Global Software Teams Problems
 Global software teams are risky
management propositions ?
 Cross-cultural differences
 Geographical dispersion (Burden of
 Loss of communication richness
 Coordination breakdown
 Loss of “teamness”
 Time zone
Global Software Teams Problems
Probability of communication
at least once a week
 Dispersion
Separation distance (in meters)
Global Software Teams Problems
 Dispersion
 It is easier to manage groups in one location than
 Shorter project timeliness result from shorter
communications lines and the ability to give feedback
 Co-location team usually increases trust and reduces
 Co-located teams demands less management support
 Physical barriers reduce the amount of
Global Software Teams Problems
 Dispersion
 Centralization of IS development
 Control – Increase ability to monitor and control
the development process to ensure adherence to
 Less duplication of effort and wasted effort –
When resources are centralized, all the specialists
are easily maintained. There is no need for one
specialist in each location
 Better ability to maintain a corporate culture
Global Software Teams Problems
 Disadvantages of co-location on the other
Informal oral communication may promote
sloppiness in documentation and procedure.
Co-location leads to inbreeding, groupthink, and
other group pathologies, whereas decentralization
forester independent thinking and initiative
Local responsiveness to local customer?
Innovation of smaller, more independent groups
Global Software Teams Problems
 Coordination Breakdown
 Coordination: is the act of integrating each
task and organizational unit so that it
contributes to the overall objective
 Control: is the process of adhering to goals
or policies or standards
 As the interdependency between teams
increases, the need for coordination
Global Software Teams Problems
Coordination costs increases as interdependency increases
Pooled Coordination: teams
share their resources, such as
office space or computer
Sequential Coordination: the
output of one team is used as
an input by another.
Reciprocal Coordination: teams
pass their work back and forth
as they add value to it, as in “
Global Software Teams Problems
 The loss of “communication richness”
 Any task requiring intensive cooperation requires
more communication – the richer the better
 GST always wants a richer medium
 A GST manager must regularly convey the team vision
to all participating groups and cultures, in a way that
will be understood.
 Less rich medium are sometimes very good to
express emotions you probably will not like to show
in a group.
 Writing skills and vocal skill are not same in many
Global Software Teams Problems
 Loss of “Teamness”
 Types of teams
 Multi-functional
 Self-empowered
 Self-managed
 High-performing
 Specialized
 Temporary
Teams in the Workplace
Teams in the Workplace
 Monitoring the Environment
 Updating Employees and Other
Managers about Team Activities
 Leading, Motivating, and Coaching Team
 Planning and Making Decisions
 Allocating Resources
 Resolving Problems
 Monitoring Quality and Performance
Teams in the Workplace
 Groupware
 To increase communication and improve
decision making process.
 Electronic Mail and Messaging
 Group Calendaring and Scheduling
 Electronic Meeting Systems
 Desktop Video and Real-time Data
Global Software Teams Problems
 Loss of “Teamness”
 Diversity’s drawback
 Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous
 Loss of cohesion
 Successful teams are cohesive
 Cohesive leads to enhanced motivation, increased
morale, greater productivity, harder work, etc.
 The team members help each other, complement
each other, know each other strength and weakness.
 Cohesion is more difficult for cross-cultural teams
 Mistrust due to excessive stereotyping
 Lowered interpersonal attractiveness
 Languages problems etc.
Global Software Teams Problems
 Loss of “teamness”
 Building trust takes time
 Distance is an impediment to building relationships of
 - trust is the peculiar belief predicted not on
evidence but on lack of contrary evidence
 Disperse teams meet infrequently and they
communicate primarily asynchronously
 The classic stage model of team psychological
development maturity by Tuckman (1965)
Conflicts break out over roles, objectives, and task allocations.
Different leaders, official or otherwise, are pursuing different
The team gets together and gets to know each other. It
clarifies roles, figures out the tasks and the objectives.
The team begins to form norms, roles, and protocols for
working together. Some team cohesion may begin.
The team begins to perform well, working toward a common
goal. Conflicts are handled constructively.
Global Software Teams Problems
 Loss of “teamness”
 Team size gets out of hand
 Global teams in multiple sites are generally larger
per task than co-located teams.
 The fewer the team members, the fewer
communication links needed, and the less the
coordination needed.

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