Tú Commands
Tú commands are actually very easy to form. But the big
thing to remember is that affirmative commands are very
different from negative commands.
Affirmative Commands
A tú affirmative command is just the 3rd person singular
indicative form of the verb:
hablo
hablas
habla
hablamos
habláis
hablan
como comemos
comes coméis
come comen
come
vivo vivimos
vives vivís
vive viven
vive
So to form an affirmative command, just go to the 3rd
person singular . . .
. . . except for the irregulars:
salir
decir
ser
venir
sal
di
sé
ven
poner
hacer
ir
tener
pon
haz
ve
ten
So for “salir,” for example, you don’t go
NO!!!
NO!!!
salgo
sales
sale
NO!!!
NO!!!
The tú command of “salir” is “sal” because it’s irregular.
Click here to go to a brief practice exercise.
One more thing about tú affirmative
commands: you have to put object
pronouns on the END.
come
haz
sienta
lee
eat
make
seat
read
cómelo
hazlas
siéntate
léele
eat it
make them
sit down
read to him
A note about accent marks
There are two rules for accentuation in Spanish:
1.
If the word ends in vowel, -n, or –s, the stress falls on the next-to-last
syllable.
hombre
2.
interesante
comemos
trabajas
muchacho
If the word ends in anything else, the stess falls on the last syllable.
comenzar
3.
comen
mujer
feliz
usted
reloj
insistir pared
If either rule is broken, there’s a written accent mark.
Rule 1 broken
montón
interés
jabalí
Rule 2 broken
espíritu
–
árbol Pérez carácter
Now you have another rule of accentuation to consider: whenever you add something to the
base (masculine singular form of an adjective, singular of a noun, simple verb form), you
have to keep the stress where it is. In some cases, that means taking an accent mark off:
alemán
If you add something to the masculine singular form, you want to keep the stress where it
originally was, so when we make the above word plural or feminine, we want to keep the
stress on the “a”:
alemana
alemanes
alemanas
In “alemán,” rule 1 is broken, and we need an accent mark. But whenever we add –a, -es, or –
as to it, rule 1 says that now the accent should fall on the –a, which is where we want it,
since that’s where it is in the masculine singular. So we take off the accent mark.
The same will hold true for any word ending in –ón:
composición – composiciones millón – millones
lección – lecciones
The opposite is true for words like “joven.” According to rule 1, the stress falls on the –o. No
problem—it does. But when we make it plural, we want the stress to remain on the –o:
jóvenes
Rule 1 says that the stress in “jóvenes” should fall on the first –e. But we want it to fall where it
did in the singular form, so we have to add an accent mark.
So what does this have to do with tú commands, you
ask. Let’s look at a tú command:
come
According to rule 1, the stress falls on the –o. No
problem. If we add anything to it, like a pronoun
(which is actually the only thing we CAN add to it),
we have to keep the stress on the –o:
cómelo
Rule 1 tells us that in the above word, the stress
should fall on the –e, which is now the next-to-last
syllable. But we want it on the –o, where it was
originally. So we have to put an accent mark on it.
Now back to our regularly scheduled program.
Remember how I told you that negative tú
commands are totally different from
affirmative tú commands? The good news is
that you’ve already learned how to form
negative tú commands. The bad news is that
it’s the subjunctive:
no hables
no digas
no comas
no vuelvas
no salgas
no vayas
Click here if you want to go to the Power
Point on forming the subjunctive.
One more thing about negative tú commands: object
pronouns come BEFORE them.
No me hables.
No te levantes.
No lo leas.
This is actually true of ALL commands:
Object pronouns come on the END of affirmative
commands.
Object pronouns come BEFORE negative commands.
To sum up:
Tú affirmative commands are the 3rd person singular indicative present:
habla
come
trae
Tú negative commands are the 2nd person singular subjunctive present:
no hables
no comas
no traigas
Pronouns go on the end of affirmative commands:
tráigalo
Pronouns go BEFORE negative commands:
no lo traigas
There are eight irregular AFFIRMATIVE commands. When those commands
become negative, they’re the subjunctive, just like all other negative commands:
sal -- no salgas
pon -- no pongas
haz – no hagas
Click here to go to your homework.
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Tú Commands - Gordon State College