A SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL MICRO-GRAMMAR
OF SPANISH CLITICS
Víctor M. Castel
Conicet y UNCuyo, Mendoza, Argentina
[email protected]
WORD ORDER PATTERNS
(1) III II I A/D
(2) III II I A/D + V [non-imperative finite fomr]
(3) V [imperative or infinitive or gerund] + III II I A/D
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2
WELL-FORMED CLITIC SEQUENCES
Schema ‘III II I A/D’
One clitic
Two clitics
Three clitics
Four clitics
se
se te
te le(s)
se te me
se me lo/a(s)
se te me le(s)
te
se me
te lo/a(s)
se te nos
se nos lo/a(s)
se te nos le(s)
me
se nos
me le(s)
se te le(s)
te me le(s)
se te me lo/a(s)
nos
se le(s)
nos le(s)
se te lo/a(s)
te nos le(s)
se te nos lo/a(s)
lo/a(s)
se lo/a(s)
me lo/a(s)
se me le(s)
te nos lo/a(s)
le(s)
te me
nos lo/a(s)
se nos le(s)
te nos
te me lo/a(s)
Table 1: Word Order Patterns among Clitics
See sample of ill-formed clitic sequences (SLIDE 17).
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WORD ORDER PATTERN EXAMPLES
(2) III II I A/D + V [non-imperative finite fomr]
(3) V [imperative or infinitive or gerund] + III II I A/D
Clauses satisfying (2)
Clauses violating (2)
Clauses satisfying (3)
Clauses violating (3)
Me saludás.
*Saludásme.
Saludame.
*Me saludá.
Lo saludás.
*Saludáslo.
Saludalo.
*Lo saludá.
Me lo regalás.
*Regalásmelo.
Regalámelo.
*Me lo regalá.
Te las quieren regalar.
*Quieren te las regalar.
Quieren regalártelas.
*Quieren te las regalar.
Se estaban saludando.
*Estaban se saludando.
Estaban saludándose.
*Estaban se saludando.
Table 2: Word Order Patterns between Clitics and their Governing Verbs
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EXPRESSION OF PARTICIPANT ROLES
Me lo regalo/ás/a.
mei, Af-Ca lon, Af-Po regaloi/ásk/ak, Ag
Me le regalo/ás/a.
mei, Af-Po lej, Af-Ca regaloi/ásk/ak, Ag
Me regalo/ás/a.
mei, Af-Ca regaloi/ásk/ak, Ag
mei, Af-Po regaloi/ásk/ak, Ag
Te lo regalo/ás/a.
tei, Af-Ca lon, Af-Po regalok/ási/ak, Ag
Te le regalo/ás/a.
tei, Af-Po len, Af-Ca regalok/ási/ak, Ag
Te regalo/ás/a.
tei, Af-Ca regalok/ási/ak, Ag
tei, Af-Po regalok/ási/ak, Ag
Se lo regalo/ás/a.
Spurious se:
sei, Af-Ca lon, Af-Po regalo/ás/ak, Ag
*Se le regalo/ás. // Se le regala.
Reflexive se:
sei, Af-Po len, Af-Ca regalai, Ag
*Se regalo/ás. // Se regala.
Reflexive se:
sei, Af-Ca lon, Af-Po regalai, Ag
Impersonal se:
sei, Ag len, Af-Ca regalai, Ag
Reflexive se:
sei, Af-Po regalai, Ag
sei, Af-Ca regalai, Ag
Impersonal se:
sei, Ag regalai, Ag
Impersonal se:
sei, Ag lon, Af-Po regalai, Ag
Table 3: Correlations between PRs, and Clitics and Verb Endings
Key:
Af-Ca = Affected-Carrier;
Af-Po = Affected-Possessed;
Ag = Agent
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SYSTEM NETWORK
Figure 1, (Slide 23)
Figure 2, (Slide 24)
Figure 3, (Slide 25)
Figures 4-7. (Slide 26)
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REALIZATION RULES
Realization of outsiders and addressees:
Af-Po:
Accusative clitics
Af-Ca:
Dative clitics
lo, la, los, las
le, les
(Slide 18)
(Slide 19)
Realization of performers:
Af-Po/Af-Ca: First person clitics
me, nos
(Slide 20)
Realization of addressees:
Af-Po/Af-Ca: Second person clitic
te
(Slide 21)
Realization of low deixis outsiders
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Third person clitic se
ISFC 2008
(Slide 22)
7
THE CLAUSE INITIAL STATE
(4)

[selection_expression]
Cl
1
…
120
Key:
 = Place-holder for text-sentence.
Cl = Clause
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POTENTIAL PLACES FOR CLITICS
(5)
Cl
1
…
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
…
120
Sydney, Australia
Clt3
Clt2
Clt1
CltA/CltD
O
M
Vnd
Clt3
Clt2
Clt1
CltA/CltD
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GENERATION OF
Lo saludás.


[… giver, …]
Cl
[…, giver, …]
Cl
CltA/Af
1
…
97
CltA/Af
lo
M
salud
lo
Vnd/Ag
99
M
ás
E
salud
.
Vnd/Ag
Lo saludás.
ás
102
…
E
.
Lo saludás.
Key: CltA = Accusative clitic; Af = Affected; Ag = Agent; M = Main verb root; Vnd = Verb ending; E = Ender.
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GENERATION OF
Saludalo.


[…, proposal_for_action, …]
Cl
1
…
99
M
salud
Vnd/Ag
a
102
103
104
CltA/Af
lo
106
…
E
.
[…, proposal_for_action, …]
Cl
M
salud
Vnd/Ag
a
CltA/Af
lo
E
.
Saludalo.
Saludalo.
Key: CltA = Accusative clitic; Af = Affected; Ag = Agent; M = Main verb root; Vnd = Verb ending; E = Ender.
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GENERATION OF
Se lo saluda. (Impersonal se)

[ …, agent_and_affected, non_coref_rel_ag_af, agent_fcs, outsider_fcs, low_deixis_fcs,
outsider_low_deixis, outsider_fcs_recoverable, …, singular_fcs, …, agent_stated,
affected_stated, …, outsider_af_recoverable, …, singular_af, high_deixis_af, least_active,
outsider_high_deixis_least, non_feminine_af ]
Cl
Clt3/Ag
se
CltA/Af-Po
lo
M
salud
Vnd/Ag
a
E
.
Se lo saluda.
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THE EXPONENCE OF lo/a(s)
Realization rule 20.11
L1 20.11 : outsider_high_deixis_least :
L2
[if not (proposal_for_action or infinitive or gerund) then CltA @ 98,
L3
else CltA @ 105],
L4
[if high_deixis_af then Af by CltA],
L5
[if high_deixis_af_po then Af-Po by CltA],
L6
[if (singular_af or singular_af_po or (formal and (singular_addressee_af
L7
or singular_addressee_af_po))) and (non_feminine_af or
L8
non_feminine_af_po) and least_active then CltA < "lo"],
L9
[if (singular_af or singular_af_po or (formal and (singular_addressee_af
L10
or singular_addressee_af_po))) and (feminine_af or
L11
feminine_af_po) and least_active then CltA < "la"],
L12
[if (plural_af or plural_af_po or plural_addressee_af or
L13
plural_addressee_af_po) and (non_feminine_af or
L14
non_feminine_af_po) and least_active then CltA < "los"],
L15
[if (plural_af or plural_af_po or plural_addressee_af or
L16
plural_addressee_af_po) and (feminine_af or feminine_af_po)
L17
and least_active then CltA < "las"].
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THE EXPONENCE OF se
Realization rule 20
L1 20 : outsider_low_deixis :
L2
L3
[if not (proposal_for_action or infinitive or gerund) then Clt3 @ 95,
else Clt3 @ 102],
L4
[if low_deixis_fcs then Ag by Clt3],
L5
[if low_deixis_af then Af by Clt3],
L6
[if low_deixis_af_po then Af-Po by Clt3],
L7
[if low_deixis_af_ca then Af-Ca by Clt3],
L8
Clt3 < "se".
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CONCLUSION
The paper has presented the system network and realization rules of a
generation oriented micro-grammar of RPS clitics. The specification is
based on Castel (2007)’s rule typology of the Cardiff Grammar
framework (Fawcett 2008, 2000; Fawcett et al 1993). GSC is written
within GeneSys, the development environment of the Cardiff
Grammar Generator (Fawcett & Castel 2006). GSC accounts for core
phenomena of RPS clitics in simple clauses: the word order patterns
governing the occurrence of clitics with other clitics and with their
governing verbs, and the distribution of participant roles.
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REFERENCES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Arús, Jorge (2006) “Perspectiva sistémico-funcional de los usos de se en español”, Signos 39 (61): 131-159.
Castel, Víctor M. (2007) “Rule Types in a Systemic Functional Grammar: An XML Definition of the
Cardiff Lexicogrammar Generator”. In Barbara, L. y T. Berber Sardinha (ed.) Proceedings of the 33rd
International Systemic Functional Congress. San Pablo: PUCSP.
Fawcett, Robin P. (2000) A Theory of Syntax for Systemic Functional Linguistics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John
Benjamins Publishing Company.
Fawcett, Robin P. (2008) Invitation to Systemic Functional Linguistics. The Cardiff Grammar as an extension and
simplification of Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar. London: Equinox.
Fawcett, Robin P., G.H. Tucker y Y.Q. Lin (1993) “How a systemic functional grammar works: the role of
realization in realization.” En Horacek, H. y M. Zock (eds.) New Concepts in Natural Language Generation.
London: Pinter.
Fawcett, Robin P. and V. M. Castel (2006) Software for GeneSys: Prototype Generator 3. Cardiff UK:
Computational Linguistics Unit, Cardiff University.
García, Érica C. (1975) The Role of Theory in Linguistic Analysis. The Spanish Pronoun System.
Amsterdam/Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company.
Perlmutter, David M. (1972) Deep and Surface Structure Constraints in Syntax. New York: Holt and Co.
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SAMPLE OF ILL-FORMED CLITIC SEQUENCES
Violation of schema ‘III II I A/D’
Two clitics
Three clitics
Four clitics
*lo/a(s) me
*lo/a(s) te me
*te se me lo/a(s)
*lo/a(s) te
*lo/a(s) me te
*te me se le(s)
*le(s) me
*le(s) se te
Etc.
*me te
*lo/a(s) le(s) te
*te se
Etc.
Etc.
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ACCUSATIVE CLITIC lo/a(s):
REALIZATION OF OUTSIDERS OR ADDRESSEES
L1 20.11 : outsider_high_deixis_least :
L2
[if not (proposal_for_action or infinitive or gerund) then CltA @ 98,
L3
else CltA @ 105],
L4
[if high_deixis_af then Af by CltA],
L5
[if high_deixis_af_po then Af-Po by CltA],
L6
[if (singular_af or singular_af_po or (formal and (singular_addressee_af
L7
or singular_addressee_af_po))) and (non_feminine_af or
L8
non_feminine_af_po) and least_active then CltA < "lo"],
L9
[if (singular_af or singular_af_po or (formal and (singular_addressee_af
L10
or singular_addressee_af_po))) and (feminine_af or
L11
feminine_af_po) and least_active then CltA < "la"],
L12
[if (plural_af or plural_af_po or plural_addressee_af or
L13
plural_addressee_af_po) and (non_feminine_af or
L14
non_feminine_af_po) and least_active then CltA < "los"],
L15
[if (plural_af or plural_af_po or plural_addressee_af or
L16
plural_addressee_af_po) and (feminine_af or feminine_af_po)
L17
and least_active then CltA < "las"].
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THE DATIVE CLITIC le(s):
REALIZATION OF OUTSIDERS OR ADDRESSEES
L1 20.12 : outsider_high_deixis_less :
L2
[if not (proposal_for_action or infinitive or gerund) then CltD @ 98,
L3
else CltD @ 105],
L4
[if high_deixis_af_ca then Af-Ca by CltD],
L5
[if (singular_af_ca or (formal and singular_addressee_af_ca)) and
L6
less_active and not outsider_af_po_recoverable then CltD < "le"],
L7
[if (plural_af_ca or plural_addressee_af_ca) and less_active and not
L8
outsider_af_po_recoverable then CltD < "les"].
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THE CLITICS me AND nos
REALIZATION OF THE PERFORMER
L1 20.2 : referent_includes_performer :
L2
[if not (proposal_for_action or infinitive or gerund) then Clt1 @ 97,
L3
else Clt1 @ 104],
L4
[if referent_includes_performer_af or (coref_rel_ag_af and
L5
referent_includes_performer_crt) then Af by Clt1],
L6
[if referent_includes_performer_af_po or
L7
(agent_and_affected_possessed_coref and
L8
referent_includes_performer_crt) then Af-Po by Clt1],
L9
[if referent_includes_performer_af_ca or
L10
(agent_and_affected_carrier_coref and referent_includes_performer_crt)
L11
then Af-Ca by Clt1],
L12
[if singular_performer_af or singular_performer_af_po or
L13
singular_performer_af_ca or (coref_rel_ag_af and
L14
singular_performer_crt) or (agent_and_affected_possessed_coref
L15
and singular_performer_crt) or (agent_and_affected_carrier_coref
L16
and singular_performer_crt) then Clt1 < "me"],
L17
[if plural_performer_af or plural_performer_af_po or
L18
plural_performer_af_ca or (coref_rel_ag_af and
L19
plural_performer_crt) or (agent_and_affected_possessed_coref
L20
and plural_performer_crt) or (agent_and_affected_carrier_coref
L21
and plural_performer_crt) then Clt1 < "nos"].
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THE CLITIC te
REALIZATION OF THE ADDRESSEE
L1 20.3 : singular_addressee :
L2
[if casual then
L3
[if not (proposal_for_action or infinitive or gerund) then Clt2 @ 96,
L4
else Clt2 @ 103],
L5
[if singular_addressee_af or (coref_rel_ag_af and
L6
singular_addressee_crt) then Af by Clt2],
L7
[if singular_addressee_af_po or
L8
(agent_and_affected_possessed_coref and
L9
singular_addressee_crt) then Af-Po by Clt2],
L10
[if singular_addressee_af_ca or
L11
(agent_and_affected_carrier_coref and
L12
singular_addressee_crt) then Af-Ca by Clt2],
L13
Clt2 < "te"].
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IMPERSONAL, REFLEXIVE AND SPURIOUS se
L1 20 : outsider_low_deixis :
L2
[if not (proposal_for_action or infinitive or gerund) then Clt3 @ 95,
L3
else Clt3 @ 102],
L4
[if low_deixis_crt then Ag by Clt3],
L5
[if low_deixis_af then Af by Clt3],
L6
[if low_deixis_af_po then Af-Po by Clt3],
L7
[if low_deixis_af_ca then Af-Ca by Clt3],
L8
Clt3 < "se".
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
 coref_rel_ ag_af (sp5)
     

REF_REL_AG _AF
 non_coref_ rel_ag_af





 singular_p erformer_f cs



 referent_i ncludes_pe rformer_fc s 



 plural_per former_fcs


interactan t_fcs To Fig. 2




 singular_a ddressee_f cs


 referent_i ncludes_ad dressee_fc s





 plural_add ressee_fcs








 low_deixis _fcs (sp23) To Fig. 7


 
   
 agent_fcs  

PERSON_FCS
DEIXIS_FCS
      

 high_deixi s_fcs (sp24)


 FOCUS_TYPE




 outsider_f cs_recover able To Fig. 2

 outsider_f cs (sp31)         
 

OUTSIDER_F
CS_TYPE


 outsider_f cs_specifi ed (12)






agent_and_ affected 

 singular_f cs

      




NUMBER_FCS

 plural_fcs




 affected_f cs 

...




 agent_stat ed



  agent_soug ht

AG_TYPE


 agent_cove rt



 affected_s tated


  
  affected_s ought

 AF_TYPE
 affected_c overt

Figure 1

 emphatic (12)
           
FOCUS_EMPH
ASIS
outsider_f cs_recover able 
 non_emphat ic
interactan t_fcs
Figure 2
Figure 2
non_coref_ rel_ag_af
agent_fcs
affected_s tated







 singular_p erformer_a f
    

 referent_i ncludes_pe rformer_af  
NUMBER_PFR

 plural_per former_af



 interactan t_af  
INTERACTAN T_AF_TYPE

 singular_a ddressee_a f

 referent_i ncludes_ad dressee_af       

NUMBER_ADD


 plural_add ressee_af To Fig. 4




 outsider_a f_recovera ble_from_p revious_un it
     



RECOVERY_S ITE
     

 outsider - af_recover able_from_ current_un it
PERSON_AF




 singular_a f

 outsider_a f_recovera ble To Fig. 4      
 NUMBER_AF  
 outsider_a f         
 plural_af

OUTSIDER_A F_TYPE




 feminine_a f

   
 


 GENDER_AF
 non_femini ne_af



 outsider_a f_specifie d


Figure 3
outsider_a f_recovera ble 

coref_rel_ ag_af 



outsider_f cs


plural_add ressee_af


formal
 

 low_deixis _af To Fig. 7
singular_a ddressee_a f        
DEIXIS_AF

 high_deixi s_af To Fig. 5
coref_rel_ ag_af


formal

singular_a ddressee_f cs  

coref_rel_ ag_af
 
 
plural_add ressee_fcs  
Figure 4


high_deixi s_af_po
           outsider_h igh_deixis _least (20.11)
 HIGH_DEIXI S_LEAST_GA TE
high_deixi s_other_pr 1 
high_deixi s_af
Figure 5

  outsider_h igh_deixis _less (20.12)
        
high_deixi s_other_pr 2  HIGH_DEIXI S_LESS_GAT E
high_deixi s_af_ca
Figure 6


      
  outsider_l ow_deixis
_af_po  LOW_DEIXIS _GATE

_af_ca 
low_deixis
_fcs
low_deixis
_af
low_deixis
low_deixis
Figure 7
(20)


high_deixi s_af_po
           outsider_h igh_deixis _least (20.11)
 HIGH_DEIXI S_LEAST_GA TE

high_deixi s_other_pr 1 
high_deixi s_af
Figure 5


      
  outsider_l ow_deixis
LOW_DEIXIS _GATE
_af_po 

_af_ca 
low_deixis
_fcs
low_deixis
_af
low_deixis
low_deixis
Figure 7
(20)
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