U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen
& Fuel Cells Program Overview
FESTIVAL DELL’ENERGIA
Jesse Adams
Perugia, Italy
U.S. Department of Energy
Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Program
Project Manager
June 16, 2012
1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
U.S. National Energy Strategy
“We’ve got to invest in a serious, sustained, all-ofthe-above energy strategy that develops every
resource available for the 21st century.”
– President Barack Obama
"Advancing hydrogen and fuel cell
technology is an important part of the
Energy Department's efforts to support
the President's all-of-the-above energy
strategy, helping to diversify America's
energy sector and reduce our
dependence on foreign oil."
- Energy Secretary Steven Chu
"Fuel cells are an important part of our
energy portfolio and these
deployments in early markets are
helping to drive innovations in fuel cell
technologies across multiple
applications."
- Dr. David Danielson
Assistant Secretary for Energy
Efficiency and Renewable Energy
2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
U.S. Energy Consumption
U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by
Source and Sector
Fuel Cells can
apply to diverse
sectors
Share of Energy Consumed
by Major Sectors of the
Economy, 2010
Total U.S. Energy = 98 Quadrillion Btu/yr
Source: Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2010, Table 1.3
3 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
Background:
Potential of Fuel Cell Technology
Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy
— with very high efficiency — and without criteria pollutant emissions.
Combustion Engines — convert
chemical energy into thermal energy and
mechanical energy, and then into electrical
energy.
15 – 40%
efficiency
Fuel cells — convert chemical energy
Typical Electrical Efficiency (HHV)
directly into electrical energy, bypassing
inefficiencies associated with thermal energy
conversion. Available energy is equal to the
Gibbs free energy.
60%+ efficiency
possible
Electrical
Efficiency
Typical
Efficiency
70%
60%
Fuel cells convert chemical
energy directly into electrical
energy, bypassing inefficiencies
associated with thermal energy
conversion
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Steam
Turbine
Recip.
Engine
Gas
Turbine
MicroTurbine
Fuel
Cell
Source: EPA, Catalog of CHP Technologies, December 2008
4 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
Well-to-Wheels CO2 Analysis
Analysis by Argonne National Lab, DOE Vehicle Technologies Program, and FCT
Program shows benefits from a portfolio of options
H2 from Natural Gas
Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gases Emissions
Even FCEVs fueled by
H2 from distributed NG
can result in a >50%
reduction in GHG
emissions from
today’s vehicles.
Use of H2 from NG
decouples carbon from
energy use—i.e., it
allows carbon to be
managed at point of
production vs at the
tailpipe.
Grams CO2-equivalent per mile
Even greater emissions
reductions are possible
as hydrogen from
renewables enter the
market.
Notes:
For a projected state of technologies in 2035-2045. Ultra-low carbon renewable electricity includes wind, solar, etc. Does not include the lifecycle
effects of vehicle manufacturing and infrastructure construction/decommissioning.
Analysis & Assumptions at: http://hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/10001_well_to_wheels_gge_petroleum_use.pdf
5 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
Fuel Cells – An Emerging Global Industry
Source: Clean
Energy Patent
Growth Index
Clean Energy Patent Growth Index
Top 10 companies: GM, Honda, Samsung,
Toyota, UTC Power, Nissan, Ballard, Plug
Power, Panasonic, Delphi Technologies
Clean Energy Patent Growth Index[1] shows that fuel cell patents lead in the clean
energy field with over 950 fuel cell patents issued in 2011.
• Nearly double the second place holder, solar, which has ~540 patents.
[1] http://cepgi.typepad.com/files/cepgi-4th-quarter-2011-1.pdf
6 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
Fuel Cell Market Overview
Total System Shipments Across All Applications, Broken Out by
the Following Locations of Manufacture: United States, Japan,
South Korea, Germany,
All Others.
For 2008-2011
System Shipments
by Key
Countries:
2008-2011
25,000
The fuel cell market remains
strong with over 20,000 systems
shipped in 2011, a > 35%
increase over 20101
Systems Shipped
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
-
2008
All Others
2009
Germany
2010
South Korea
2011P
Japan
United States
Global Hydrogen Production Market 2009 – 2016
(million metric tons)
~3X increase in VC/private equity
fuel cell funding in just one year
($113M).*
The global hydrogen market is
also robust with over 55 Mtons
produced in 2011 and over 70
Mtons projected in 2016, a > 30%
increase.
Sources: FuelCells2000, Pike Research, Markets & Markets
7 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
1FCT
Market Report to be published in June 2012.
*by Top 10 Investors
eere.energy.gov
U.S. DOE Program Mission
The mission of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program is to
enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel
cell technologies through:
•
basic and applied research
•
technology development and demonstration
•
Addressing institutional and market challenges
Key Goals: Develop hydrogen and fuel
cell technologies for:
1. Early markets
(e.g., stationary power,
forklifts, portable power)
2. Mid-term markets (e.g., residential CHP,
auxiliary power, buses and fleet vehicles )
3. Longer-term markets, 2015-2020
(including mainstream transportation, with focus
on passenger cars)
8 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
An integrated strategic plan for the research,
development, and demonstration activities of DOE’s
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program
http://hydrogen.energy.gov/roadmaps_vision.html
eere.energy.gov
DOE Program Structure
The Program is an integrated effort, structured to address all the key
challenges and obstacles facing widespread commercialization.
Nearly 300 projects currently funded
at companies, national labs, and universities/institutes
More than $1B DOE funds spent from FY 2007 to FY 2011
9 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
EERE H2 & Fuel Cells - Budget
“The Committee recognizes the progress and achievements of the Fuel Cell
Technologies program. The program has met or exceeded all benchmarks, and has
made significant progress in decreasing costs and increasing efficiency and
durability of fuel cell and hydrogen energy systems.”1
•~$104 M in FY2012
for applied R&D
•Basic Science R&D
~ $34M/year*







Fuel Cell Systems R&D
Hydrogen Fuel R&D
Technology Validation
Safety, Codes & Standards
Systems Analysis
Manufacturing R&D
Market Transformation
Hydrogen Fuel R&D includes Hydrogen Production & Delivery R&D and Hydrogen Storage R&D
*Funding through Basic Energy Sciences has been ~ $34M/year and FY12 will be determined based on number of relevant projects
1FY12 Appropriations Committee
10 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
DOE-Funded Progress - Highlights
Current status:
$49/kW vs
target of $30/kW
Reduced projected high-volume
cost of fuel cells to $49/kW
(2011)*
• Reduced Pt by a factor of 5 since 2005
• More than 30% reduction since 2008
• More than 80% reduction since 2002
More than doubled the demonstrated
durability (to 2,500 hours, or ~75,000
miles) of transportation fuel cells since
2006.
Reduced delivery cost by 40% since
2005 (tube trailers)
Demonstrated H2 tanks that can achieve
>250 mile range (validated vehicle that
can achieve 430 miles)
Identified and characterized more than
400 materials with potential for H2
storage
*Based on projection to high-volume manufacturing (500,000 units/year). The projected cost status is based on an
analysis of state-of-the-art components that have been developed and demonstrated through the DOE Program at the
laboratory scale. Additional efforts would be needed for integration of components into a complete automotive system that
meets durability requirements in real-world conditions.
11 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
DOE-funded efforts enabled 33
commercial technologies in the market
eere.energy.gov
Hydrogen Production - Strategies
Develop technologies to produce hydrogen from clean, domestic
resources at a delivered and dispensed cost of $2-$4/gge H2 by 2020
Hydrogen Technical Advisory Committee Subcommittee: H2 Production Expert Panel
Review underway to provide recommendations to DOE
12 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
Technology Validation
Completed world’s largest single FCEV
& H2 Demonstration to date (50-50 DOEIndustry cost share)
• >180 fuel cell vehicles and 25 hydrogen stations
• 3.6 million miles traveled; 500,000 trips
• ~152,000 kg of hydrogen produced or dispensed;
>33,000 refuelings
Durability
Range
Efficiency
Refueling Rate
H2 Cost at
Station
Status
Project Target
~2,500
2,000
196 – 254*
250*
53 – 59%
60%
0.77 kg/min
1 kg/min
Status
Status
(NG Reforming)
(Electroylsis)
$7.70 $10.30/kg
$10.00 $12.90/kg
Ultimate
Target
$2.00 $4.00/kg
Demonstrated H2 for Energy Storage
Demonstrated world’s
first Tri-generation
station (100 kg/d)
Anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater
(Orange County Sanitation District)
• Generates ~ 250 kW; 54% efficiency
co-producing H2 and electricity
•Nearly 1 million kWh of operation
•>4,000 kg H2 produced
(Air Products, FuelCell Energy)
(NREL)
• Showed PEM and alkaline electrolyzers provide grid frequency regulation, 4X faster than ‘control’ with no electrolyzers
• Achieved 5,500 hrs of variable electrolyzer stack operation to determine effects of wind AC power on stack degradation
*Independently validated a vehicle that can achieve a 430 mile range.
13 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
Market Transformation and ARRA –
Catalyst for Deployments
ARRA and MT deployments of fuel cells for lift trucks led to industry purchases*
of an estimated 3,000 additional fuel cell lift trucks with NO DOE funding
Fuel Cell Deployments
Application
Currently
Operational (#)
Backup Power
668
Material Handling
504
Total
Fuel Cell Lift Truck Purchases
1,172
• Exceeded ARRA target of up
to 1,000 fuel cell deployments
• Demonstrated 1 million hours
of operation to date
* Including deployed and on order
14 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
Global Collaboration OpportunitiesNew Database & Data Collection
Collecting data from companies to benchmark
progress. No proprietary information or company
attribution. Only ‘composite’ and average data is
provided.
Please email
[email protected]
Durability data for
various fuel cell
applications
compiled by NREL
– includes global
companies
Continue collaboration on critical safety,
codes and standards activities
Launched open source database on
Hydrogen Storage Materials Properties:
http://hydrogenmaterialssearch.govtools.us/
15 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
Launched study on H2 resource availability
Coordination with IEA HIA Task 30 and IPHE
Need analyst contacts from various countries.
eere.energy.gov
Future Directions
Continue and strengthen critical R&D
Hydrogen, fuel cells, safety, codes and standards, etc.
Conduct strategic, selective demonstrations of
innovative technologies
Continue to conduct key analysis to guide RD&D
and path forward, determine infrastructure
needs
Leverage activities to maximize impact
Continue and strengthen communication and outreach
16 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
Acknowledgements
Federal Agencies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DOC
DOD
DOE
DOT
EPA
GSA
DOI
DHS
•
•
•
•
NASA
NSF
USDA
USPS
External Input
• Annual Merit Review & Peer Evaluation
• H2 & Fuel Cell Technical Advisory
Committee
• National Academies, GAO, etc.
− Interagency coordination through stafflevel Interagency Working Group (meets
monthly)
− Assistant Secretary-level Interagency
Task Force mandated by EPACT 2005.
DOE
Hydrogen
& Fuel Cells
Program
Universities
~ 50 projects with 40 universities
International
• IEA Implementing agreements –
25 countries
• International Partnership for
Hydrogen & Fuel Cells in the
Economy –
17 countries & EC
Industry Partnerships &
Stakeholder Assn’s.
• Tech Teams (U.S. DRIVE)
• Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy
Association (FCHEA)
• Hydrogen Utility Group
• ~ 65 projects with 50 companies
State & Regional
Partnerships
• California Fuel Cell Partnership
• California Stationary Fuel Cell
Collaborative
• SC H2 & Fuel Cell Alliance
• Upper Midwest Hydrogen Initiative
• Ohio Fuel Coalition
• Connecticut Center for Advanced
Technology
National Laboratories
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
P&D, S, FC, A, SC&S, TV, MN
Argonne A, FC, P&D, SC&S
Los Alamos
S, FC, SC&S
Sandia P&D, S, SC&S
Pacific Northwest P&D, S, FC, SC&S, A
Oak Ridge P&D, S, FC, A, SC&S
Lawrence Berkeley FC, A
Lawrence Livermore P&D, S, SC&S
Savannah River S, P&D
Brookhaven S, FC
Idaho National Lab P&D
Other Federal Labs: Jet Propulsion Lab, National Institute of Standards &
Technology, National Energy Technology Lab (NETL)
P&D = Production & Delivery; S = Storage; FC = Fuel Cells; A = Analysis; SC&S = Safety, Codes & Standards; TV = Technology Validation, MN = Manufacturing
17 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
Thank you
Jesse Adams
Project Manager
[email protected]
Sunita Satyapal
Program Manager
[email protected]
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program
U.S. Department of Energy
Additional Information
www.hydrogen.energy.gov
18 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 10/7/2015
eere.energy.gov
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Presentation Title - Festival dell'Energia