Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Language and Education
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Chapter 10: Language and Education
• Mastering Language
– Phonology: the sound system
– Morphology: forming words from sounds
– Syntax: grammar (sentences from words)
– Semantics: meaning
– Pragmatics: context appropriate use
– Nonverbal: face, tone, gestures
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Language Development
• Prelinguistic abilities
– First sounds and feedback
– Vocalizations (6-8 weeks)
– Babbling (4-6 months)
– Home language sounds (8 months)
– Comprehension before production
– Joint attention
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
First Words
• First Year
– Holophrases: single words
– Nonverbal information
– Intonation: question, request, demand
– Nouns first (naming)
• 18 months: vocabulary spurt - 30-50 words
• 24 months: 186 words
• Wide individual differences
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
First Mistakes
• Two-year olds
– Overextension: too broad
– Underextension: too narrow
– Overregularization: applying rules
• “foots” or “goed”
• Found in other languages
• Suggests an understanding of
grammatical rules
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Two-Year Olds
• Telegraphic speech: Critical content only
– 2+ word utterances
• Functional grammar
– Semantic relations expressed
– Context important
• Rules inferred from adult speech
• Age 2-5: Transformational grammar
– “Billy hit” vs. “hit Billy”
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Figure 10.2
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Later Language Development
• First grade: 10,000 words
• Abstract terms by adolescence
• Metalinguistic awareness
• Adulthood
– Expanded vocabulary
– Refine pragmatics
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
How Language Develops
• Learning Theory
– Accounts for phonology and semantics
– Cannot account for syntax or novelty
• Nativist _ LAD _ inborn mechanism
• Universality of stages and errors
• Genetic evidence - Twins
• Interactionist perspective
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Critical or Sensitive Period
• Critical period argument
– Younger learn more easily- all languages
– Deaf children
– Second language learners
• Sensitive period
– Earlier is better
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Mastery Motivation
• Typical of infants
• Individual differences
• Parents must provide
– Sensory stimulation
– Responsive environment
• Early education: not necessary
– Important for disadvantaged children
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Achievement Motivation by Age 7
• Mastery orientation
– Success: attribution is internal and stable
– Failure: external factors
– Learning goals
• Learned helplessness
– Success: attribution is external (luck)
– Failure: internal and stable
– Performance goals
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Contributions to Achievement Motivation
• Infancy
– Stimulating, responsive environment
– Independence and self-reliance
– Set high standards
– Parental involvement
• School age
– De-emphasize grades
– Focus on learning
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Learning to Read
• Alphabetic principle
– Printed words related to sounds
– Phonological awareness: decoding
• Emergent literacy
– Reading to preschoolers
– Repetitious reading and rhymes
– Questions
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Skilled vs. Unskilled Readers
• Skilled readers
– Understand the phonetic alphabet
– Eyes hit all the words
– Rely on phonology - not context - to
identify words
• Unskilled readers
– Low levels of phonological awareness
– Eyes skip words and parts of words
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Teaching Reading
• Phonics (code oriented)
– Analyze words for sounds
– Sound-letter correspondence
• Whole-word method (look-say)
– Read for meaning
• Research supports phonics
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Effective Schools
• Less important factors
– Increased resources (reasonable)
– Average class size (18-40)
– Ability grouping: no advantage
• Factors that matter
– Student aptitude
– Task-oriented classes; discipline enforced
– Parental involvement
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
The Adolescent in School
• Declining achievement and self-esteem
• Negative school attitudes
• Critical juncture: middle school
• Risk factors
– Minority group, mother’s educational level
and mental health
– Stressful life events, family size, father
absence
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Why Achievement Drops
• Family characteristics
• Cognitive growth
• Negative feedback
– Younger are praised for effort alone
• Peer pressures which discourage academic
achievement esp. low income minority peers
• Puberty
• Poor person-environment fit
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Science and Math Education
• Cultural differences: Asian-US students
compared
– More time in school and on task
– More homework
– Committed parents
– Peers: high values and standards
– Belief in hard work and effort
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Work and School
• Students working 20+ hours per week
– Lower GPA
– Disengaged and bored
– Alienation and anxiety
• Other findings
– Lower math and science achievement
– More likely to use alcohol and drugs
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 10
The Adult
• Achievement motivation stable
– Affected by education, type of work, and
family situations
• Literacy: 22% at 3rd grade level
– US has more high level and more low level
– Related to poverty
• Continuing Education
– 15 million aged 25+ enrolled in college
Descargar

This is Where You Type the Slide Title