Social Networking,
Workplace, and
Entertainment Literacies:
The Out-of-School Literate
Lives of Newcomer
Latina/o Adolescents
Mary Amanda Stewart, Texas Woman’s University
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
•
Studies illustrate adolescent immigrants’ advanced linguistic
repertoires (de la Piedra, 2010; Godina, 2004; Orellana, 2009)
•
Global perspectives (Lam, 2004; McGinnis, GoodsteinStolzenberg, & Saliani, 2007) through online platforms (Lam &
Rosario-Ramos, 2009; Yi, 2007)
•
But ELs have lower graduation rates and academic
achievement scores than their peers (Garcia, 2012)
•
No Child Left Behind policies do not adhere to research on
effective educational reform, second language acquisition,
and culturally relevant teaching that needs to be considered
for immigrant students (Hopkins, Thompson, Linquanti, Hakuta,
& August, 2013; Menken, 2008; O'Brien & Roberson, 2012)
literacies
•
Brian Street's (1995) ideological model of reading influences
the construct of literacies used in the present study.
Literacy becomes literacies
•
Embracing the political nature of the term, the working
concept of literacy is based on Gee’s (2008) definition of
Discourses which he defines as "saying(writing)-doing-beingvaluing-believing combinations" (p. 154).
An out-of-school literacy is any way of sending and receiving
meaning that is NOT part of the academic classroom.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.
What are the out-of-school literacies of four newcomer
Latina/o adolescents?
2.
What meanings do these literacies have for the individuals?
3.
How do these literacies demonstrate the adolescents’
linguistic, cultural, and social resources that could be
leveraged for academic achievement?
Assumption: Students possess literacy skills they use outside of
school that are valuable for academic learning.
PARTICIPANTS
Name
TELPAS Score
(English
Acquisition)
Age
Country
Time in Grade
U.S.
Level
Level of Education Workplace
in Home Country
Celia
Beginner
17
Mexico
18 mo.
11th
Finished
Secundaria =10th
El Taco
Loco
Valeria
Beginner
19
El Salvador
20 mo.
10th
In Bachillerato
=10th
Sandwich
Shop
Alejandra Intermediate
17
El Salvador
20 mo.
11th
In Bachillerato
=11th
Sandwich
Shop
Miguel
20
Guatemala
9 mo.
11th
In Universificado
=12th
Gutiérrez
Tires
Beginner
*All names and workplaces are pseudonyms.
*Information as of January 2012
SCHOOL/DATA
•
Observations
•
•
Suburban high school
•
•
•
2000 middle class students
Only 14 in ESL classes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Everything on wall
About section
Conversations
Pictures
Interviews
•
Facebook data
•
•
In ESL class
At lunch
Before/after school
Workplace
5-8 interviews with each student
Primarily in Spanish
Analysis
•
•
On-going
Nvivo 10
SOCIAL NETWORKING: Facebook
Connect
To Home
Maintain
Latina/o
Identity
Acquire
English
SOCIAL NETWORKING
"Ella está aquí,
pero era mi
vecina en
México.”
[She is here, but she was
my neighbor en Mexico.]
Connect
To Home
•Family and
Friends
•Diaspora
Community
Maintain
Latina/o
Identity
Acquire
English
SOCIAL NETWORKING
cuantos likes a nuestra bandera?
Soy puro chaplin
Connect
To Home
Maintain
Latina/o
Identity
•Visuals
•Language
Acquire
English
SOCIAL NETWORKING
omg: "Hola mi
amiga? No?“
[Hello my friend? Right?]
“omg tomorrow i
have test”
Connect
To Home
Maintain
Latina
Identity
Acquire
English
•Reading &
Writing
Posts
•Codes
WORKPLACE: Fast Food, Tire Shop
Acquire
English
Place to
Succeed
Support
Themselves
WORKPLACE
Acquire
English
• Communicate with
“americanos”
• Headset
• Learn codes
• Practice with customers
and co-workers
Place to
Succeed
Support
Herself
WORKPLACE
“Cada vez me preguntan
más, como a veces las
señoras de la cocina le
preguntan algo a Bob y Bob
no entiende, y Bob ‘Celia!
Celia!!! Necesito tu ayuda!’”
[Every time they ask me, like when the
ladies in the kitchen ask Bob something
and Bob (shouts) "Celia! Celia!!! I need
your help!"]
Acquire
English
Place to
Succeed
•Translating
•Raises
•Advancement
Support
Themselves
WORKPLACE
"Porque pues así cuando
trabajo más horas, gano
más dinero, y pues
guardo más.”
[Because this way, when I work
more hours, I make more money,
and then I save more.]
Acquire
English
Place to
Succeed
Support
Themselves
• Make
Money
• Save
ENTERTAINMENT: Music and TV
Connect
To Home
Maintain
Latina/o
Identity
ENTERTAINMENT
Spanish music:
"Me recuerda de México.
Allá los escuchaba y
luego aquí, pues pienso
que estoy en México.”
[It reminds me of Mexico. I
listened to it there and then
here, well, I think that I am in
Mexico.]
Connect
To Home
• Listen to
Same Music
• Watch Same
TV
Maintain
Latina/o
Identity
“Yo soy mexicana….porque
como nací en México, y viví
toda mi vida en México sin
conocer aquí nada. Ya me
vine cuando ya estaba
grande. Ya conocí todo
como es México y nunca voy
a olvidar como es.”
[I am Mexican….because like I was born in
Mexico and I lived all of my life in Mexico
without coming here or anything. I came
when I was already big. I already knew
everything about Mexico and I will never
forget how it is.]
ENTERTAINMENT
Connect
To Home
Maintain
Latina/o
Identity
•Spanish Music
and TV
•Transnational
English acquisition through
Facebook and workplace litercies
“No hay oportunidades
[en mi país.]”
MORE
OPPORTUNITIES
IN THE U.S.
[There are no opportunities (in
my country.)]
Connect to home through
Facebook and entertainment
literacies
“Todos mis recuerdos
están en México.”
WHAT THEY
LEFT BEHIND
[All of my memories are in
Mexico.]
Support themselves through
workplace literacies
“[Teníamos] más que
algunas. Sí, porque mi
papá nos llevaba ropa o
también como zapatos.”
REMITTANCES
[(We had) more than others. Yes,
because my father sent us clothes
or like shoes too.]
Maintain identity and find a place
to succeed through workplace,
entertainment, and Facebook
literacies
“para ser alguien”
[to be someone]
TO BE
SOMEONE
Out-of-School
Literacies
Multilingual
Multiliterate
Transnational
Multimodal
IN-SCHOOL
LITERACIES
Monolingual
Monoliterate
Monocultural
Monomodal
WHOSE
LITERACIES
COUNT?
What literacies are needed
in the 21st Century?
Who already possesses
these literacies?
Do we actively value all
literacies? Or do we
passively privilege
monolingualism?
Bring the outside in:
Language Skills
Social Networking
Transnational Perspectives through Media
Seal of Biliteracy
on Diplomas
National Association
of Bilingual Education’s
goal for all states
Everyone benefits if we recognize,
validate, and use immigrant students’
full repertoire of literacies.
The students are
emergent
multilingual and
multiliterate
transnationals who
communicate in
multimodal ways.
They cannot be
viewed through
a narrow
monolingual,
monoliterate,
monocultural, and
monomodal lens.
PUBLICATIONS FROM THIS STUDY
Stewart, M. A. (2013). "What up" and "TQM": Latina/o English learners writing
on Facebook to acquire English and maintain their Latina/o identities. In K. E.
Pytash & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Exploring Technology for Writing and Writing
Instruction. IGI Global, Hershey, PA, 328-344.
Stewart, M. A. (2014). Living here, yet being there: Facebook as a transnational
space for newcomer Latina/o adolescents. Tapestry Journal, 5(1), 28-43.
Stewart, M. A. (2013). Giving voice to Valeria's story: Support, value, and
agency for immigrant adolescents. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy,
57(1), 42-50.
Stewart, M. A. (2013). What is "educated" in the 21st century? Phi Delta
Kappan, 94(7), 57-60.
Maryamandastewart.com
[email protected]
@DrMandyStewart
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