EDUC 682 – Chapter 2 and
Theory and D.O.T.
Dr. William M. Bauer
MC 40 Dubuque 7
Reason for Theories
1. Facilitate the Understanding of the forces
that influence career choice and
2. Stimulate research that will help us better
clarify the career choice and
development process.
3. Provide a guide to practice in the
absence of empirical guidelines.
2 sets of Theories
 Positivist Human Behavior measured with valid instruments
 Human Behavior can be studied outside the context in which it
 Research processes should be value free. If researcher’s values
enter into the process, then flawed
 Cause and effect relationships occur and can be measured
 Random sampling, reliable instruments then you can generalize
to other people in similar settings.
 Career counselors should maintain objectivity and base practice
on well designed empirical research (what happed with me?)
2 sets of Theories
Postpositivist (post modern)- depart
from old way (positivist way of
Human behavior is nonlinear and
thus cannot be studied objectively.
Cause and effect relationships
cannot be determined.
Individuals cannot be studied
outside the context of which they
Research Data cannot be
Research is not a value-free
process. The researchers values
should in fact guide the research
*Check this out
2 sets of Theories
6. Stories that the students tell are
legitimate source of data.
7. Research is goal free: Random
sampling is replaced with purposeful
8. Career counselors focus on stories of
their clients, use qualitative assessment
Trait and Factor Theories
 Holland’s Theory of Vocational Choice
 Individual’s personality is primary factor in vocational
 Interest inventories are in fact personality inventories.
 Stereotypical views of occupations play a role in
vocational choice.
 Daydreams about occupations often are precursors to
occupational choices.
 Identity is related to having a small number rather
than focused vocational goals.
 To be successful one must choose an occupation that
is congruent with one’s personality.
Holland Factual Stuff
 Children shape their own environment to
an extent, and they are exposed to a
number of people who reinforce certain
types of performance.
Six personality types from Holland
1. Realistic-objective, concrete, and
physically manipulative. Avoid goals that
demand subjectivity intellectual or artistic
expressions or social abilities. Agriculture,
technical, skill trade, or engineering.
Motor skills, equipment, machines tools,
and structure, such as athletics, scouting,
crafts, and woodwork. Masculine,
unsociable, emotionally stable, and
Six personality types from Holland
2. Investigative-deal with environment by
using intellect: ideas, words and
symbols. Scientific vocations, theoretical
tasks, reading, collecting, algebra,
foreign languages, creative art, music
and sculpture. Avoid social situations
and see themselves as unsociable,
masculine, persistent, scholarly and
introverted. Achieve in academics and
science but have poor leadership skills.
Six personality types from Holland
3. Artistic-deal with environment by creating
art forms and products. Rely on subjective
impressions and fantasies in seeking
solutions to problems. Vocations in music,
art, literature and drama. Dislike
masculine activities such as auto repair
and athletics. See themselves as
unsociable, feminine, submissive,
introspective, sensitive impulsive, and
Six personality types from Holland
4.Social-use skills to interact and relate to others. Need social
interaction. Educational, therapeutic, and religious vocations.
5. Enterprising-adventurous, dominant, enthusiastic and impulsive.
Persuasive, verbal, extroverted, self-accepting, self-confident,
aggressive. Sales, supervisory, and leadership. Need dominance,
verbal expression, recognition and power.
6. Conventional-choose goals and activities that carry social approval.
Stereotypical, correct, and unoriginal. Neat, sociable, conservative
impression. Clerical or computational tasks, identify with business,
and put a high value on economic matters. See themselves as
masculine shrewd, dominant, controlled, rigid, and stable and have
more mathematical than verbal aptitude.
Additional Holland Environment
 Investigative-abstract and creative abilities
rather than personal perceptiveness. Work
revolves around ideas instead of people.
Research lab, diagnostic case conference;
library, work of scientists, mathematicians and
 Artistic-creative and interpretive use of art forms.
Draws on knowledge, intuition, and emotional
life in solving problems. Play rehearsal, concert
hall, dance studio, a study, library and art or
music studio
Additional Holland Environment
 Social-the ability to interpret and modify
human behavior and an interest in caring
for and interacting with people. School and
college classrooms, counselors, mental
hospitals, churches, educational offices,
and recreational centers.
 Enterprising-verbal skill in directing or
persuading others. Car lot, real estate
office, political office, or advertising
Additional Holland Environment
 Conventional-systematic, concrete, routine
processing of verbal and mathematical
information. bank, accounting firm, post
office, file rooms, and business office
Holland says, a person-environment match
presumably results in more stable
vocational choice.
Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
 Two types of needs
 Biological (survival) needs
 Psychological needs (social acceptance)
 Assumptions
 Behavior satisfied then reinforcement occurs and
behavior strengthened.
 Environment-needs of individuals in work and those in
the environment match then success. If reinforced in
work and matches the need of the worker then
success in place.
Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
 Three variables of TWA
 Skills-what the person can do already for the
 Aptitude-potential an individual has to do a
 Personality structure-determined by the
combination of aptitude and values.
 Values are attached by the importance of
the job to the person: pay raises, trust,
independent functioning.
Developmental Theories
 Focus on biological, psychological,
sociological and cultural factors that
influence career choice, adjustments to
and changes in careers, and withdrawal
from careers. Focus of stages of
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
 Donald Super-based in differential
psychology, developmental psychology,
sociology, and personality theory.
10, then 12 then 14 facets of his theory.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
Theory (14 facets)
1. People differ in their abilities and personalities, needs,
values, interests, traits, and self-concepts.
People are qualified, by virtue of these characteristics,
each for a number of occupations. (every person has
within his or her makeup the requisites for success in
many occupations).
Each occupation requires a characteristic pattern of
abilities and personality traits—with tolerances wide
enough to allow both some variety of occupations for
each individual and some variety of individuals in each
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
Theory (14 facets)
4. Vocational preferences and
competencies, the situations in which
people live and work and, hence, their
self-concepts change with time and
experience, although self-concepts as
products of social learning, are
increasingly stable from late adolescence
until late maturity, providing some
continuity in choice and adjustment.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
Theory (14 facets)
5. Maxi-cycle stages
 Growth-physical and psychological
 Exploratory-Occupation is a fact of life.
 Establishment-early encounters of work life (find
the niche)
 Maintenance- continue or improve occupational
 Decline-pre-retirement period-focus on keeping
the job and maintaining satisfactory output.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
Theory (14 facets)
6. The nature of the career pattern is
determined by the individual’s parental
socioeconomic level, mental ability,
education, skills, personality
characteristics (needs, values, interests,
traits, self-concepts), and career maturity
and by the opportunities to which he or
she is exposed.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
Theory (14 facets)
7. Success in coping with the demands of
the environment and structure of the job
at any life-career stage depends on the
readiness of the individual to cope with
these demands (if has career maturity).
8. Career maturity-hypothetical construct
(emotional intelligence).
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
Theory (14 facets)
9. Development through life stages can be
guided partly by facilitating the maturity of
abilities and interests and partly by aiding
in reality testing and in the development of
 Help to develop abilities and interests
 Helping understand strengths and
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
Theory (14 facets)
10. The process of career development is
essentially that of developing and implementing
occupational self-concepts. Synthesizing and
compromising process in which the self-concept
is a product of the interaction of inherited
aptitudes, physical makeup, opportunity to
observe and play various roles, and evaluations
of the extent to which the results of role playing
meet the approval of superiors and fellows.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
Theory (14 facets)
11. The process of synthesis of or compromise
between individual social factors, between self
concepts and reality, is one of role playing and
learning from feedback.
12. Work satisfaction and life satisfactions depend
on the extent to which the individual finds
adequate outlets for abilities, needs, values,
interests, personality traits, and self concepts.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
Theory (14 facets)
13. The degree of satisfaction people attain from
work is proportional to the degree to which
they have been able to implement selfconcepts.
14. Work and occupation provide a focus for
personality organization for most men and
women, although for some persons it may be
incidental or non-existent (social traditions,
gender-based stereotyping, racial and ethnic
Gottfredson’s Theory of
Circumscription and Compromise
 Concerned with how career aspiration
 Assumptions
 Career development begins in childhood
 Career aspirations are attempts to build selfconcepts
 Career satisfaction is dependent on the degree to
which the career is congruent with self-perceptions
 People develop occupational stereotypes that
guide them in the selection process.
Gottfredson’s Theory of
Circumscription and Compromise
He believes that people develop cognitive maps of
occupations that are organized along the
following dimensions.
a. Masculinity/Femininity of the occupation.
b. The prestige of the occupation.
c. Fields of work
* As children grow, and develop perceptions of
themselves, they begin to narrow or
circumscribe their range of occupations based
on their estimates of compatibility (sex-type,
prestige and interest).
Theories Based in Learning Theory
 Focus on the learning processes that lead
to self-efficacy beliefs and interests and
how these impact the career decision
making process.
 Krumboltz’ Social Learning Theory
Krumboltz’ Social Learning Theory
Four Factors that influence career decision
Genetic endowment and special abilities
Environmental conditions and events.
Learning experiences
Task approach skills
*Individual is born into this world with certain genetic
characteristics. As time goes one changes happen
and career changes may happen tool.
Socioeconomic Theories
 Economic forces that influence jobs.
 Race and culture influence jobs.
Status Attainment Theories
 The Socioeconomic status of ones family
influence education, which in turn affects
the occupation entered.
 Family status and cognitive variables
combine through social-psychological
processes to influence education
attainment, which in turn impacts
occupational attainment and earnings.
Dual Labor Market Theory
 Core and Peripheral
 Core firms have internal labor markets that
have well developed career paths and offer
opportunities for upward mobility.
 Technology and tools to enhance their positions.
 Peripheral firms make no long-term
commitment to their employees.
 Paid per job and when job done you’re done.
Race, Gender and Career Theories
 Stigmatized jobs and people have
generalized themselves.
 African-American earn less than whites
 Women earn less than men
 People with disabilities earn less than all of
Variables that influence Career
Choice and Satisfaction
 Values-beliefs that are experienced by the individual of
how he or she should function.
 Categories of values:
Human Nature
Person-Nature Relationship
Time orientation
Social Relationships
Allocentrism- putting group ahead of individual
 How do values develop?
Classifying Occupations
 Dictionary of Occupational Titles- DOT still used but
abandoned in some areas for O*NET.
 Guide for Occupational Exploration (GOE)
 Companion for DOT
 12 interest factors (p.397-398)
 O*NET (Occupational Information Network)-creates
database for jobs
 6 domains of O*NET
Roe’s Field and Level Classification System
Holland’s Classification System
World of Work MapStandard Occupational Classification (SOC)
 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)

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