Planta de Generación Geotérmica de 120 MW, Islandia
RETScreen
Proyectos de Generación
de Electricidad
®
Foto : Gretar Ívarsson, Nesjavellir
Revisión de Proyectos de Generación
Redes para comunidades aisladas
Red central (continente)
Foto: Northwest Territories Power Corp
Generación fuera de la red (vivienda)
Foto credit: RER Renewable Energy Research
Foto: RER Renewable Energy Research
Tecnologías
Tecnologías de Energías
Renovables
Paneles conectados a red, Bavaria, Alemania
 Turbinas Eólicas
 Hidroeléctrica
 Energía Geotérmica
 Paneles fotovoltáicos
 Paneles Solares
 Energía de Corrientes
Oceánicas
 Energía Mareomotriz
 Energía de las olas
Foto: RER Renewable Energy Research
Tecnologías (cont.)
Tecnologias de Combustión
Convencional
 Turbina a vapor
 Turbina a Gas
 Turbina a Gas de ciclo combinado
 Motor a pistones
Otras Tecnologías
 Celdas Electroquímicas
 Microturbinas
Sistema Operativo
Ejemplo Turbina a Gas
 Ingreso Combustible
 Combustión
 Turbina
 Generador
 Flujo de Calor Residual
Definiciones
 Tasa de transferencia de calor: Cantidad de energía ingresada del combustible
(en kJ o Btu) y que es requerida para producir 1 kWh de electricidad.
 Eficiencia de calor recuperado: es la fraccion de energía remanente
del combustible y que puede usarse como calor.
Tipos de combustibles
Combustibles no renovables
 Combustibles Fosiles: carbón, diesel, gas natural, propano, naftas, etc.
 Biomasa: bio-diesel, etanol, bagazo, madera, corteza de árboles, fibra de
coco, paja, cáñamo, turba, sauce, césped cortado, etc.
 Residuos: cubiertas de automotores, gases de depósitos de residuos,
residuos alimenticios, residuos forestales, borra de café,
Árboles de Navidad, excrementos aviarios, desechos de envoltorios, etc.
 Hidrógeno
Combustibles de Energías Renovables
 Radiación Solar, viento, olas, mareas, geotérmica, agua, etc.
Proyectos de Energía con RETScreen
Pasos:
 Carga del caso base y características
del sistema energético elegido (para
sistemas no conectados a red y cargas
internas)
 Características del sistema energético
elegido (energía+costos)
 Estrategia operativa
 Resumen (energía)
 Análisis de emisiones
 Análisis financiero (incluyendo
sensibilidad y análisis de riesgo)
Tipos de Análisis
Tipos de Proyectos:

Energía
 Elegir la tecnología (turbina de
vapor, geotermica, fotovoltáico,
viento, etc.)

Energía de Tecnologías múltiples

Otros tipos de proyectos:
 Calefacción y Electricidad
 Refrigeración y Electricidad
 Calefacción, Refrigeración y
Electricidad
 Proyectos no relacionados con
generación de electricidad
Tipo de red
Estrategia Operativa
 Potencia Eléctrica
a plena capacidad
 Seguimiento de la
Potencia Eléctrica
de Carga
 Seguimiento de la Carga
de Calentamiento
Emisiones y Análisis Financiero
Método 2
Método 1
RETScreen Energy Model - Energy efficiency measures project
Fuels & schedules
User-defined
User-defined
Technology
Power capacity
Capacity factor
Electricity exported to grid
Incremental initial costs
O&M (savings) costs
Electricity export rate
Base case
Grid electricity
kW
%
MWh
$/kW
$/kWh
$/kWh
Proposed case
Wind turbine
2,000
30%
5,256
2,000
0.010
0.150
Schedule
Description
Temperature - space heating
Temperature - space cooling
Temperature - unoccupied
Occupancy rate - daily
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Occupancy rate - annual
Emission Analysis
Fuel type
All types
GHG emission
factor
(excl. T&D)
tCO2/MWh
0.211
Electricity exported to grid
MWh
5,256
GHG emission
Base case
Proposed case
Gross annual GHG emission reduction
GHG credits transaction fee
Net annual GHG emission reduction
tCO2
tCO2
tCO2
%
tCO2
1,167
93
1,074
0.0%
1,074
Base case electricity system (Baseline)
Country - region
Canada
T&D
losses
%
5.0%
GHG emission
factor
tCO2/MWh
0.222
T&D losses
8.0%
Heating/cooling changeover temperature
Length of heating season
Length of cooling season
Facility characteristics
Show:
Fuel saved
Boiler
$/tCO2
0.00
°C
°C
Appartment building
2.0%
20
70%
7.00%
10
Initial costs
Incremental initial costs
Other
Total initial costs
$
$
$
4,000,000
Incentives and grants
$
Total
Fuel type
Natural gas
Total
100.0%
0.0%
100.0%
Project verification
Fuel type
Natural gas
Cumulative cash flows graph
0.0%
Energy
Energy - base case
Energy - proposed case
Energy saved
Energy saved - %
%
%
yr
yr
12,000,000
0
398,657
0
788,400
788,400
34.6%
12.3%
5.4
3.2
Cumulative cash flows ($)
$
$
$
$
Fuel type 3
Fuel type 4
Fuel type 5
Fuel type 6
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
Schedule 5
Schedule 6
2,686
Annual savings
Fuel cost - base case
0
Natural gas
Sub-total:
Notes/Range
Schedule
3
Schedule 4
Second currency
Notes/Range
Financial parameters
18.0
Method 2
General
18.0
Method 3
cost
Fuel cost escalation rate
18.0
Inflation rate
18.0
Discount rate
18.0
Project life
Base
case system GHG
6,570
0 summary (Baseline)
0
0
Finance
75%
0%
0%
0%
$
-
10,000,000
Benchmark
Energy unit
Reference unit
User-defined
8,000,000
6,000,000
Benchmark
Energy
Energy - base case
Energy - proposed case
Energy saved
4,000,000
2,000,000
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
-2,000,000
Year
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Fuel
Fuel
consumption - End of project life
unit
Fuel rate
m³
$
0.400
$
$
%
%
%
yr
Base case
$
$
Fuel cost
64,078
64,078
Fuel
consumption historical
Fuel
consumption
Base case
160,194.2
Fuel
consumption variance
Heating
GJ
4,204
2,324
1,880
44.7%
Cooling
GJ
0
0
0
Electricity
GJ
0
0
0
Total
GJ
4,204
2,324
1,880
44.7%
7,500
2,000
Heating
kWh/m²
155.7
86.1
69.6
Cooling
kWh/m²
0.0
0.0
0.0
Electricity
kWh/m²
0.0
0.0
0.0
tCO2
GHG reduction credit rate
$/tCO2
Unit
Year
Unit cost
Amount
GHG reduction income
$
costemission reduction
GHG reduction credit duration
Net annual GHG
134$ savingsyr
Proposed case
Fuel cost
$
Net GHG reduction - 0 yrs
tCO2
GHG reduction credit escalation rate$
%
cost
Fuel
Fuel cost
Fuel
consumption unit
m³
kWh
m²
m²
-
2.0%
2.0%
12.0%
40
occurrence
GHG emission
GHG emission
GHG reduction income
60,000
28,659
0
2.09
m³
0.400
$
64,078tCO2
Energy efficiency
measures160,194
yr$
tCO2
tCO2/yr
0
64,078 165
Net GHG
reduction
tCO2/yr
134
project
1 to
-1
299$
0
Fuel
consumption
160,194.2
Global warming potential of GHG
0.0%
Project costs and savings/income summary21
Initial costs
Feasibility study
0.0%310
Development
0.0%
0.0%
Engineering
0.0%
Power system
0.0%
$
100.0%
0 60,000
Heating system
0.0%
Cooling system
0.0%
0%
Incentives and grants
$
User-defined
0.0%
%
$
CO2 emission
CH4 -emission
N2O emission
Debt ratio
%
Energy efficiency measures
100.0%
project
$
factor
factor
Debt Fuel mix
$
0
Balance factor
of system & misc.
0.0%
p-d
$
Equity
$
costs
100.0%
Fuel type
%
kg/GJ
kg/GJ60,000 Total initial
kg/GJ
cost
$
Debt 100.0%
interest rate
%
Natural gas
Debt term $
yr
Incentives and grants
%
60,000 $
Total
Debt 100.0%
payments
$/yr
0
$
60,000 $
Annual costs and debt payments
Enter number of months
$
0.0%
O&M
$
60,000
100.0%
Income tax analysis
Fuel cost - proposed case
Incremental
Fuel cost
Incremental
Include
Proposed case system
GHG summary
(Energy efficiency measures
project)
Effective income tax rate
%
Debt payments - 0 yrs
initial costs
savings
O&M
savings
Simple payback
measure?
Loss
carryforward?
No
Total annual costs
Unit
Quantity
Unit cost
Amount
$
$
$
yr
Depreciation
method
Declining
balance
CO2 emission
CH4
emission
N2O emission
Half-year rule - year 1
yes/no
Yes Periodic costs (credits)
Fuel mix
factor
factor
factor
project
$
Depreciation tax basis
%
0Fuel type
0
0
% rate
kg/GJ
kg/GJ
kg/GJ
project
$
Depreciation
%
Depreciation
period
yr
15
End of project life - cost
Natural gas cost
100.0%
$
Tax0holiday available?
yes/no
No
0Total
% 0
$
- $
100.0%
Tax holiday duration
yr
Annual savings and income
T&D
$
Fuel
costlosses
- base case
60,000
28,659
0
2.1
Annual income
Electricity export income
Electricity
export
income
GHG
reduction
income - 0 yrs
m³
88,546
$
0.400 $
35,419
GHG emission reduction
summary
Electricity exported to grid
MWh
0
Customer premium income (rebate)
$
35,419
Electricity export rate
$/MWh
0.00
Other income (cost) - yrs
Electricity export income
$
0
CE production income - yrs
Electricity
export
escalation
rate
% Proposed case
Total annual savings and income
Unit
Quantity
costBase
Years
of Unit
case Amount
Show data
Periodic costs (credits)
User-defined
Second currency
None
Cost
allocation
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
21.0
24.0
Unit
Quantity
Unit cost
Amount
Relative costs
Unoccupied
Unoccupied
Unoccupied
Unoccupied
RETScreen
Emission
Reduction
Analysis - Unoccupied
Energy efficiency
measures project
3.0
cost
$
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
Emission Analysis
$
0.0%
h/d
h/d
h/d
h/d
h/d
18.0
cost
$
RETScreen Financial Analysis - Energy
efficiency measures
project
Method 1
18.0
Net GHG reduction - 40 yrs
4,000,000
451,217
Electricity
GJ
O&M
O&M (savings) costs
Parts & labour
User-defined
0
Contingencies
Sub-total:
0
Fuel cost - proposed case
Natural gas
Sub-total:
0
2,686
Schedule 2
23.0
Heating
Cooling
Annual costs (credits)
GJ
GJ
Summary
14,000,000
$
$
$
$
$
Fuel type 2
Natural gas - m³
m³
$/m³
Schedule 1
24/7
23.0
Initial costs (credits)
Feasibility study
+/-°C
Feasibility study
Sub-total:
h/d
Development
24
Development
24
Sub-total:
24
Engineering
24
Engineering
24
Sub-total:
24
Energy efficiency measures
24
Incremental initial costs 8,760
h/yr
Balance of system & miscellaneous
%
100%
Spare parts
Transportation
°C
16.0
Training242
& commissioning
d
d
123
User-defined
Contingencies
Interest during construction
Show data
Sub-total:
Total initial costs
Ventilation
Lights
Electrical equipment
Hot water
Other
%
yr
%
%
yr
Financial viability
Pre-tax IRR - equity
Pre-tax IRR - assets
Simple payback
Equity payback
Settings
Method 1
Unit
Method 2
Building envelope
Financial parameters
Inflation rate
Project life
Debt ratio
Debt interest rate
Debt term
Annual savings and income
Fuel cost - base case
Electricity export income
Other
Total annual savings and income
MWh
$/kWh
Cooling system
Financial Analysis
Annual costs and debt payments
O&M (savings) costs
Fuel cost - proposed case
Debt payments - 10 yrs
Other
Total annual costs
Fuel type 1
Electricity
0.100
0.400 measures project
RETScreen Cost Analysis
- Energy efficiency
Heating system
Cars & light trucks not used
218
is equivalent to
Air-conditioning
GHG reduction income
GHG reduction credit rate
Show data
Fuel
Fuel type
Fuel consumption - unit
Fuel rate - unit
Fuel rate
Energy
Green power
Other
Total
kWh/m²
155.7
86.1
69.6
consumption
88,546.3
$
$
Fuel costpremium income
Fuel saved
Customer
(rebate)
35,419
71,647.8
Electricity
premium (rebate)
Electricity
premium income (rebate)
35,419
Heating premium (rebate)
Heating premium income (rebate)
Cooling premium (rebate)
Cooling premium income (rebate)
Customer premium income (rebate)
Other income (cost)
Energy
Rate
Other income (cost)
Duration
Escalation rate
Clean Energy (CE) production income
CE production
CE production credit rate
CE production income
CE production credit duration
CE production credit escalation rate
Fuel type
1 Natural gas
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
$
$
5,342
-tCO2
-
savings
% 28,659
$ 28,659
%
$
%
$
$
MWh
$/MWh
$
yr
%
MWh
$/kWh
$
yr
%
Energy
delivered
(MWh)
922
Yearly
cash
flows
tonnes CO2 = 1
tonne
CH4
(IPCC 1996)
tonnes CO2 0= 1 #tonne N2O
(IPCC 1996)$
Year
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
0
0
0
0
0
0
Fuel
60,000
consumption 0
MWh 60,000
1,668
1,668
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
0
0
35,419
0
35,419
Fuel
consumption
MWh
922
922
0
0
0
$
64,078
$
0
$
0
$
0
$
0
$ Gross annual 0
$ GHG emission
64,078
reduction
tCO2
134
Financial viability
Pre-tax IRR - equity
Pre-tax IRR - assets
%
%
50.7%
50.7%
0
0
After-tax
IRR - equityto
is equivalent
After-tax IRR - assets
27.2
%
50.7%
Cars
& light trucks
%
Simple payback
Equity payback
0
50.7%
yr
yr
Net Present Value (NPV)
Annual life cycle savings
2.1
2.0
$
$/yr
225,387
27,340
$/MWh
$/tCO2
4.76
No debt
-791.21
(205)
0
0
0
Benefit-Cost (B-C) ratio
Debt service coverage
Energy production cost
GHG reduction cost
Pre-tax
$
0
-60,000
1
29,232
2
29,817
3
30,413
4
31,022
5
31,642
GHG emission
6
32,275
factor 32,920
7
8 tCO2/MWh
33,579
9
34,250
0.179
10
34,935
0.179
11
35,634
12
36,347
13
37,074
14
37,815
15
38,571
16
39,343
17
40,130
GHG emission
18
40,932
factor 41,751
19
20 tCO2/MWh
42,586
21
43,438
0.179
22
44,306
0.179
23
45,193
Total
24
46,096
25
47,018
26
47,959
27
48,918
28
49,896
29
50,894
30GHG credits
51,912
31
52,950
transaction
fee
32
54,009
% 55,089
33
34
56,191
35
57,315
36
58,461
37
59,631
60,823
not38used
39
62,040
40
63,281
41
0
42
0
43
0
44
0
45
0
46
0
47
0
48
0
49
0
50
0
After-tax
Cumulative
-60,000
29,232
29,817
30,413
31,022
31,642
32,275
GHG emission
32,920
33,579
tCO2
34,250
299
34,935
299
35,634
36,347
37,074
37,815
38,571
39,343
40,130
40,932
GHG emission
41,751
tCO2
42,586
43,438
165
44,306
165
45,193
165
46,096
47,018
47,959
48,918
49,896
Net annual
50,894
51,912
GHG emission
52,950
reduction
54,009
tCO2
55,089
56,191
134
57,315
58,461
59,631
60,823
62,040
63,281
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
$
-60,000
-30,768
-951
29,463
60,484
92,126
124,401
157,321
190,900
225,150
260,086
295,720
332,066
369,140
406,955
445,527
484,869
524,999
565,931
607,682
650,268
693,706
738,012
783,205
829,301
876,320
924,279
973,196
1,023,093
1,073,987
1,125,899
1,178,849
1,232,858
1,287,948
1,344,139
1,401,454
1,459,916
1,519,546
1,580,370
1,642,409
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
Cumulative cash flows graph
1,800,000
0
1,600,000
922
1,400,000
0
1,200,000
Clean energy
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Cumulative cash flows ($)
RETScreen Energy Model - User-defined
1,000,000
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
-200,000
Year
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
Ejemplo 1: Proyecto conectado a la red
Planta de Generación de electricidad
a partir de Gas de vertederos como
Combustible. Utilizando un motor
de combustión completa
1.3 MW Lean-Burn Engine
 Bergen, Noruega
 1.3 MW
 US$ 0.03/kWh
 37% eficiencia
Planta de energía en Bergen, Noruega
Foto: CADDET Centro para las Energías Renovanles
Foto: CADDET Centro para las Energías Renovanles
Ejemplo 2: Proyectos sin conexión a red
Sistema de paneles fotovoltáicos de 3.6 kW
Village PV System, Syria
 6 viviendas
 Republica Arabe Siria
 Carga Máxima (pico) 2.4 kW
 Carga diaria promedio 8.4 kWh
 Costo de instalación de los paneles:
US$ 6,500 por kWp para el generador
US$ 17,000 para otros equipamientos
e instalación
 Equipo electrógeno : US$ 1,000 pero
consume 13.400 lts de diesel por año.
Foto: Binu Parthan, IT Power India Ltd.
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