‘Barking’ at texts in Sepedi oral reading fluency: Implications for
edumetric interventions in African languages
Pheladi Fakude (North-West University)
Leketi Makalela (Wits University)
Quantitative Applications in Education Research
ReSEP, STIAS
17 and 18 August 2015
University of Stellenbosch
Outline






Introduction
Theoretical Framework
Hypothesis
The study
Discussions
Concluding remarks
Introduction
 Oral reading fluency (ORF) has been a hot debate among literacy
educators and researchers for at least 30 years in the developed world
(Keijzer, 2013; Reschly et al., 2009).
 It was discovered in the 1970s that fluency is an important skill to measure
because it is considered a mark of a skilled reader (Canine et al., 1990) and
a reliable predictor of how well children read and comprehend texts
(Samuels, 2006a; Fuchs et al., 2001).
 Curriculum-based measurements (CBM) of ORF rely on accuracy and
reading speed, as powerful and reliable predictors of overall reading
competence.
 Aside from lack of research on reading in African languages, the few
available studies have tended to focus on comprehension measures such
as information recall and anaphoric resolution, almost exclusively in
comparison to English reading trajectories (e.g. Makalela,2012;
Phokungwana, 2012; Pretorius & Mampuru, 2007).
Introduction ---Cont.…
 Findings from these studies revealed no balanced reading
development in African languages and English and that, on the
whole, primary school children in South Africa read at least 3–4
years below their expected proficiencies.
 This study sought to assess two ORF components, automaticity and
accuracy, among Grade 4-7 learners’ home language, Sepedi, as
they make their transition between grades and into secondary
school education.
 Suggestions for teaching ORF in African languages and fertile areas
for further research on African languages ORF are offered for
adaption in comparable contexts.
Theoretical Framework 1







ORF and the Working Memory model:
Theorises that mental functions are organised into two slave systems that
work in parallel, namely, phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad.
Phonological loop –Rehearse and maintain linguistic information
Visuo-spatial sketchpad – Spatial and visual information
These two systems are overseen by a central executive system that
coordinates attention and ensures that irrelevant information is ignored in
complex tasks.
The WM model posits that, in the process of developing reading fluency,
there is an underlying reader’s communication link between two mental
slaves: visual and linguistic.
Visual slave encompasses orthographic coding operations for visible
language written within the visual system.
Linguistic slave includes phonological coding operations for spoken
words within the oral/aural language system.
ORF involve multiple communication links between corresponding
orthographic and phonological codes of the same segment size.
Theoretical Framework 2
 Automaticity develops as a result of extended practice where
complex tasks that were once slow and required more attentional
resources gradually become automatic.
 Comprehension, on the other hand, is not a good candidate for
automaticity because it is attention-demanding and increase the
cognitive load of the reader.
 It is in this connection that ORF is understood as an efficient,
reliable, and acute predictor of overall reading comprehension.
 Under broad category of CBM, several measures of ORF have been
used with success in the literature on early literacy:
 Reschly's study that investigated correlations between CBM Oral
Reading Measure and other standardised measures for reading
achievement in Grades 1-6. They found that ORF was a reliable
indicator of reading achievements with no differences in the
magnitude of the correlations across the grades.
Theoretical Framework 3
 Kim et al.’s (2012) study shows more evidence that ORF is a more reliable
predictor of reading comprehension than silent reading fluency.
 Kim et al.’s (2012) study also found that ORF was strongly related to
reading comprehension in Grade 1, but less so in Grade 2, a finding
suggesting that the magnitude of correlations can be grade-dependent.
 Research on ORF in African languages is unavailable to date to guide
edumetric services by teachers and practitioners. As a result, we borrow
English benchmarks for ORF in Sepedi, a language with disjunctive
orthography, as the first step to developing Sepedi ORF yardsticks. Until
such a time that these measures are in place, reading achievements in
African languages cannot be measured with accuracy and reliability.
Hypothesis
 By Grade 7, readers should have Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM)
scores of 100 or above.
 WCPM scores will be differentiated according to schools and Sepedi
dialects used by the participants.
 By Grade 4-6, readers will exceed a benchmark of 50–70 WCPM
scores.
 There will be differential WCPM scores between grade levels.
The study









Two samples:
Sample 1:
27 Grade 7 participants (n=9/school)
Stratified sampling procedure: 3 low achievers, 3 middle achievers
and high achievers.
Schools (Mopani and Capricorn District)
Two Sepedi regional variant: One school with Khelobedu (far from
standard Sepedi and two schools with Semmamabolo dialect (close
to standard Sepedi)
The second sample:
30 Grade 4-6 (10/Grade) Identified by teachers (previously engaged
in in-service training).
One school: Semmamabolo dialect
The study






Material design:
Grade 7 Reader:
An unpractised 200-word passage was extracted from one of the
Grade 7 Sepedi texts, following the norms of CBM.
A narrative was preferred to other genres so that it was unobtrusive
and less-attention demanding. The text was taken from a story book
entitled: A re šogeng thari .
Grade 4-6 Reader:
The second material was designed for Grades 4–6 ( they were
treated as a homogenous group) due to their comparable cognitive
capacities and classification into one curriculum category of
intermediate phase in the South African education system.
To avoid grade-bias, a neutral supplemental text was selected for
the Grades 4–6 population. An unrehearsed 200-word extract was
taken from a story book entitled, Moeno le sešo sa Bakgaga.
Procedure
 Three indentified schools (A, B and C), the nine Grade 7 learners read the
200-word passage within a minute. A similar procedure was followed in
School D (Grades 4–6) to ensure consistency and to minimise the
experimenter effect.
 Guidelines, adopted from Shinn (1989), were used to determine which
words were counted as correct:
 Words read correctly: These included self corrections within 3 seconds,
words read incorrectly: (a) mispronunciation, (b) substitutions, (c)
omissions, and (d) repetitions.
 3-second rule: if a learner is struggling to pronounce a word or hesitates
for 3 seconds, the learner is told the word and it is counted as an error.
 At the end of each session, each error was subtracted from the total
number of words read in order to arrive at the score for number of words
read correctly per minute.
 The sessions lasted for about 45 minutes at each of the four schools. Two
researchers assessed each child once and compared their scoring for an
interater-reliability (2 scores averaged). An interater-reliability of 96% was
obtained throughout this testing exercise.
Data Analysis
Data was analysed quantitatively:
 Descriptive statistics to obtain measures of central tendencies
(mean) and dispersion (standard deviations).
 In order to compare the ORF scores across the four schools and
between the grade levels, a 2 x one-way ANOVA was computed to
measure differences and statistical significance levels that were
pitched at an alpha value of 0.05.
Results: Grade 7 Word Correct per Minute scores
School
N
Min
Max
M (WCPM)
SD
A
9
20
77
65.0
48.7
B
9
22
72
56.7
47.0
C
9
15
69
66.7
45.5
Results: Differences within and between schools
SS
Df
MS
F
P
Between
515.3400
2
257.6700
0.1178
0.8894
Within
52512.7200
24
2188.0300
Total
53028.0600
26
Results: Grade 4-6 Words Correct Per Minute scores
Grade
N
Min
Max
M (WCPM)
SD
4
10
17
58
54.3
11.9
5
10
18
65
49.8
16.9
6
10
20
68
56.8
21.7
Results: ANOVA: variance in grades progression levels
SS
Df
MS
F
P
Between
1961.0856
5
392.2171
0.3301
0.8925
Within
60595.7100
51
1188.1512
Total
62556.7956
56
Discussion 1
 The first hypothesis of the study projected lower ORF among Grade 7
readers. As demonstrated in the results, the Grade 7 readers failed to
reach a minimum ORF rate of 100 words correct per minute.
 The second hypothesis projected variance between Grade 7 in schools
that were differentiated according to location and dialects of Sepedi.
 Thirdly, Grade 4–6 readers were found to have no differential WCPM
scores from the ORF tasks undertaken.
 Related to the third finding is the revelation that there is no ORF
differentiation between Grades 4, 5, 6 and 7.
 According to international benchmarks, ORF levels below 70 are
characteristics of Grade 1–3 readers where the instructional focus is on
learning how to read.
 Without automated orthographic phonological mapping in the reading
process, accurate and paced reading development is difficult to attain.
Discussion 2
Toward edumetric intervention in African languages:
 ORF test is a helpful way to explain how teachers can use the scores
to develop support programmes.
 ORF tests are used for diagnosis and placement of young readers in
special programmes (Hasbrouk & Tindal, 2006).
 Teachers of Sepedi can use CBM approaches to ensure that their
learners are reading at expected grade levels, and ORF measures can
also be used to distinguish discrepancies within and between
individual learners and to make informed decisions about extra help
for the learners.
 Progressive assessment of ORF among high performing readers will
be a first step towards development of Sepedi specific norms.
Discussion 3
 The edumetric features of counting the number of correct words for
1 minute in curriculum-based assessments also provide a time-series
data to:
 (a) screen– identify students that may need help in becoming skilled
readers;
 (b) diagnose – identify readers’ strengths or weaknesses on reading
fluency, and
 (c) monitor progress – ascertain whether the struggling readers are
making progress towards the goals of improved reading fluency.
 CBM procedures allow teachers to collect qualitative data, noting
types of coding errors, strategies, miscues and semantic/syntactic
features in Sepedi texts that can be highlighted and treated.
Conclusion
 This study investigated ORF trajectories among Sepedi Grades 4–7
readers in four rural Limpopo primary schools.
 The results of the study shed some light on and expand our
understanding of reading literacy challenges in South Africa and more
specifically explain why primary school readers are four years below their
instructional levels.
 The results of the study showed that there are no accuracy and rate gains
in the readers’ ORF as they progress from one grade to the next.
 ORF level is classified as basal, requiring both remedial and edumetric
attention.
 Intermediate phase and senior phase readers fail to make the transition
from learning to read to reading to learn in their home language.
 The lack of automated phonological-orthographic mapping is a strong
indicator that the readers’ overall reading competence is weak in their
home language.
Conclusion cont…
 ORF results show a slow, inaccurate reading process that compares
to a ‘barking’ phenomenon, which we define as making
incomprehensible noises towards a text without adequate
intonation, rate and accuracy that match natural speech.
 The results also provide educational opportunities for teachers of
Sepedi, and other related African languages, to conduct CBM
assessments continuously in order to monitor, evaluate and take
focused decisions regarding extra reading support for struggling
readers.
 The ORF tests provide a fertile ground for further research to
develop reading norms in African languages that can be
benchmarked with reading developments in other languages.
 More qualitative studies that look at the typical decoding errors as
well as the three step edumetric features (i.e., screening, diagnosing,
and progress monitoring).
Remarks
[email protected]
‘Barking’ at texts in Sepedi oral reading fluency:
Implications for edumetric interventions in African languages
Thank you!
Ke a leboga!
Baie Dankie!
Descargar

THE TITLE COMES HERE Day Month Year