Early World History
Indo-Europeans to the Middle Ages
Animal Domestication
http://www.pnas.org/content/106/suppl.1/9971/F1.expansion.html
Indo-European Invasions
Triggered by flooding of the Black Sea, 5600 B.C.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5a/IE_expansion.png/400px-IE_expansion.png
Indo-European Invasions
http://media.maps.com/magellan/images/WRLH034-H.gif
Indo-Europeans
• Indo-Europeans (Aryan
Hittite chariot
http://socialscience.tyler.cc.tx.us/mkho/fulbright/1998/annerye/chariot.jpg
language)
– Nomadic tribes
– From Steppes of Asia
– Herders and Grazers
– Warfare using horses
• Chariots
– Swept into Old Europe,
Middle East, India
starting about 5,000 BC
Indo-European horse warfare
Spread of Chariots, 2000-500 B.C.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Chariot_spread.png
Indo-Europeans
• Religion of war and male
domination
– Male gods of sky,
thunder, war and
mountains
• Warrior Priests
• Imposed ideology
– Male dominance
– Hierarchy
• Herding economy
Thor
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Thor.jpg/300px-Thor.jpg
Ancient Herding Cultures
Indo-European and Hebrew: basis of Western Culture
Government
Male Warrior Priests
Economy
Herding, Animal
agriculture
Capital = head of cattle
Ideology
Male domination of
women, animals, and
nature.
War gods
Indo-European Conquerers
• Aryans in India
– Established Caste system
• Hittites and Mittani in the
Fertile Crescent
• Luians in Anatolia (Turkey)
• Kurgans in eastern Europe
– Battle-Axe People
• Achaeans, Dorians in Greece
Hittites 1300 B.C.
(an Indo-European group)
http://www.johnkinsella.net/Herod_Carte_Hittites.gif
Diffusion of Indo-European
Languages
http://www.acns.com/~mm9n/hindu/ARYAN%20ORIGINS_files/image006.jpg
Language Family Tree
httphttp://www.freelang.net/families/pics/indoeuropean_tree_s.jpg
Indo-European languages
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/Indo-European_Groups_World_Distribution.gif/742px-Indo-European_Groups_World_Distribution.gif
Indo-European languages
http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/december/images/IEMap.jpg
Before Indo -Europeans
• Sedentary agrarian society
• Fertility and nature worshiped
• Goddess gave birth to
– World
– Agriculture
• Priests male and female
• Women’s status similar to men’s
– Graves equal
Fertility Figurine
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/50/Venus_von_Willendorf_01.jpg
After Indo-Europeans
•
•
•
•
Herding introduced
Warfare, war culture dominates
Fortifications built
Male War Gods worshiped
– Male dominated society, religion
• Goddess loses status
– Killed or raped by male god
– Becomes consort of male god
– Becomes goddess of war
• Women lose status in society
– Owned by fathers then husbands
– Graves unequal
• Nature loses status in society
– Economy based on domination of
animals
Early Civilizations
http://www.hyperhistory.com
Early Civilizations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
City states
Elites
Religion
Crop domestication
Animal agriculture
Trade
Metallurgy
– Bronze Age 3000 B.C.
– Iron Age 1200 B.C.
• Population explosion
Bronze Age weapons
http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/c/cf/180px-Bronze_age_weapons_Romania.jpg
Mesopotamia
Land between two rivers
• Flooding of Tigris and
Euphrates fertilized soil
• Irrigation, drainage
produced early abundance
• Competition and warfare
between city states:
Fertile crescent
http://www.crystalinks.com/mcresmap.jpg
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Ur
Uruk
Nippur
Babylon
Kish
Nineveh
Assur, etc.
Mesopotamia
• Over-salinization reduced
wheat productivity in
south by 2,000 B.C.:
– political power shifted
north
• Eventual large scale
ecological destruction
– Fields and pastures
worked until barren
– Forests destroyed for
• Fuel
• ship building
http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/fieldday/kids/pictures/kidsfield600/cg_wheat_closeup.jpg
Egypt
• Relative geographical
isolation
– strong central government,
religion
• Unification of North and
South Nile
– by 3,500 B.C.
• 2,000 year dynasty ended
in Persian conquest
– 500 B.C.
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/4396/EgyptMap.gif
Egypt
• Yearly flooding of Nile
fertilized soil.
• Irrigation, drainage
controlled by Pharaoh
• Abundant crops: wheat.
– Later would be conquered
for its productivity
http://www.celsias.com/blog/images/agriculture_egypt.jpg
Indus Valley Civilization
• Arose 3000 BC
• Contemporary of
Egypt, Mesopotamia
• Lasted longer
– 1500 years
• Conquered by Aryans
from north
Aryan Invasion of India
•
•
•
•
Aryans invaded 1750 BC
Indus, then Ganges valleys
Horse and herding culture
Vedas and Caste system
– Foundation of
Hinduism
• Feudal Kingdoms spread
through India
– ruled by Brahmins
(Priests)
http://go.hrw.com/venus_images/0299MC02.gif
BODY { SCROLLBAR-FACE-COLOR: #bba57b; SCROLLBAR-HIGHL
Ancient Semitic Peoples
(non-IndoEuropean)
http://www.imninalu.net/2history.htm
Assyrian Empire: 600 B.C.
http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=2551&rendTypeId=4
Assyrian War Bulletin
(1000 B.C.)
• “Asshur my Lord commanded me
http://www.mysteriousworld.com/Content/Images/Journal/2003/Autumn/Osiria/Hunter240.jpg
to go forth…I covered the regions
of Saraush and of Ammaush with
ruins…I proved myself against
their armies at the mountain of
Aruma, I chastised them, I
strawed the earth with their
bodies as they had been beasts of
the field; I took their cities in
possession, I carried away their
gods, I led them away captive,
them and their goods and their
treasures;
Assyrian War Bulletin
• “I burned the cities with fire,
I destroyed them, I made
them even with the ground, I
made of them heaps and a
desolation; I laid upon them
the grievous yoke of my
dominion, and in their
presence I gave thanks unto
Asshur my Lord.”
• “I slew two hundred and
sixty fighting men; I cut off
their heads and made
pyramids thereof. I slew one
of every two.”
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3114/2439462705_4f312e0370_o.jpg
Assyrian War
Bulletin
• “I built a wall before the great gates of the city; I
flayed the chief men of the rebels, and I covered
the wall with their skins. Some of them were
enclosed alive in the bricks of the wall, some of
them were crucified on stakes along the wall; I
caused a great multitude of them to be flayed in
my presence, and I covered the wall with their
skins. I gathered together the heads in the form of
crowns, and their pierced bodies in the form of
garlands.”
Assyrian Empire
Government
Assyrian Empire
Economy
Conquest
Ideology
Religion
justifies
conquest
Biblical Warfare
• Joshua leads the conquest
of Jericho:
• “And they utterly
destroyed all that was in
the city, both man and
woman, young and old,
and ox, and sheep, and
ass, with the edge of the
sword.”
• Joshua 6:21
Joshua at Jericho
http://bp2.blogger.com/_CNmuiXT4qj0/RmT-U3RlXyI/AAAAAAAAAEk/4gvl9FD25fE/s400/dore_075.gif
Biblical Warfare
• Saul instructed by God to
destroy the Amelekites
(1000 B.C.):
“Spare no one; put them
all to death, men and
women, children and
babes in arms, herds and
flocks, camels and asses.”
-- I Samuel 15:3
http://siteimages.guggenheim.org/gpc_work_midsize_608.jpg
Persian Empire: 525 B. C.
http://www.spentaproductions.com/images/Achaemenid_Empire_Map_550.jpg
The World: 500 B.C.
http://www.hyperhistory.com
Empire of Alexander the Great:
323 B. C.
http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=1037&rendTypeId=4
Greek Influence
• Alexander the Great
conquered the Achaemenid
Persian Empire 323 B.C.
• Introduced Hellenistic
culture to the mideast
• Maintained by subsequent
Greek rulers until 130 B. C.
• Greeks colonized southern
Italy and Sicily for grain
growing
http://www.topsfieldschools.org/PROCTOR/P_SS/Ancient%20Greece/taranto.jpg
Roman Empire
• Romans conquered
Italy and Sicily,
• Romans then
conquered the entire
Greek world (except
for Persia):
–
–
–
–
http://www.hickmanclass.com/Chapter%2010/Roman%20Empire.bmp
Asia Minor
Mesopotamia
Egypt
Much of Europe
Roman Empire: Wheat Empire
• Roman empire dependent on
wheat to feed soldiers
– And populace of Rome
• Roman forts were granaries
designed to hold a year supply
of wheat in case of siege
– Soldier’s rations were 3 pounds
of wheat a day.
– Barley was punishment rations
• The Roman garrison in
Roman Fort
http://farm1.static.flickr.com/183/457568249_198bf34e70.jpg?v=0
Britain consumed 1,277.5
tons of grain/yr
– Much of it was brought by ship
from supply depots
Roman Empire: Wheat Empire
http://www.sbceo.k12.ca.us/~vms/carlton/grainmap.jpg
Roman Empire
Elite in
Rome
Conquest
Wealth,
Tribute
Food,
Resources
Conquered
Peasants, Slaves
Trade Routes of First Century A.D.
• Extensive trade
with India
• Romans never
conquered the
Persians
• Persians
established silk
trading routes to
China
http://medieval.ucdavis.edu/20A/Slide0004.gif
Roman Trade
• A fleet of specialized grain
carriers was used to import
wheat from Egypt to Rome
– Huge food giveaway program
for citizens
• Romans depleted their
treasury importing luxury
items and spices from India
Roman grain import
http://http://www.sbceo.k12.ca.us/~vms/carlton/ship2.jpg
– Could no longer support food
giveaways or army
– Led to collapse of Empire in
West
Roman Inheritance
• Romans inherited 3000
years of Mid East Culture:
– Writing
– Art
– Math
– Science
– Agriculture
– Religion
• Romans passed this
culture on to Europe
http://www.hickmanclass.com/Chapter%2010/Roman%20Empire.bmp
Source: Ricardo Salvador
The World: 500 B.C.
http://www.hyperhistory.com
Shang Dynasty in China
• 1700-1000 BC
• First Chinese dynasty
• Yellow River Basin
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum
Zhou Dynasty in China
• 1000-221 BC
• Yellow and Yangtze
river basins
• Great Wall started in
north
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum
Ch’in Dynasty
• 221-206 BC
• Warring states of
China united
• Includes Yellow,
Yangtze, and Xi River
Basins
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum
Han Dynasty
• 206 BC-220 AD
• Western expansion opens
Silk road
• Southward expansion for
rice production
• Central control of dams,
canals, irrigation
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum
T’ang Dynasty
• 580-907 AD
• Grand Canal Opened
– Links Yellow and
Yangtze river basins
– 1100 miles long
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum
Trade Routes of First Century A.D.
http://medieval.ucdavis.edu/20A/Slide0004.gif
Roman Empire split by 500 AD
Eastern Roman Empire = Byzantine Empire
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2d/Invasions_of_the_Roman_Empire_1.png/400px-Invasions_of_the_Roman_Empire_1.png
Expansion of Islam 632-1000 A.D.
http://www.hyperhistory.com
Arab Empire
• Islam swept through
Arabia, Egypt,
Mesopotamia, Persia
632-660 A.D.
• Much of Hellenistic
culture of Greeks and
Romans lost
• Islam moved through
North Africa,
reaching Iberian
Peninsula
Islamic Jihad
• "Fight and kill the
disbelievers wherever
you find them, take them
captive, harass them, lie
in wait and ambush them
using every stratagem of
war." Qur'an: 9:5
• "Fight them until all
opposition ends and all
submit to Allah." Qur'an:
8:39
http://historyofjihad.org/egypt5.jpg
Religions of Europe:
1100-1200 A.D.
• Islam was a leader in
science, math, and
technology
– Taught Europe during
the Middle Ages
• Christianity in Europe
split:
– Roman Catholic
– Eastern Orthodox
• Crusades against Islamic
control of Holy Land:
1095-1291 A.D.
Mongol Empire 1208-1480 A.D
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum
Mongol Empire
• Mongols conquered
most of Asia
– China, Central Asia,
Persia, to Danube
River
• Great Military
Achievement
– Mobile army on
Horseback
http://www.historyofjihad.org/mongols13.jpg
Mongol Empire
• Trade within China
restricted
– Treasury Depleted
• Foreign trade
welcomed
– Marco Polo visits
China
Ottoman Empire 1300-1699 A.D.
• Roman/Byzantine empire
in Asia Minor conquered
by Ottoman Turks 1176
A.D.
• Ottoman Empire expanded
1300-1699 A.D.
• Trade routes to China and
India controlled by
Islamic/Ottoman rule
• Forced Europeans to
explore alternate routes
around Africa
http://courses.wcupa.edu/wanko/LIT400/Turkey/images/MapTurkeyExpansion.gif
Islamic World
Europe: 1400 A.D.
• Many warring countries
and city states
• Many languages
• Culturally unified by
Catholic Church
• Roman Catholic church
in West
– Eastern Orthodox in East
• Effort to push Moslems
out of Iberia
• Venice a center of trade
with Moslems
http://www.euratlas.com/big/europe_1400.jpg
Feudalism
King =
warlord
Grants land to Barons,
gives protection, justice
Pays tax, pledges loyalty
and soldiers to King
Barons
Leases land to Knights,
gives protection, justice
Pays tax, pledges loyalty
in war to Barons
Knights
Leases land to Peasants,
gives protection, justice
Pays tax, pledges loyalty
in war to Knights
Peasants
Male Domination
in Medieval Europe
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
http://karenswhimsy.com/public-domain-images/medieval-costumes/images/medieval-costumes-2.jpg
Politics
Military
Land ownership
Animal Agriculture
Trade
Education
Science
Arts
Religion
Family
Descargar

World History: Mesopotamia to the Middle Ages