Clean Energy Project Analysis
with RETScreen
Gregory J. Leng, Director, RETScreen International
RETScreen Overview

World’s leading clean energy decision-making software

Energy efficiency, renewable energy, cogeneration & conventional energy

Available in 35 languages covering 2/3rds of the Earth’s population

215+ universities & colleges use RETScreen for training & research

219,000+ RETScreen software users in 222 countries & territories

$4 billion in direct user savings attributed to RETScreen so far
Seminar Objectives
1.
Understand the role of preliminary
feasibility studies
2.
See how the RETScreen Software
works
3.
Learn how RETScreen makes it
easier to help identify and assess
potential renewable energy and
energy efficiency projects.
Project Analysis

Energy resource at project site
(Solar Air Heating Example)
(e.g. solar radiation)

Equipment performance
(e.g. solar absorptivity)

Initial project costs
(e.g. solar collectors)

“Base case” credits
(e.g. conventional cladding)

Annual & periodic costs
(e.g. vandalism)
Photo: NRCan
Financial Analysis

Base case system energy cost
(e.g. retail price of heating oil)

Financing
(e.g. debt ratio & length, interest rate)

Taxes on equipment & income (or savings)

Environmental characteristics of energy displaced
(e.g. oil, natural gas, grid electricity)

Environmental credits and/or subsidies
(e.g. GHG credits, deployment incentives)

Decision-maker’s definition of cost-effective
(e.g. payback period, ROI, NPV, energy production costs)
Analysis Type
Method 1
Method 2
RETScreen Energy Model - User-defined
RETScreen Energy Model - Energy efficiency measures project
Fuels & schedules
Technology
Power capacity
Capacity factor
Electricity exported to grid
Incremental initial costs
O&M (savings) costs
Electricity export rate
Base case
Grid electricity
kW
%
MWh
$/kW
$/kWh
$/kWh
Base case electricity system (Baseline)
Country - region
Canada
Fuel type
All types
T&D
losses
%
5.0%
Fuel type 1
Electricity
MWh
$/kWh
0.100
Schedule
Description
Temperature - space heating
Temperature - space cooling
Temperature - unoccupied
Occupancy rate - daily
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Occupancy rate - annual
GHG emission
factor
tCO2/MWh
0.222
Heating/cooling changeover temperature
Length of heating season
Length of cooling season
Unit
MWh
5,256
GHG emission
Base case
Proposed case
Gross annual GHG emission reduction
GHG credits transaction fee
Net annual GHG emission reduction
tCO2
tCO2
tCO2
%
tCO2
1,167
93
1,074
0.0%
1,074
$/tCO2
0.00
GHG reduction income
GHG reduction credit rate
T&D losses
h/yr
%
°C
d
d
8.0%
Show:
Fuel saved
Air-conditioning
Appartment building
is equivalent to
218
2,686
Ventilation
Lights
Electrical equipment
Hot water
Other
Cars & light trucks not used
2,686
Summary
Schedule 2
%
yr
%
%
yr
$
$
$
Incentives and grants
$
Annual costs and debt payments
O&M (savings) costs
Fuel cost - proposed case
Debt payments - 10 yrs
Other
Total annual costs
$
$
$
$
$
2.0%
20
70%
7.00%
10
Fuel type
Natural gas
Total
Project verification
Fuel type
Natural gas
4,000,000
Energy
Energy - base case
Energy - proposed case
Energy saved
Energy saved - %
100.0%
0.0%
100.0%
4,000,000
0.0%
Benchmark
Energy unit
Reference unit
User-defined
Cumulative cash flows graph
14,000,000
%
%
yr
yr
0
788,400
788,400
34.6%
12.3%
5.4
3.2
Cumulative cash flows ($)
$
$
$
$
451,217
Benchmark
Energy
Energy - base case
Energy - proposed case
Energy saved
12,000,000
0
398,657
Fuel type 3
Fuel type 4
Fuel type 5
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
Fuel type 6
#N/A
#N/A
Schedule 5
Schedule 6
Cooling
GJ
Electricity
GJ
initial costs
$
Annual costs (credits)
O&M
O&M (savings) costs
Parts & labour
0
User-defined
Contingencies
0
Sub-total:
Fuel cost - proposed case
Natural gas
Sub-total:
0
0
60,000
Annual savings
0
0
Fuel
cost - base case
Natural gas
Sub-total:
60,000
Show data
10,000,000
8,000,000
6,000,000
Fuel
Fuel
consumption Fuel
End of project
life
unit
Fuel rate
consumption
m³
$
0.400
160,194.2
$
$
Fuel cost
64,078
64,078
Fuel
consumption unit
m³
Fuel
consumption historical
Fuel
consumption
Base case
160,194.2
Fuel
consumption variance
Heating
GJ
4,204
2,324
1,880
44.7%
Cooling
GJ
0
0
0
Electricity
GJ
0
0
0
Total
GJ
4,204
2,324
1,880
44.7%
Electricity
kWh/m²
0.0
0.0
0.0
Total
kWh/m²
155.7
86.1
69.6
kWh
m²
m²
7,500
2,000
Heating
kWh/m²
155.7
86.1
69.6
Cooling
kWh/m²
0.0
0.0
0.0
Schedule 3
Schedule 4
Notes/Range
Occupied
21.0
24.0
23.0
23.0
Unoccupied
Initial costs (credits)
3.0
Feasibility study
Occupied
Feasibility study
h/d
h/d
Sub-total:
24
18.0
Development
24
18.0
Development
24
18.0
Sub-total:
24
18.0
Engineering
24
18.0
Engineering
24
18.0
Sub-total:
24
18.0
Energy efficiency
measures
8,760
6,570
Incremental initial
costs
100%
75%
Balance of system & miscellaneous
16.0Spare parts
242Transportation
123Training & commissioning
User-defined
Contingencies
Show dataInterest during construction
Sub-total:
Incremental
Total initial costs
Periodic costs (credits) Base case
User-defined
Initial costs
Incremental initial costs
Other
Total initial costs
Financial viability
Pre-tax IRR - equity
Pre-tax IRR - assets
Simple payback
Equity payback
-
Building envelope
Total
Annual savings and income
Fuel cost - base case
Electricity export income
Other
Total annual savings and income
0
Cooling system
Financial Analysis
Financial parameters
Inflation rate
Project life
Debt ratio
Debt interest rate
Debt term
Heating
GJ
Heating system
Boiler
Settings
Schedule 1
Method 1
24/7
Method 2
°C
°C
+/-°C
Facility characteristics
Electricity exported to grid
Fuel type 2
Natural gas - m³
m³
$/m³
0.400
RETScreen Cost Analysis - Energy efficiency measures project
Proposed case
Wind turbine
2,000
30%
5,256
2,000
0.010
0.150
Emission Analysis
GHG emission
factor
(excl. T&D)
tCO2/MWh
0.211
Show data
Fuel
Fuel type
Fuel consumption - unit
Fuel rate - unit
Fuel rate
Energy
Green power
Other
OccupiedSecond currency
Occupied
Second currency
Occupied
Notes/Range
Occupied
Unoccupied
Quantity Unoccupied
Unit cost UnoccupiedAmount
Occupied cost
Occupied
Occupied
RETScreen
Emission
Analysis
h/d
h/d Reductionh/d
-
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
-2,000,000
Year
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Relative costs
Occupied
$
Energy
h/d efficiency measures
project
$
-
$
$
-
0.0%
0.0%
$
$
-
0.0%
Emission Analysis
cost
Method 1
Method
2
cost
Method 3
0
0%
Global warming potential of GHG
21
tonnes CO2 = 1 tonne CH4
(IPCC 1996)
310
tonnes CO2 = 1 tonne N2O
(IPCC 1996)
0
0%
0
0
RETScreen Financial
Analysis - Energy efficiency measures project
60,000
100.0%
0%
0%$
Financial parameters
Project costs and savings/income summary
Yearly cash flows
Base case system GHG summary (Baseline)
General
Initial costs
Year
Pre-tax
%
$
Fuel cost escalation
%
2.0%
Feasibility study
0.0%
$
0
#
$
project
$ rate
CO2 emission
CH4 emission
N2O2.0%
emission
Fuel
Inflation
rate
%
Development
0.0%
$ GHG emission 0
0
-60,000
p-d
$
Fuel
mix rate
factor
factor Engineering
consumption
factor
Discount
%
12.0%
0.0%
$
0GHG1emission 29,232
cost
$ factor
Project
life
yr
40
Power system
0.0%
$ tCO2/MWh
0
2tCO2
29,817
Fuel type
% 60,000
kg/GJ
kg/GJ
MWh
%
$
$ kg/GJ
Heating system
0.0%
$
0
3 299
30,413
Natural gas
100.0%
1,668
0.179
$
60,000 $
Finance
Cooling system
0.0%
$
0
4 299
31,022
Total
100.0%
1,668
0.179
Enter number of months
$
0.0%
Incentives
and
grants
$
User-defined
0.0%
$
0
5
31,642
Fuel cost
Incremental
Include
$
60,000
100.0%
Debt ratio measure?
%
Energy efficiency measures
100.0%
$
60,000
6
32,275
savings
O&M savings Simple payback
$
0
Balance of system & misc.
0.0%
$
0
7
32,920
$
$
yr Debt
Proposed case
summary (Energy
efficiency measures
Unit system GHG
Quantity
Unit
Amount project)
Equitycost
$
60,000
Total initial costs
100.0%
$
60,000
8
33,579
%
9
34,250
0
0
- Debt interest rate
project
$ emission - CH4 emission
CO2
N2O emission
Fuel
Debt term
yr
Incentives and grants
$ GHG emission 0
10
34,935
project
Debtmix
payments $ factor
$/yr
0
Fuel
factor
factor
consumption
factor
GHG11emission 35,634
0
0
12
36,347
cost
$ kg/GJ
Fuel type
%
kg/GJ
kg/GJ Annual costs and debt paymentsMWh
tCO2/MWh
tCO2
O&M
$
0
13
37,074
$ 100.0%
- $
Natural %
gas
922
0.179
165
28,659
0
2.1
Income tax analysis
Fuel cost - proposed case
$
35,419
14
37,815
$
Total
100.0%
922
0.179
165
Effective income tax rate
%
Debt payments - 0 yrs
$
0
15
38,571
T&D losses
Total
Loss carryforward?
No
Total annual costs
$
35,419
16 165
39,343
m³
88,546
$
0.400 $
35,419
Depreciation method
Declining balance
17
40,130
$ 1
35,419
GHG emission reduction summary
Half-year rule - year
yes/no
Yes Periodic costs (credits)
18
40,932
Depreciation tax basis
%
$
0
19
41,751
Unit
Quantity
Unit
cost rate
Amount
Depreciation
%
$
0 Net20annual
42,586
Gross annual
28,659
0
2.09 Depreciation period
yr
15
End of project life - cost
0
Years of
Base case
Proposed
case
GHG emission $ GHG credits
GHG21emission 43,438
available?
yes/no
No
22
44,306
m³
160,194
$ Tax holiday
0.400
$
64,078
occurrence
GHG emission
GHG emission
reduction
transaction fee
reduction
Tax holiday duration
yr
Annual savings and income
23
45,193
$
Energy efficiency measures
yr
tCO2 64,078
tCO2
tCO2
%
tCO2
Fuel cost - base case
$
64,078
24
46,096
project
1 to -1income
299
165
134
Annual
Electricity export income
$
0
25134
47,018
Unit
Year
Unit
cost
Amount
Proposed case
Fuel
cost savings
Electricity
export income
GHG reduction income - 0 yrs
$
0
26
47,959
cost
$
Electricity exported to grid
MWh
0
Customer premium income (rebate)
$
0
27
48,918
$
Fuel
Fuel cost
$/MWh
0.00
Other
(cost) - yrs Cars & light trucks not
$ used
0
28
49,896
Net annual GHG emission reduction Electricity export $rate 134
tCO2
is equivalent
to income27.2
consumptioncost
Fuel cost
Fuel saved
savings
Electricity export income
$
0
CE production income - yrs
$
0
29
50,894
88,546.3
$
35,419
71,647.8
$ export escalation
28,659 rate
Electricity
%
Total annual savings and income
$
64,078
30
51,912
$
35,419
$
28,659
31
52,950
GHG reduction income
32
54,009
tCO2/yr
0
33
55,089
Net GHG reduction
tCO2/yr
134 Financial viability
34
56,191
Net GHG reduction - 40 yrs
tCO2
5,342
Pre-tax IRR - equity
%
50.7%
35
57,315
GHG reduction credit rate
$/tCO2
Pre-tax IRR - assets
%
50.7%
36
58,461
GHG reduction income
$
0
37
59,631
GHG reduction credit duration
yr
After-tax IRR - equity
%
50.7%
38
60,823
Net GHG reduction - 0 yrs
tCO2
0
After-tax IRR - assets
%
50.7%
39
62,040
GHG reduction credit escalation rate
%
40
63,281
Simple payback
yr
2.1
41
0
Customer premium income (rebate)
Equity payback
yr
2.0
42
0
Electricity premium (rebate)
%
43
0
Electricity premium income (rebate)
$
0
Net Present Value (NPV)
$
225,387
44
0
Heating premium (rebate)
%
Annual life cycle savings
$/yr
27,340
45
0
Heating premium income (rebate)
$
0
46
0
Cooling premium (rebate)
%
Benefit-Cost (B-C) ratio
4.76
47
0
Cooling premium income (rebate)
$
0
Debt service coverage
No debt
48
0
Customer premium income (rebate)
$
0
Energy production cost
$/MWh
-791.21
49
0
GHG reduction cost
$/tCO2
(205)
50
0
Other income (cost)
Energy
MWh
Cumulative cash flows graph
Rate
$/MWh
1,800,000
Other income (cost)
$
0
Duration
Escalation rate
Clean Energy (CE) production income
CE production
CE production credit rate
CE production income
CE production credit duration
CE production credit escalation rate
4,000,000
2,000,000
None
Cost allocation
UnoccupiedUnit
Fuel type
1 Natural gas
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
yr
%
MWh
$/kWh
$
yr
%
Energy
delivered
(MWh)
922
After-tax
Cumulative
$
-60,000
29,232
29,817
30,413
31,022
31,642
32,275
32,920
33,579
34,250
34,935
35,634
36,347
37,074
37,815
38,571
39,343
40,130
40,932
41,751
42,586
43,438
44,306
45,193
46,096
47,018
47,959
48,918
49,896
50,894
51,912
52,950
54,009
55,089
56,191
57,315
58,461
59,631
60,823
62,040
63,281
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
$
-60,000
-30,768
-951
29,463
60,484
92,126
124,401
157,321
190,900
225,150
260,086
295,720
332,066
369,140
406,955
445,527
484,869
524,999
565,931
607,682
650,268
693,706
738,012
783,205
829,301
876,320
924,279
973,196
1,023,093
1,073,987
1,125,899
1,178,849
1,232,858
1,287,948
1,344,139
1,401,454
1,459,916
1,519,546
1,580,370
1,642,409
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,600,000
922
1,400,000
0
1,200,000
Clean energy
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Cumulative cash flows ($)
User-defined
User-defined
1,000,000
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
-200,000
Year
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
Project Example:
Residential Photovoltaic Project

Basic information:
 3 kW grid-tied PV system
 Cost @ $10,000/kW
 Capacity factor @ 15%
 Finance via mortgage

Scenario 1:
 Electricity rate @ $0.42/kWh
 + $15/tonne GHG emissions trade

Scenario 2:
 Feed-in Tariff @ $0.802/kWh
Photo credit: RER Renewable Energy Research
RETScreen Energy Efficiency Model
Commercial & Institutional Buildings
Both New & Existing Facilities
Houses & Apartment Buildings
Industrial Plants & Processes
Photo: NRCan
Photo: NRCan
Fuel
End-use
Energy Efficiency Analysis
Optimize
supply
Maximize
efficiency
Minimize
usage
Steps
Project Example: Hot Water

Single family home (4 occupants)

Reduce flow by 25%, cost $200

Reduce supply temp from 60 to 55 oC

Heat recovery, 30% efficiency, cost $600

O&M (water) savings $300/year

Fuel switch oil to natural gas: $2,000
Questions?
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Clean Energy Project Analysis with RETScreen