RETScreen® Proyectos de Calefacción y
Refrigeración
Conducciones aisladas para Calefacción por Distritos
Foto : Wikipedia
Enfriador por Agua
Foto : Wikipedia
Revisión de Proyectos de Calefacción
y Refrigeración
Calentamiento Solar de Agua, Edificio de
departmentos en Uganda
Foto: Solar Construct Ltd.
Bomba de calor geotérmica, vivienda unifamiliar
Enfriador por Absorción
Foto: Sanyo Electric Co.
Calefacción por distritos para la
ciudad de Copenhague
Foto: Reynaers/Greenpeace
Tecnologías para la calefacción
 Termotanque
 Caldera
 Calentador de fluídos
 Calefacción con biomasa
 Bomba de calor
 Unidad de recuperación
de calor residual
 Calentador Solar de agua
 Calentador Solar de aire
Tecnologías para Refrigeración
Vapour
Compression
Cooling
Con requerimiento de una
fuente de energía:
 Bomba de Calor
 Compresor
Con requerimiento de clima frío:
 Enfriamiento natural
de agua
Free
Cooling
Tecnologías para Refrigeración (cont.)
Con requerimiento de una
fuente de calor:
 Por Disecado
 Por Absorción
Desiccant
Cooling
Absorption
Cooling
Tipos de combustible
Calor de :
 Combustibles Fósiles (Carbón, Diesel, Gas
Transporte de Carbon mineral, Ohio, USA
Natural, Propano, Nafta, Petróleo, etc.)
 Biomasa
 Residuos (Cubiertas de autos, Gas de
Biodigestión, etc.)
 Combustibles renovables como energía solar y
geotérmica
 Electricidad
Foto : Wikipedia
La carga térmica de calefacción por disecado/absorción o la de refrigeración pueden usar
estos combustibles directamente o la energía residual de la combustión de un proyecto
que utilice estos combustibles.
Sistemas de carga térmica Base,
Intermedia, y Pico
Foto: Air & Water, Inc
Calefacción eléctrica
Foto: FireCAD Technologies
Caldera
Foto: Babcock-Hitachi K.K.
GVRC
Dimensionado de equipos



Sistema de cargas térmicas base

Opera a capacidad completa o cercana
la mayor parte del tiempo

Provee la mayor parte de
calefacción/refrigeración

Costos operativos mas bajos

Equipamiento costoso
Sistema de Consumo Pico

Opera solo durante demanda pico

Provee una pequeña fracción de
Calefacción/refrigeración

Puede tener altos costos operativos

Equipamiento generalmente menos
costoso.
Sistema de cargas intermedias

Entre el sistema base y el sistema
de consumo pico
En la planilla de Modelo Energético:
Calefacción y Refrigeración
Proyectos con RETScreen
Pasos:

Definir (Calefacción, refrigeración Cargas y
potencia) + grados día de
calefacción/refrigeración
para calefacción/refrigeración de aire

Características del caso base + costos
(calefacción, refrigeración )

Características del caso propuesto+costos
(calefacción, refrigeración )

Estrategia operativa

Resumen (energía)

Análisis de emisiones

Análisis financiero
Tipos de Análisis
Tipos de Proyectos:
 Calefacción
 Refrigeración
 Calefacción y
refrigeración combinados
Características del Consumo


Cargas Calefacción y
Refrigeración
Calefacción y refrigeración
Heating load
de aire.

Calefacción y refrigeración
de procesos

Combinación aire+procesos

Distribución Espacial de
Cargas:

Edificio Único

Edificio Único con zonas
multiples

Edificios múltiples
Cooling load
Caso Base vs Caso Propuesto
Parámetros Importantes
Sistema de Calefacción
 Eficiencia Estacional
100 GJ
Eff. = 55 %
55 GJ
Sistema de Refrigeración
 Coeficiente de
Rendimiento-estacional
COP = 3.0
100 MWh
Sistema de energía con calor residual
(ver curso de cogeneración)
 Tasa de transferencia de calor
 Eficiencia de recuperación de calor
300 MWh
Análisis de Emisiones y Financiero
Método 2
Método 1
RETScreen Energy Model - Energy efficiency measures project
Fuels & schedules
User-defined
User-defined
Technology
Power capacity
Capacity factor
Electricity exported to grid
Incremental initial costs
O&M (savings) costs
Electricity export rate
Energy
Green power
Other
Base case
Grid electricity
kW
%
MWh
$/kW
$/kWh
$/kWh
Proposed case
Wind turbine
2,000
30%
5,256
2,000
0.010
0.150
Schedule
Description
Temperature - space heating
Temperature - space cooling
Temperature - unoccupied
Occupancy rate - daily
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Occupancy rate - annual
Emission Analysis
Fuel type
All types
GHG emission
factor
(excl. T&D)
tCO2/MWh
0.211
T&D
losses
%
5.0%
GHG emission
factor
tCO2/MWh
0.222
Electricity exported to grid
MWh
5,256
T&D losses
8.0%
GHG emission
Base case
Proposed case
Gross annual GHG emission reduction
GHG credits transaction fee
Net annual GHG emission reduction
tCO2
tCO2
tCO2
%
tCO2
1,167
93
1,074
0.0%
1,074
$/tCO2
0.00
Base case electricity system (Baseline)
Country - region
Canada
GHG reduction income
GHG reduction credit rate
Heating/cooling changeover temperature
Length of heating season
Length of cooling season
Facility characteristics
Show:
Fuel saved
Boiler
MWh
$/kWh
Settings
Method 1
Unit
Method 2
°C
°C
Heating
Cooling
Annual costs (credits)
GJ
GJ
%
yr
%
%
yr
2.0%
20
70%
7.00%
10
Initial costs
Incremental initial costs
Other
Total initial costs
$
$
$
4,000,000
Incentives and grants
$
Annual costs and debt payments
O&M (savings) costs
Fuel cost - proposed case
Debt payments - 10 yrs
Other
Total annual costs
$
$
$
$
$
Total
2,686
Summary
Fuel type
Natural gas
Total
100.0%
0.0%
100.0%
Project verification
Fuel type
Natural gas
Cumulative cash flows graph
0.0%
14,000,000
%
%
yr
yr
0
788,400
788,400
34.6%
12.3%
5.4
3.2
Energy
Energy - base case
Energy - proposed case
Energy saved
Energy saved - %
12,000,000
0
398,657
Cumulative cash flows ($)
$
$
$
$
Annual savings
Fuel cost - base case
0
Natural gas
Sub-total:
Benchmark
Energy unit
Reference unit
User-defined
4,000,000
2,000,000
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
-2,000,000
Year
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Fuel type 5
Fuel type 6
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
Schedule 5
Schedule 6
0
$
$
Global warming potential of GHG
21
tonnes CO2 = 1 tonne CH4
-
299$
1 to -1
Year
64,078 165
Unit cost
tCO2/yr
Amount
Net GHG reduction
Fuel
consumption
Base case
160,194.2
Fuel
consumption variance
Heating
GJ
4,204
2,324
1,880
44.7%
Cooling
GJ
0
0
0
Electricity
GJ
0
0
0
Total
GJ
4,204
2,324
1,880
44.7%
cost
Fuel
$
$
Electricity
kWh/m²
0.0
0.0
0.0
tCO2/yr
Fuel cost
64,078
64,078
Total
kWh/m²
155.7
86.1
69.6
consumption
88,546.3
GHG reduction credit rate
$/tCO2
$ Fuel cost$ GHG reduction income
credit saved
duration
FuelGHG
costreduction Fuel
savingsyr
Net35,419
GHG reduction
- 0 yrs
tCO2
$
71,647.8
$
28,659
GHG reduction credit escalation rate
%
134
$
35,419
$
Customer premium income (rebate)
Electricity premium (rebate)
Electricity premium income (rebate)
Heating premium (rebate)
Heating premium income (rebate)
Cooling premium (rebate)
Cooling premium income (rebate)
Customer premium income (rebate)
Other income (cost)
Energy
Rate
Other income (cost)
Duration
Escalation rate
Clean Energy (CE) production income
CE production
CE production credit rate
CE production income
CE production credit duration
CE production credit escalation rate
Fuel type
1 Natural gas
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
0
134 Financial viability
5,342 is equivalent
Pre-tax IRR -to
equity
Pre-tax IRR - assets
0
After-tax IRR - equity
0
After-tax IRR - assets
28,659
%
$
%
$
%
$
$
MWh
$/MWh
$
yr
%
MWh
$/kWh
$
yr
%
Energy
delivered
(MWh)
922
27.2
Cars & %light trucks
%
%
%
Simple payback
Equity payback
0
yr
yr
Net Present Value (NPV)
Annual life cycle savings
$
$/yr
0
0
0
Benefit-Cost (B-C) ratio
Debt service coverage
Energy production cost
GHG reduction cost
(IPCC 1996)
= 1 tonne Yearly
N2O cash flows
(IPCC 1996)
%
%
%
0 60,000
0% yr
GHG reduction income
Unit
Fuel
consumption
160,194.2
Cooling
kWh/m²
0.0
0.0
0.0
Second currency
None
costemission reduction
Net annual GHG
134$ savings tCO2 -tCO2
Proposed case Net GHG reduction - 40Fuel
yrs cost
$
-
Fuel
consumption historical
Heating
kWh/m²
155.7
86.1
69.6
Notes/Range
project
Base case
Fuel
consumption unit
m³
7,500
2,000
Schedule 4
Project costs and savings/income 310
summary tonnes CO2
Initial costs
0.0%
2.0%
Feasibility study
0.0%
$
2.0%
Development
0.0%
$
$
100.0% Engineering
12.0%
0.0%
$
40
Power system
0.0%
$
Heating system
0.0%
$
%
$
-emission
CO2
emission
CH4
N2O
emission
Fuel
Finance
Cooling system
0.0%
$
project
$
Fuel mix
factor
factor
Incentives
and grants
$ factor
User-defined
0.0% consumption
$
p-d
$
Debt ratio
% kg/GJ
Energy
efficiency measures
100.0%
$
Fuel type
%
kg/GJ
kg/GJ
MWh
cost
$
Debt
$
0
Balance of system & misc.
0.0%
$ 1,668
Natural gas
100.0%
%
60,000 $
Equity $
$ 60,000
Total initial costs
100.0%
$
Total
100.0%
1,668
$ rate
60,000 $
Debt interest
% Debt
yr $
Enter number
of term
months
$
0.0%Incentives and grants
Debt payments
$/yr
0
$
60,000
100.0%
Annual costs and debt payments
Incremental
Fuel cost
Incremental
Include
Proposed case system
GHG summary
(Energy efficiency measures
project)
O&M
$
initial costs
savings
O&M savings Simple payback
measure?
Unit
Quantity
Unit cost
Amount
Income tax analysis
Fuel cost - proposed case
$
$
$
$
yr
CO2 emission
CH4
emission
N2O
emission
Fuel
Effective income tax rate
%
Debt
payments - 0 yrs
$
Fuel
mix
factor
factor
factor
consumption
Loss
carryforward?
No
Total
annual costs
$
project
$
0
0
0
Depreciation
Fuel type project
% method kg/GJ
kg/GJ
kg/GJ
MWh
$
- Declining balance
Half-year rule - year 1
yes/no
Yes Periodic costs (credits)
Natural gas cost
100.0%
922
$
Depreciation
tax basis%
$
0
0 100.0%
% 0
$ rate
- $
Total
922
Depreciation
% $
losses
Depreciation period
yr 15T&DEnd
of project life - cost
$
$
60,000
28,659
0 holiday available?
2.1
Tax
yes/no
No
Tax
holiday
duration
yr
Annual
savings
and
income
m³
88,546
$
0.400 $
35,419
GHG emission reduction
summary
Fuel cost - base case
$
$
35,419
Annual income
Electricity export income
$
Gross
Electricity export income
GHG reduction income - 0 yrs
$ annual
Electricity
exported
to grid
MWh
0
Customer premium income (rebate)
Unit
Quantity
Unit cost
Years of
Base case Amount
Proposed
case
GHG $emission
Electricity export rate
$/MWh
$
occurrence
GHG emission
GHG emission 0.00 Other income (cost) - yrs
reduction
Electricity
export income
$
0
CE production income - yrs
$
60,000
28,659
0
2.09
m³
0.400
$
64,078
Energy efficiency
measures160,194Electricity
yr$ export escalation
tCO2
tCO2
rate
% tCO2
Total annual savings and income
$
Fuel
consumption - End of project life
unit
Fuel rate
m³
$
0.400
kWh
m²
m²
Notes/Range
Schedule
3
18.0
Financial parameters
Method 3
cost
18.0
General
18.0
Fuel cost escalation rate
Inflation rate
18.0
Discount
rate
Base
case system GHG
6,570
0 summary (Baseline)
0
0
Project life
75%
0%
0%
0%
6,000,000
Benchmark
Energy
Energy - base case
Energy - proposed case
Energy saved
Fuel type 4
#N/A
#N/A
Second currency
10,000,000
8,000,000
Fuel type 3
Cost
allocation
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
21.0
24.0
Unit
Quantity
Unit cost
Amount
Relative costs
Unoccupied
Unoccupied
Unoccupied
Unoccupied
RETScreen
Emission
Reduction
Analysis - Unoccupied
Energy efficiency
measures project
3.0
cost
$
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
Occupied
Emission Analysis
$
0.0%
h/d
h/d
h/d
h/d
h/d
18.0
cost
$
Method 1
18.0
$ - Energy efficiency
RETScreen Financial Analysis
measures 0.0%
project
18.0
Method 2
Show data
Periodic costs (credits)
User-defined
Fuel
4,000,000
451,217
2,686
Electricity
GJ
O&M
O&M (savings) costs
Parts & labour
User-defined
0
Contingencies
Sub-total:
0
Fuel cost - proposed case
Natural gas
Sub-total:
0
Ventilation
Lights
Electrical equipment
Hot water
Other
Schedule 2
23.0
Building envelope
Appartment building
Fuel type 2
Natural gas - m³
m³
$/m³
Schedule 1
24/7
23.0
Initial costs (credits)
Feasibility study
+/-°C
Feasibility study
Sub-total:
h/d
Development
24
Development
24
Sub-total:
24
Engineering
24
Engineering
24
Sub-total:
24
Energy efficiency measures
24
Incremental initial costs 8,760
h/yr
Balance of system & miscellaneous
%
100%
Spare parts
Transportation
°C
16.0
Training242
& commissioning
d
d
123
User-defined
Contingencies
Interest during construction
Show data
Sub-total:
Total initial costs
Cooling system
Air-conditioning
Financial parameters
Inflation rate
Project life
Debt ratio
Debt interest rate
Debt term
Financial viability
Pre-tax IRR - equity
Pre-tax IRR - assets
Simple payback
Equity payback
Fuel type 1
Electricity
0.100
0.400 measures project
RETScreen Cost Analysis
- Energy efficiency
Heating system
Cars & light trucks not used
218
is equivalent to
Financial Analysis
Annual savings and income
Fuel cost - base case
Electricity export income
Other
Total annual savings and income
Show data
Fuel
Fuel type
Fuel consumption - unit
Fuel rate - unit
Fuel rate
$/MWh
$/tCO2
Year
Pre-tax
After-tax
0
#
$
$
0
0
-60,000
-60,000
0
1
29,232
29,232
0
2
29,817
29,817
0
3
30,413
30,413
GHG
emission
0
4
31,022
31,022
GHG
emission 31,642
0 factor
5
31,642
60,000
6
32,275
32,275
tCO2/MWh
tCO2
0 0.179
7
32,920 299
32,920
60,000
8
33,579
33,579
0.179
299
9
34,250
34,250
0
10
34,935
34,935
11
35,634
35,634
12
36,347
36,347
0
13
37,074
37,074
35,419
14
37,815
37,815
GHG
0 emission
15
38,571
38,571
GHG
emission 39,343
35,419 factor
16
39,343
17
40,130
40,130
tCO2/MWh
tCO2
18
40,932
40,932
0.179
165
0
19
41,751
41,751
0 0.179
20
42,586 165
42,586
0
21 Total
43,438 165
43,438
22
44,306
44,306
23
45,193
45,193
64,078
24
46,096
46,096
0
25
47,018
47,018
Net annual 47,959
0
26
47,959
0 credits
27
48,918
GHG
GHG
emission 48,918
0
28
49,896
transaction
fee
reduction 49,896
0
29
50,894
50,894
tCO2
64,078 %
30
51,912
51,912
31
52,950134
52,950
32
54,009
54,009
33
55,089
55,089
34
56,191
56,191
not
used 35
50.7%
57,315
57,315
50.7%
36
58,461
58,461
37
59,631
59,631
50.7%
38
60,823
60,823
50.7%
39
62,040
62,040
40
63,281
63,281
2.1
41
0
0
2.0
42
0
0
43
0
0
225,387
44
0
0
27,340
45
0
0
46
0
0
4.76
47
0
0
No debt
48
0
0
-791.21
49
0
0
(205)
50
0
0
Cumulative
$
-60,000
-30,768
-951
29,463
60,484
92,126
124,401
157,321
190,900
225,150
260,086
295,720
332,066
369,140
406,955
445,527
484,869
524,999
565,931
607,682
650,268
693,706
738,012
783,205
829,301
876,320
924,279
973,196
1,023,093
1,073,987
1,125,899
1,178,849
1,232,858
1,287,948
1,344,139
1,401,454
1,459,916
1,519,546
1,580,370
1,642,409
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
1,705,690
Cumulative cash flows graph
1,800,000
0
1,600,000
922
1,400,000
0
1,200,000
Clean energy
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Cumulative cash flows ($)
RETScreen Energy Model - User-defined
1,000,000
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
-200,000
Year
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
Ejemplo 1: Calefacción o Refrigeración
Base de datos de Proyecto (Caso de Estudio):
Calefacción – Caldera– Canada
– Vancouver – Oficinas
 Modelo Simplificado
 Compare caldera de alta y media eficiencia
 Compare gas natural y diesel
Base de datos de Proyecto (Caso de Estudio):
Refrigeración – Compresor – USA
– Madison – Cancha de Hockey
 Compare Coeficiente de Rendimiento medio y alto
 Compare refrigeración por compresor con absorcion
Ejemplo 2: Calefacción y Refrigeración
Tipo de Proyecto: Refrigeración ⇒ Combinación de Calefacción y Refrigeración

Aparece en Planilla de Carga y Redes

En Planilla de Modelo de Energía: Sistema de Refrigeración ⇒ Absorción
 La fuente de energía es el sistema de calefacción
 Sistema de Carga Base ⇒ Base + Intermedio + Sistema de Carga Pico

Biomasa como fuente de calor
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