GREEN POWER:
Canadian Context and International Developments
SUMMERHILL GROUP
MELISSA FELDER
NOVEMBER 2002
OVERVIEW
Overview of Green Power
Canadian Context
International Developments
GREEN POWER: Benefits and Present Status
Addresses air quality and additional environmental problems
associated with the use of traditional fuel sources
Supports diversity of supply and distribution of resources
In Canada, non-large hydro renewables represent only 1.2 - 3% of
the nation’s electricity generation (Fig.), 3% growth forecast
GREEN POWER: International Developments
Electricity Structure in Canada
GREEN POWER: Potential in Canada
Potential in Canada is estimated to be significant:
Current capacity:
3, 746 MW
Achievable by 2010: 21, 360 MW
GWh/a
100000
80000
60000
Ge o th e r ma l
W in d
40000
Sma ll h y d r o
Bio ma s s
20000
W av e
Tid a l
0
Probe, 2002
0.0891
Biomas s
0.076
W ind, Cda
0.08
W ind, ON
0.1
Tidal Bar r age
BC Hy dr o
W av e ener gy ,
1997
0.3
Solar PV ,
Natur al Gas
0.025
Nuc lear
0
0.02
Coal, ON
Cda
0.05
Lar ge Hy dr o,
Cdn $ pe r k W h
GREEN POWER: Comparison of Generation Costs
0.35
0.29
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.113
0.06
0.08
0.03
GREEN POWER: Government Subsidies
EUROPEAN ADVANCEMENTS, POLICY
White Paper: Action Plan to double renewables' share of EU energy
supply by 2010 (CTO, EU Directive)
Germany:
Feed-in tariffs for renewable energy (i.e. PV generators
CDN 71 ¢/kWh in 1990s)
Denmark:
Tariffs & production tax credit – CDN 9.4 ¢/kWh
Netherlands: World Wildlife Fund marketing campaign - increase
customer base for green power by 40% over two years.
300 0
250 0
~ 2500 MW
MW
200 0
Installed wind generating capacity in
Denmark (Probe, 2002)
150 0
100 0
50 0
0
1995
1996
1997
199 8
199 9
20 00
20 01
U.S. ADVANCEMENTS, POLICY
National RPS:
Calls for non-large hydro renewables to be 10% of
supply by 2020
Production Tax Credit: Level is double that of Canada, extended duration
~ 1700 MW of windpower in 2001
State SBC:
$ 135M – California Renewable Customer Credit
State RPS:
Texas – 400 MW by 2003; 951 MW in 2001
3000
Ex is ting
Planned
2500
~ 1700 MW
Installed renewables capacity in Texas
(Probe, 2002)
Ins talled C a pac ity in MW
W in d
Lan dfill gas ( 19 MW )
2000
So lar PV (1 MW )
Hy dro
1500
2 003 R P S G oal (1301 M W )
1000
500
0
1 999
2 000
20 01
20 02
20 03
MELISSA FELDER
[email protected]
CANADIAN ADVANCEMENTS, POLICY
Wind Power Production Tax Incentive:
$0.012 /kWh, declines per annum by $0.001, short time frame.
Favours specific renewable technology.
Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense (CRCE):
Influential; however designed to underwrite feasibility studies,
resource audits for new projects.
Certification:
EcoLogo product label.
Federal Government Procurement:
20% of electricity from low and non-emitting sources; good example
of demand-pull program however does not include other sectors
GREEN POWER: Definitions
Definitions vary across and within countries (Fig.)
In Canada debate has centred around the role of hydro, biomass, biogas
O nly new renew ables
E ffic ienc y res ourc es
C ogeneration
M ine-bas ed m ethane
H y drogen fuels
Tire w as te
D iges ter gas
O c ean
M unc ipal S olid W as te
Landfill gas
G eotherm al
F uel c ell (no fos s il fuels )
N ew hy dro
S om e hy dro (w ith or w ithout s iz e lim its )
W ind
B iom as s
S olar therm al
S olar photovoltaic
0
5
10
15
20
N u m b e r o f S ta te s P e rm ittin g th is F u e l S o u rce
25
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Green Power: Canadian Context and International Developments