.html) Metaphysical Poetry • Not a formal school • Defined by "unusual imagery, elaborate metaphors, and irregular meter" o Themes: "death, physical love, and religious devotion" • John Donne o Criticized for being too philosophical about love ("The English Renaissance") http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/donne/ "The Anniversary" - John Donne All kings, and all their favourites, All glory of honours, beauties, wits, The sun it self, which makes time, as they pass, Is elder by a year now than it was When thou and I first one another saw. All other things to their destruction draw, And then we shall be throughly blest ; Only our love hath no decay ; But now no more than all the rest. This no to-morrow hath, nor yesterday ; Here upon earth we're kings, and none but we Running it never runs from us away, Can be such kings, nor of such subjects be. But truly keeps his first, last, everlasting day. Two graves must hide thine and my corse ;Who is so safe as we? where none can do Treason to us, except one of us two. If one might, death were no divorce. True and false fears let us refrain, Alas ! as well as other princes, we Let us love nobly, and live, and add again —Who prince enough in one another be— Must leave at last in death these eyes and ears, Years and years unto years, till we attain Oft fed with true oaths, and with sweet salt tears ;To write threescore ; this is the second of our reign. But souls where nothing dwells but love —All other thoughts being inmates—then shall prove (Donne 487) This or a love increasèd there above, When bodies to their graves, souls from their graves remove. The Cavalier Poets • Ben Jonson o "Sons of Ben": aristocratic poets that admired Jonson's form Robert Herrick Richard Lovelace Sir John Suckling • Royalists in the Civil War • Humorous yet cynical poetry • Themes: "love, war, chivalry, royal piety, carpe diem" ("The English Renaissance") Ben Jonson (1572 - 1637) • Playwright and poet, like Shakespeare ("The English Renaissance") o Wrote "satirical and cynical commentaries", critiquing Londoners o Masques: elaborate pagaents that attracted aristocracy with gaudy sets, costumes, and music • James granted him a pension; unofficial “poet laureate” (Lee 298) • Forceful personality ("The English Renaissance") • Wrote in classical forms rather than elaborate romantic Elizabethan style ("The English Renaissance") http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/jonson/ "To My Book" - Ben Jonson It will be look'd for, book, when some but see Thy title, epigrams, and named of me, Thou shouldst be bold, licentious, full of gall, Wormwood, and sulphur, sharp, and tooth'd withal ; Become a petulent thing, hurl ink, and wit, As madmen stones ; not caring whom they hit. Deceive their malice, who could wish it so ; And by thy wiser temper, let men know Thou art not so covetous of least self-fame, Made from the hazard of another's shame ; Much less, with lewd, profane, and beastly phrase, To catch the world's loose laughter, or vain gaze. He that departs with his own honesty For vulgar praise, doth it too dearly buy. (Jonson 492) Modern Connection • Modern Renaissance o Festivals Shows that customs and beliefs still have significance now Music and dances still performed o Literature still read Gives us a basis to compare other time periods to and identify the changes • Broadway o Based on Globe Theater and Shakespeare’s contributions • Government isn't monarchical due to uprising kingships brought o Disliked totalitarian rule o Aristocracy abolished o Noble class diminished from equality amongst men and women Leads to democracy Quiz Question 1 Which Tudor monarch was most insignificant? a) Jane Grey b) King Henry VIII c) King Edward VI d) Queen Mary I Question 2 Which factor most controlled scientific research during the Renaissance? a) Public interest in science b) Technological advancements c) The Church d) Former discoveries Question 3 What modern word most resembles the Anglo-Saxon word for "fate"? a) "Weird" b) "Destiny" c) "Heart" d) "Chance" Question 4 What modern event best reflects the Renaissance? a) Youth groups of different faiths meet to discuss theology. b) A president peacefully transfers power to his successor. c) A theater closes because of lack of patrons. d) A student enters an art institute to begin professional work. Question 5 An intricate painting of an old man would best exemplify the artwork of which era? a) Anglo-Saxon b) Early Renaissance c) High Renaissance d) Late Renaissance Question 6 Knowing that the purpose of humanism is to improve the quality of life in one's country or society, which piece of literature best reflects humanism? a) "A Modest Proposal" b) Romeo and Juliet c) Utopia d) "Holy Sonnet 10" Question 7 In what way did the Renaissance demonstrate "rebirth"? a) Disease affected very few people, so the population tripled. b) The unification of Christianity inspired "born-again Christians". c) Feudalism ended. d) Queen Mary I persecuted Protestants. Question 8 Contrasted with the metaphysical poets, the Cavalier poets: a) showed less devotion to monarchs. b) used more elaborate metaphors. c) focused more on romantic love. d) were more cynical. Question 9 Why could a person say that Beowulf collectively belongs to the people of England? a) Beowulf's author is unknown. b) It is the first work of literature that is set entirely in England. c) The people of England voted that they own Beowulf. d) The author of Beowulf dedicated his work to all Britons. Question 10 What aspect of Medieval life could a Middle Ages satire emphasize? a) The unfair system of electing knights to Arthur's Round Table b) The lack of adherence to the Code of Chivalry c) The trading process with tropical regions d) The extravagance of the all social classes Question 11 The phrase, "seeing the shepherds feed their flocks", is characteristic of which type of poetry? a) Shakespearean sonnet b) Pastoral c) Metaphysical d) Free verse Question 12 Which 20th century event is most directly related to the effect Queen Elizabeth I had upon England? a) Civil Rights Movement b) WWII c) The destruction of the Berlin Wall d) Women's suffrage Question 13 How are the Anglo-Saxon and Puritan eras similar? a) Both resulted after a previous monarchal rule. b) Both were ruled by fate. c) Both generated cultures that had little room for humor or fun. d) Protestants ruled during both eras. Question 14 How did prevention of The Plague improve between the Medieval and Renaissance Eras? a) Prevention of The Plague did not improve significantly. b) Vaccinations became widespread during the Renaissance. c) Personal hygiene improved greatly by the Renaissance. d) All rats had been killed by the Renaissance. Question 15 How does the humanist movement best relate to the 21st century? a) Latin and Greek are widely studied today to honor humanism. b) Sir Thomas More is currently a best-selling author. c) Today's high levels of secondary education mirror the educational emphasis of the humanists. d) The vast amount of transportation technology in the 21st century is similar to the amount present during the humanist movement. Answers 1. a 2. c 3. a 4. d 5. b 6. c 7. c 8. d 9. a 10. b 11. b 12. d 13. c 14. a 15. c Works Cited “The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Periods.” McDougal Littell Literature: British Literature. Ed. Janet Allen. Built for Michigan Edition. Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell, 2008.18-31. Print. “Beowulf.” McDougal Littell Literature: British Literature. Ed. Janet Allen. Built for Michigan Edition. Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell, 2008. 36-66. Print. Boronow, Sarah. “Renaissance Dance.” Vanderbilt. MUSL. 12 Oct. 1998. Web. 30 May 2010. <http://www.vanderbilt.edu/Blair/Courses/MUSL242/f98/rendanc.htm>. Dao, Christine. “Man of Science, Man of God: Johann Kepler.” Acts and Facts Mar. 2008: 8. The Institute for Creation Research. Web. 29 May 2010. <http://www.icr.org/article/3751/313/>. Dao, Chirstine. “Man of Science, Man of God: Isaac Newton.” Acts and Facts May 2008: 8-9. The Institute for Creation Research. Web. 29 May 2010. <http://www.icr.org/article/newton/>. Donne, John. “The Anniversary.” The Renaissance in England. Eds. Hyder E. Rollins and Herschel Baker. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1954. 487. Print. “The English Humanists.” The Oxford Anthology of English Literature: The Literature of Renaissance England. E. John Hollander and Frank Kermode. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973. 50-52. Print. “The English Renaissance.” McDougal Littell Literature: British Literature. Ed. Janet Allen. Built for Michigan Edition. Evanston, Illinois: McDougall Littell, 2008. 286-297. Print. “Francis Bacon: 1561-1626.” The Oxford Anthology of English Literature: The Literature of Renaissance England. E. John Hollander and Frank Kermode. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973. 934-935. Print. Works Cited (cont'd) “General Introduction.” The Renaissance Connection. Allentown Art Museum. n.d. Web. 26 May 2010. <http://www.renaissanceconnection.org/lesson_general.html>. Hooker, Richard. “Early Modern Italian Renaissance.” The Idea of the Renaissance. N.p. 1996. 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