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Anglo-Saxon Era
• Also known as the Dark Ages
• "Bloody conflicts, ignorance,
violence, and barbarism"
• Literature and English language
were developed
o Little humor and a lot of reality
in writings
("The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Time
• Anglo-Saxons - pagan, not
• Wyrd - Anglo-Saxon word for
• Heroes were worshiped
• Fate is prevalent in Beowulf
o Grendel scene
("The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval
Time Periods")
• Greatest English epic of all time
• Idolizes Beowulf, heroism,
courage, and strength
• Recited by professional poets Scops
• Author - Unknown, also known
as "Anonymous, the Beowulf
• 3 Prominent Elements of
Beowulf - courage, drama, and
(“The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval
Medieval Era
• Overview
o Origin of the term
 medi (middle) + æv (age)
o Between Classical Age and Renaissance
• Feudal System
o Description
o Hierarchy
o Effects on society
• Important People
o King Arthur
 May not have existed
 Lived late 5th or early 6th century
Medieval Era
King Louis IX
 1215 - 1270
 Crusader
o Thomas Aquinas
 1227 - 1274
 Italian monk
 Compiled religious beliefs of Middle Ages
 Influence on modern theology
o Marco Polo
 1254 - 1324
 Italian explorer
 Accounts of his travels
Medieval Era
Joan of Arc
 1412 - 1431
 Visions
 Hundred Years War
o Vlad Dracula IV
 1431 - 1476
 Other names
 Cruelty
 40,000 impalements
o Important Events
 Collapse of Roman
Empire, 476 C.E.
Medieval Era
Black Death
 About the name
 Cause
 Rodents
 Fleas
 Impact
 Killed 1/3 of Europe
 1096-1270
 Purpose
 Control of Jerusalem
 Impact
 Lasting religious tensions
Medieval Era
Hundred Years War
 William the Conqueror
 French vs. English
 Augmented by plague and famine
o War of the Roses
 1455-1487
 Civil War
 House of Lancaster v. House of
Medieval Era
• Chivalry
o Ideals
o Knighthood
 Origins
 Training
 Page
 Squire
 Knight
 Knighting ceremony
The Renaissance
• What does "rebirth" mean?
o Means recovery and rediscovery (Pioch)
 Attention from ideas of God to ideas of man
 Rebirth spiritually and practically
o Broad cultural achievement spanning 3 centuries
o Huge financial growth ("Renaissance.")
o Formerly, relationship between ruler and subjects was like
 Nobles provided king with protection
 King gave nobles land in return
 In the Renaissance, the Feudalism system slowly
o High devotion to royalty
• What caused this change?
o Humanism
The Tudors
King Henry VII
• Catholic Reign: 1485 – 1509
• Reign ended War of Roses
• Married off elder son, Arthur
to Catherine of Aragon,
daughter of Ferdinand and
Isabella of Spain
o Truce with Spain
King Henry VIII
• Catholic and Anglican Reign:
1509 – 1547
• Married six times
o Anne Boleyn: 2nd wife,
mother of Elizabeth I
• Formed Church of England
o Pope Clement VII refused
o Anti-Catholic feelings
throughout England
King Edward VI and Jane Grey
• Edward's Protestant Reign: 1547
– 1553
o Ruled from ages 10-16
• Earl of Warwick overthrew
Edward Seymour, his mentor
• Warwick supported Protestant
daughter-in-law, Jane Gray, to
succeed Edward VI
o She lasted 9 days; Mary was
Queen Mary I
• Catholic Reign: 1553 – 1558
• Nicknamed "Bloody Mary"
for violent beheadings of
• Catholic who married Philip
from Spain
o Upset Protestants
o 1557: war with France
Queen Elizabeth I
• Protestant Reign: 1558 – 1603
• Protestant, excommunicated by Pope
Pius V
• Kind ruler
o “Last British monarch to command
obedience from the people”
• Advised by William Cecil, “secretary
of state”
o Reformed English economy
o Persuaded Elizabeth to issue
Mary Queen of Scots’ death
o Unsuccessfully urged Elizabeth to
Elizabethan Court
• Gentry (high-class) could access court; bourgeois (middleclass) could not
• Femine leadership commanded propriety and dignity
• Disfavor toward marriage
• Common activities: dancing, feasts, plays, and games
Italian Renaissance (1420 - 1600)
• Arts/paintings more focused in
Italian Renaissance
• Separated into three eras:
Early, High, and Late
• Emphasized humanism
• More life-like than Middle Ages
Early Renaissance (1420 - 1495)
• Favored ancient art
• Depicted nature and
human character/behavior
in art
• Rational inquiry thought to
be most significant
o Sought to find correct
way to draw
• Example: Andrea
Mategna's (1431-1506)
"Madonna with Sleeping
o Ancient/realism
High Renaissance (1495 - 1520)
• Emphasized unity
o Balance of intuition, past
rationality, and technicality
• Not stable since people would
end up choosing a favored
• Leonardo Da Vinci (14521519) epitomized
Renaissance humanist ideal
• Theory: Leonardo drew
himself in female version
(other theories)
Late Renaissance
• Mannerism was
o Aesthetic movement
expressing high
elegance and grace
o Distinctive, emotional
• Marked by individual arts
• Michelangelo's (14751564) late works
expresses this era's theme
• Elegant form of exercise
• Social skill of nobles
• Two types
o Simple- Known by anyone
o Complex- Required dancing
lessons. Performed to
• Bulky clothing limited upper body
• Footwork was significant
• Men wore tight upper body
lacing while women wore corsets
• Brought rise to dance music for
instruments such as the viol,
lute, and pipe. Some were
• Dance Music
The Stuarts
King James (I of England) (VI of
• Protestant Reign: 1603 - 1625
• Relationship with
Parliament deteriorated over
royal finances and James's
o Parliament sat in 1604 1611, 1614, 1621, and 1624
o James rejected Parliament's
attempts to advance itself
• Avoided persecuting witches to
appear intellectual
King Charles I
• Anglican Reign: 1625 - 1646
• Son of James I, ruled in place of
deceased elder brother
• Preferred grand ritualistic
church services that contrasted
the austere interests of public
• Introduced new prayer book
o Disapproved by Puritan and
Protestant population
• Eleven Years Tyranny (1629 1640): kicked out corrupt
Causes for the English Civil War
• Presbyterian Scots rebel against Charles's Anglican
• Parliament denies Charles funds, diminishes his power
• Charles begins war with his military
("The English Renaissance")
The English Civil War
Royalists: "Catholics, Anglicans,
and nobility"
o Led by King Charles I
• 1645: Puritans defeat Royalists
o 1646: James I surrenders
("The English Renaissance")
Parliament's supporters: "Puritans,
small landowners, and middle class"
o Led by General Oliver
Puritan Rule
• Parliament created
commonwealth led by
• Enforcement of high
o No theaters
o Strict Sabbath
• Ended in 1660 as Charles II
("The English Renaissance")
(Philosophy, Religion, Education)
• Humanism was the main driving force of the period
("English Humanists", "Rise of Humanism")
• Humanist - someone who teaches, promotes, or studies
classical literature, history, spirituality and the spiritual
value of the beauty in art and nature, the power of human
reason, philosophy, and morality. ("English Humanists",
Rise of Humanism", "Humanism")
• Purpose of Humanism is to improve the quality of life in
one's country or society and work toward a more utopian
("English Humanists")
• Bacon led the philosophical (and
scientific) movement of the English
Renaissance ("Francis Bacon",
"English Renaissance")
• Sir Thomas More was the figure
head and leader of English
Humanism. ("English Humanists",
"Rise of Humanism")
• Other humanists/philosophers
o Thomas Hobbes
o John Locke
o Sir Isaac Newton
o John Colet
o Sir Thomas Elyot
o Sir Thomas Hoby
("English Humanists")
• An emphasis of the Humanist
movement was to provide
education, because
m was highly valued.
• Children of well-to-do families
would receive tutors and
education in Greek and Latin
literature and language, as
well as in other languages.
• Sir Thomas More and John
Colet both founded schools
("English Humanists")
• Morality and moral correctness were also very important to the English
Humanists, most likely because of all of the happenings of the
• Devotional works - works influenced by the Bible or other sources that
involve Christian beliefs and can be seen as some sort of praise
o Milton's Paradise Lost
o Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress
• Before, everyone is Roman Catholic ("English Renaissance")
• Began 31 October 1517, when Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the
church door ("English Renaissance", "Renaissance - Printing and Thinking")
o Opposed the selling of indulgences
• Sparked the Protestant Reformation
o Many new sects of Christianity result
Scientific Developments
• Naturalists used healing herbs based
on astrological features
• Herbal medicines prevailed to heal
general aches and bleeding
• Common ingredients: strawberry
leaves, knot grass, plantain, and
ginger roots
• Henry VIII sought to modernize with
Royal College of Physicians and five
Royal Hospitals
• College separated educated
physicians from lowly surgeons
• Doctors were ineffectual; old wives
did most healing
• Lack of hygiene and inoculation
• Poorly organized government
• Phamplet circulated, promoting
o Smoking out rooms
o Burning frankinsense, juniper,
dried rosemary, or bay-leaves
o Chewing angelica root
o "Sorrel steeped with vinegar"
o "Ale infused with rue, wormwood,
and scabiosa"
• Poor hygiene nullified remedies
• More appealing to the
common man than
o Discovery of the "New
• Various navigation tools:
maps, charts, astrolabe
• Henry VIII employed
German and Italian
• Cartography improved
during 16th century for
Map Comparison
Notable Scientists
Robert Recorde
• Wrote of mathematics in English,
not Latin
o Introduced "=", "+", and "-" to
English culture
Nicolai Copernicus (1473 - 1543)
• Proposed heliocentric model
for solar system (Knox)
o Ancient Greeks proposed
heliocentrism (Rowse 223)
• Earned income as a priest
• Never published for fear of
excommunication (Knox)
Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642)
• Created personal telescope after
reading about Dutch model
o Originally built for commerce, the
telescope became an astronomic
• Observed moon’s geography and
o Proved Copernicus’ Theory by
observing Venus’s phases
• Published his findings openly with
blatant personality
o Roman Inquisition forced him to
recant his teachings
Johann Kepler (1571 - 1630)
• Viewed "Great Comet of 1577"
and 1580 Lunar Eclipse ("Johann
o Synthesized Copernicus,
Galileo, and Brahe to
calculate elliptical orbits
• Provided accurate predictions for
when planetary appearances
("Johann Kepler")
• First scientific law granted to a
person since Greeks (Knox)
o Reflects prosperous scientific
attitudes of the times (Knox)
• Modern Connection
"The Great Comet of 1577"
Sir Isaac Newton (1643 - 1727)
• Published The Mathematical Principles of Natural
Philosophy in 1687 ("Issac Newton")
o Proposed Three Laws of Motion, utilizing Kepler's Laws
("Isaac Newton")
• Invented calculus, developed optics, wrote theology
Newton's Quote
"Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but
it cannot explain who set the planets in motion.
God governs all things and knows all that is or
can be done."
- Sir Issac Newton
("Issac Newton")
Class Structure
• Merchant class evolved (Trueman)
o Nobility, Churchmen, and Peasantry
• Small middle class ("Renaissance.")
o Merchants, bankers, and tradesmen
 Education and entertainment was emphasized
• Honor code eventually abolished ("The Renaissance &
Scientific Discoveries.")
o Power of nobles devolved
• Women in society
o Increased respect and individuality
 Due to Elizabeth's push for women's rights
 Also due to prostitution partially (yikes!)
o Increased freedom
King James Bible
• Bishop's Bible and Geneva Bible not edited during Elizabeth's reign
• King James VI of Scotland called for Hampton Court Conference in January
of 1604; decided to finally translate Bible
• Men chosen to translate:
o 10 for Genesis-2 Kings; 7 for Romans-Jude; 8 for 1 ChroniclesEcclesiastes; 7 for Isaiah-Malachi; 8 for the Gospels, Acts, and
Revelation; 7 for the Apocrypha (hidden/extra)
• Fifteen rules followed by translators
• Most important versions:
o 1762, revised by Thomas Paris at Cambridge
o 1769, revised by Benjamin Blayney at Oxford
• Acknowledged Bible of the English-speaking nations
Literature: Sonnets
• Sonnets were the dominant form of poetry
o Two types of sonnets
 Italian Sonnet
 Shakesperian Sonnet
("The English Renaissance")
Edmund Spenser
• Wrote The Faerie
Queen, Daphnaida,
and Astrophell.
o Compilations of poetry
• Attended Cambridge
• Proponent of pacifying
Sonnets were his legacy
Sonnet 75- Edmund Spenser
One day I wrote her name upon the strand,
But came the waves and washed it away:
Again I wrote it with a steady hand,
But came the tide, and made my pains his prey,
Vain man, said she, that doest in vain assay
A mortal thing so to immortalize
For I myself shall like to this decay,
And eek my name to be wiped out likewise
Not so (quoth I), let baser things devise
To die in dust, but you shall live by fame:
My verse your virtues rare shall eternize,
And in the heavens write your glourious name.
When whenas Death shall all the world subdue,
Out love shall live, and later life renew.
(Spenser 481)
Christopher Marlowe
• Wrote pastoral poetry
and plays
o "The Passionate
Shepherd to His
• Very little known
about his life
The Passionate Shepherd to His LoveChristopher Marlowe
Come live with me and be my love,
And we will all the pleasures prove
That valleys, groves, hills and fields,
Woods, or steepy mountain yields.
And we will sit upon rocks,
Seeing the shepherds feed their flocks,
By shallow rivers to whose falls
Melodious birds sing madrigals
And I will make thee beds of roses
And a thousand fragrant poises,
A cap of flowers, and a kirtle
Embroidered all with leaves of myrtle;
(Marlowe 502)
A gown made of the finest wool
Which from our pretty lambs we pull;
Fair lined slippers for the cold,
With buckles of the purest gold
A belt of straw and ivy buds,
With coral clasps and amber studs;
And if these pleasures may thee move,
Come live with me, and be my love.
The shepherd's swains shall dance and sing
For thy delight every May morning:
If these delights thy mind may move,
Then live with me and be my love.
Sir Thomas Wyatt
• Wrote odes, songs,
satires and epigrams.
o Most of his poems
were never
• Imprisoned many
times during his life
"Whoso List to Hunt"- Sir Thomas Wyatt
"Whoso list to hunt, I know where is an hind,
But as for me, helas, I may no more.
The vain travail hath wearied me so sore,
Yet may I by no means my wearied mind
Draw from the deer, but as she fleeth afore
Fainting I follow. I leave off therefore,
Sithens in a net I seek to hold the wind.
Who list her hunt, I put him out of doubt,
As well as I may spend his time in vain.
And graven with diamonds in letters plain
There is written, her fair neck round about:
Noli me tangere, for Caesar's I am,
And wild to hold, though I seem tame."
Sir Philip Sydney (1554-1586)
• Most famous works
include Arcadia, Astrophel
and Stella
o Also wrote psalms and
• Killed when he was shot in
the thigh during a skirmish
with the Spanish
"Sonnet 31"- Sir Philip Sydney
"With how sad steps, O Moon, thou climb'st the skies!
How silently, and with how wan a face!
What, may it be that even in heavenly place
That busy archer his sharp arrows tries?
Sure, if that long with love-acquainted eyes
Can judge of love, thou feel'st a lover's case;
I read it in thy looks; thy languisht grace
To me that feel the like, thy state descries.
Then, even of fellowship, O Moon, tell me
Is constant love deemed there but want of wit?
Are beauties there as proud as here they be?
Do they above love to be loves, and yet
Those lovers scorn whom that love doth possess?
Do they virtue there, ungratefulness?"
William Shakespeare
• Born on April 23, 1564
• Father: John Shakespeare
(merchant class)
• Mother: Mary Arden
(yeoman/slightly higher
class than John
• Wrote comedies
("William Shakespeare")
William Shakespeare (cont'd)
• Attended the King’s New School (grammar);
• Was taught in Latin on these topics: rhetoric, logic, and ethics and works by
classical authors such as Cicero and Virgil
• No evidence of attending a university.
• In 1582 , Shakespeare married Ann Hathaway of Stratford"
o Joined Lord Chamberlain’s Men in 1594
 Averaged dozen acts in Court
o 1599, Shakespeare financed Globe Theatre his group
o By 1610, retired to Stratford after being an amazing dramatist and having a
large fortune
o Completed will on March 25 1616, died April 23
 Buried in chancel of Trinity church in Stratford with epitaph: "Good
frend for Jesus sake forbeare, / to digg the dust encloased heare: /
Bleste be the man that spares thes stones, / and curst be he that
moves my bones."
("William Shakespeare")
"Sonnet 18" - William Shakespeare
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;
Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou growest:
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this and this gives life to thee.
Metaphysical Poetry
• Not a formal school
• Defined by "unusual imagery,
elaborate metaphors, and
irregular meter"
o Themes: "death, physical
love, and religious devotion"
• John Donne
o Criticized for being too
philosophical about love
("The English Renaissance")
"The Anniversary" - John Donne
All kings, and all their favourites,
All glory of honours, beauties, wits,
The sun it self, which makes time, as they pass,
Is elder by a year now than it was
When thou and I first one another saw.
All other things to their destruction draw,
And then we shall be throughly blest ;
Only our love hath no decay ;
But now no more than all the rest.
This no to-morrow hath, nor yesterday ;
Here upon earth we're kings, and none but we
Running it never runs from us away,
Can be such kings, nor of such subjects be.
But truly keeps his first, last, everlasting day.
Two graves must hide thine and my corse ;Who is so safe as we? where none can do
Treason to us, except one of us two.
If one might, death were no divorce.
True and false fears let us refrain,
Alas ! as well as other princes, we
Let us love nobly, and live, and add again
—Who prince enough in one another be—
Must leave at last in death these eyes and ears, Years and years unto years, till we attain
Oft fed with true oaths, and with sweet salt tears ;To write threescore ; this is the second of our
But souls where nothing dwells but love
—All other thoughts being inmates—then shall prove
(Donne 487)
This or a love increasèd there above,
When bodies to their graves, souls from their graves
The Cavalier Poets
• Ben Jonson
o "Sons of Ben": aristocratic poets that admired Jonson's form
 Robert Herrick
 Richard Lovelace
 Sir John Suckling
• Royalists in the Civil War
• Humorous yet cynical poetry
• Themes: "love, war, chivalry, royal piety, carpe diem"
("The English Renaissance")
Ben Jonson (1572 - 1637)
• Playwright and poet, like
Shakespeare ("The English
o Wrote "satirical and cynical
commentaries", critiquing
o Masques: elaborate pagaents that
attracted aristocracy with gaudy
sets, costumes, and music
• James granted him a pension;
unofficial “poet laureate” (Lee 298)
• Forceful personality ("The English
• Wrote in classical forms rather than
elaborate romantic Elizabethan style
("The English Renaissance")
"To My Book" - Ben Jonson
It will be look'd for, book, when some but see
Thy title, epigrams, and named of me,
Thou shouldst be bold, licentious, full of gall,
Wormwood, and sulphur, sharp, and tooth'd withal ;
Become a petulent thing, hurl ink, and wit,
As madmen stones ; not caring whom they hit.
Deceive their malice, who could wish it so ;
And by thy wiser temper, let men know
Thou art not so covetous of least self-fame,
Made from the hazard of another's shame ;
Much less, with lewd, profane, and beastly phrase,
To catch the world's loose laughter, or vain gaze.
He that departs with his own honesty
For vulgar praise, doth it too dearly buy.
(Jonson 492)
Modern Connection
• Modern Renaissance
o Festivals
 Shows that customs and beliefs still have significance now
 Music and dances still performed
o Literature still read
 Gives us a basis to compare other time periods to and identify
the changes
• Broadway
o Based on Globe Theater and Shakespeare’s contributions
• Government isn't monarchical due to uprising kingships brought
o Disliked totalitarian rule
o Aristocracy abolished
o Noble class diminished from equality amongst men and women
 Leads to democracy
Question 1
Which Tudor monarch was most insignificant?
a) Jane Grey
b) King Henry VIII
c) King Edward VI
d) Queen Mary I
Question 2
Which factor most controlled scientific research during the
a) Public interest in science
b) Technological advancements
c) The Church
d) Former discoveries
Question 3
What modern word most resembles the Anglo-Saxon word for
a) "Weird"
b) "Destiny"
c) "Heart"
d) "Chance"
Question 4
What modern event best reflects the Renaissance?
a) Youth groups of different faiths meet to discuss theology.
b) A president peacefully transfers power to his successor.
c) A theater closes because of lack of patrons.
d) A student enters an art institute to begin professional work.
Question 5
An intricate painting of an old man would best exemplify the
artwork of which era?
a) Anglo-Saxon
b) Early Renaissance
c) High Renaissance
d) Late Renaissance
Question 6
Knowing that the purpose of humanism is to improve the quality
of life in one's country or society, which piece of literature best
reflects humanism?
a) "A Modest Proposal"
b) Romeo and Juliet
c) Utopia
d) "Holy Sonnet 10"
Question 7
In what way did the Renaissance demonstrate "rebirth"?
a) Disease affected very few people, so the population tripled.
b) The unification of Christianity inspired "born-again
c) Feudalism ended.
d) Queen Mary I persecuted Protestants.
Question 8
Contrasted with the metaphysical poets, the Cavalier poets:
a) showed less devotion to monarchs.
b) used more elaborate metaphors.
c) focused more on romantic love.
d) were more cynical.
Question 9
Why could a person say that Beowulf collectively belongs to the
people of England?
a) Beowulf's author is unknown.
b) It is the first work of literature that is set entirely in England.
c) The people of England voted that they own Beowulf.
d) The author of Beowulf dedicated his work to all Britons.
Question 10
What aspect of Medieval life could a Middle Ages satire
a) The unfair system of electing knights to Arthur's Round Table
b) The lack of adherence to the Code of Chivalry
c) The trading process with tropical regions
d) The extravagance of the all social classes
Question 11
The phrase, "seeing the shepherds feed their flocks", is
characteristic of which type of poetry?
a) Shakespearean sonnet
b) Pastoral
c) Metaphysical
d) Free verse
Question 12
Which 20th century event is most directly related to the effect
Queen Elizabeth I had upon England?
a) Civil Rights Movement
c) The destruction of the Berlin Wall
d) Women's suffrage
Question 13
How are the Anglo-Saxon and Puritan eras similar?
a) Both resulted after a previous monarchal rule.
b) Both were ruled by fate.
c) Both generated cultures that had little room for humor or fun.
d) Protestants ruled during both eras.
Question 14
How did prevention of The Plague improve between the
Medieval and Renaissance Eras?
a) Prevention of The Plague did not improve significantly.
b) Vaccinations became widespread during the Renaissance.
c) Personal hygiene improved greatly by the Renaissance.
d) All rats had been killed by the Renaissance.
Question 15
How does the humanist movement best relate to the 21st
a) Latin and Greek are widely studied today to honor
b) Sir Thomas More is currently a best-selling author.
c) Today's high levels of secondary education mirror the
educational emphasis of the humanists.
d) The vast amount of transportation technology in the 21st
century is similar to the amount present during the
1. a
2. c
3. a
4. d
5. b
6. c
7. c
8. d
9. a
10. b
11. b
12. d
13. c
14. a
15. c
Works Cited
“The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Periods.” McDougal Littell Literature: British Literature. Ed. Janet
Allen. Built for Michigan Edition. Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell, 2008.18-31. Print.
“Beowulf.” McDougal Littell Literature: British Literature. Ed. Janet Allen. Built for Michigan Edition.
Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell, 2008. 36-66. Print.
Boronow, Sarah. “Renaissance Dance.” Vanderbilt. MUSL. 12 Oct. 1998. Web. 30 May 2010.
Dao, Christine. “Man of Science, Man of God: Johann Kepler.” Acts and Facts Mar. 2008: 8. The
for Creation Research. Web. 29 May 2010. <>.
Dao, Chirstine. “Man of Science, Man of God: Isaac Newton.” Acts and Facts May 2008: 8-9. The
for Creation Research. Web. 29 May 2010. <>.
Donne, John. “The Anniversary.” The Renaissance in England. Eds. Hyder E. Rollins and
Herschel Baker. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1954. 487. Print.
“The English Humanists.” The Oxford Anthology of English Literature: The Literature of Renaissance
England. E. John Hollander and Frank Kermode. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973. 50-52.
“The English Renaissance.” McDougal Littell Literature: British Literature. Ed. Janet Allen. Built for
Michigan Edition. Evanston, Illinois: McDougall Littell, 2008. 286-297. Print.
“Francis Bacon: 1561-1626.” The Oxford Anthology of English Literature: The Literature of
Renaissance England. E. John Hollander and Frank Kermode. New York: Oxford University Press,
1973. 934-935. Print.
Works Cited (cont'd)
“General Introduction.” The Renaissance Connection. Allentown Art Museum. n.d. Web. 26 May 2010.
Hooker, Richard. “Early Modern Italian Renaissance.” The Idea of the Renaissance. N.p. 1996. Web.
May 2010. <>.
“Humanism.” The Oxford Anthology of English Literature: The Literature of Renaissance England. E.
John Hollander and Frank Kermode. New York: Oxford University Press,1973. 5-6. Print.
Jokinen, Anniina. “The Life of Ben Johnson.” Luminarium. 9 Sept 2003. Web. 28 May 2010.
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